Criminology and Economic Theory
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Jury selected in slain Hoonah officers case

Jury selected in slain Hoonah officers case | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
JUNEAU, Alaska (AP) — A jury was selected Wednesday to hear the trial of a man accused of killing two police officers in the village of Hoonah in 2010.
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Most efforts to control traffic don’t work. Here are four things that do. – Greater Greater Washington

Most efforts to control traffic don’t work. Here are four things that do. – Greater Greater Washington | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Whether it’s an apartment building, shopping center, or a mixed-use project, ostensibly well-intentioned residents regularly cite worsening traffic as the reason to stop new development. However, the most common methods communities push for to alleviate congestion make it worse, while the things that actually help usually face strong pushback.
Rob Duke's insight:

Traffic (even most transportation decisions) are subject to market failures.  Users tend to free-ride, or not truly report how much they need or will use a facility.  This means we under-build (we never have enough resources to build what's really demanded.

 

Even worse, developers lobby and influence so they won't have to pay the full costs of transportation....but here's where white collar crime gets messy--if we demand full pay for transportation (or other infrastructure like sewer treatment, potable water, and stormwater control), then all we get is high end housing and commercial property, because these tend to be profitable.  While low end housing is always a risk in terms of profit potential.  So, we either underbuild infrastructure or we don't produce all those other land uses that a community needs.

 

So, we let developers dupe us and we collect fees instead of building the infrastructure (surely sometimes we require a needed interchange or intersection and help out with a repayment agreement for future development to pay back the current developer), but that creates another problem in terms of the scale of development: sprawl.  When we look at old Pasadena, or old Fairbanks, we saw development patterns where housing and commercial development overlap and was dense by today's standards.  This was because we first put in the public improvements and then private investors put up the development one house, one apartment building and one office/retail building at a time.

 

This illustrates two things: 1. the idea that this type of "white collar influence" is universally nefarious is difficult to support--these problems are just too complex.  Much better to just admit that these are political problems, where politics is the competition for scarce resources. 2. the built environment has a tremendous impact on the quality of life--and even crime.

 

See the article for ideas of how these issues can be better managed...in other words, we have ways to better control competition and politics.

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Gun Deaths In America

Gun Deaths In America | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The data in this interactive graphic comes primarily from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Multiple Cause of Death database, which is derived from death certificates from all 50 states and the District of Columbia and is widely considered the most comprehensive estimate of firearm deaths.
Rob Duke's insight:

2/3 of gun deaths are by suicide...a majority of those are men over the age of 45.  The next big group are poor men of color accounting for 2/3 of the remaining gun deaths.  The last third is made up of: domestic violence, accidents, and police shootings.  Generally cutting down by fractions 2/3 of those left are domestic violence...2/3 of what's left are accidents and unclassified deaths, and what's left are the police shootings.

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State attorney general wants to give more criminal justice options to tribes

State attorney general wants to give more criminal justice options to tribes | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The state is taking steps to expand the criminal justice authority of Alaska Native tribes. Listen now
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Launches Just Spaces Initiative to Examine Justice in Public Spaces

Philadelphia – October 18, 2017 – This week, University City District (UCD), a leader in entrepreneurial approaches to community revitalization, launched Just Spaces, an initiative designed to ensure that public spaces in University City are deeply inclusive and just. With support from the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, UCD will develop a tool to audit and improve public spaces in its district and throughout Philadelphia.

UCD creates and manages a variety of popular and dynamic public spaces throughout University City, including The Porch at 30th Street Station, Parklets, pedestrian plazas, and the forthcoming Trolley Portal Gardens. UCD will develop and deploy the ‘Just Spaces’ audit to assess its own network of public space projects, building on the notion that public spaces are forums to be experienced and negotiated across lines of race, class, gender, age, sexual preference, ethnicity and ability differences.
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The 25 Most Affordable Online Bachelor’s Degrees in Criminal Justice Studies

The 25 Most Affordable Online Bachelor’s Degrees in Criminal Justice Studies | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
13. University of Alaska Fairbanks
Fairbanks, Alaska

University of Alaska Fairbanks ranks among The 25 Most Affordable Online Bachelor’s Degrees in Criminal Justice Studies!
UAF enrolls 11,000 students and operates seven campuses across the state. The majority of UAF’s student body comprises undergraduate students, and the university offers small class sizes and individualized instruction. UAF offers a variety of online degrees and certificates, including an online bachelor’s of arts in justice program designed for students planning to pursue careers in Alaska or the Pacific Northwest.

Students learn how to address conflicts involving Native American, federal, and state issues. Learners are prepared to work with tribal and rural justice systems to foster restorative justice. The 120-credit curriculum includes courses in criminology, ethics and justice, principles of corrections, rural justice in Alaska, and juvenile delinquency. Elective options cover topics including gender and crime, police problems, and correctional counseling and rehabilitation. During a culminating experience, students choose to undertake an internship, participate in a seminar that explores critical issues relevant to the student’s intended occupation, or complete a research project.

Students take criminal justice classes online, without any on-campus requirements. In-state and out-of-state students pay the same tuition rate. Applicants must have a high school diploma or GED and at least a 2.5 GPA. Applicants must submit SAT or ACT scores. Transfer applicants must have at least 30 previous credits earned with a minimum 2.0 GPA.

The University of Alaska Fairbanks is regionally accredited by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU).
Rob Duke's insight:

UAF Justice has a new ranking!

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States Turn to an Unproven Method of Execution: Nitrogen Gas - The New York Times

States Turn to an Unproven Method of Execution: Nitrogen Gas - The New York Times | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
As problems mount with lethal injection, Alabama, Mississippi and Oklahoma are developing protocols for using nitrogen to carry out the death penalty. Little science exists about the method.
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Exclusive: 'Golden State Killer' district attorneys meet in Santa Barbara

Exclusive: 'Golden State Killer' district attorneys meet in Santa Barbara | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
District attorneys from four California counties are meeting in Santa Barbara Friday to discuss and strategize for the Golden State Killer case.
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American crimes, Chinese trials: Here's how it works

American crimes, Chinese trials: Here's how it works | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it

The lead investigator, Iowa City Police Det. David Gonzalez, was concerned about handing over evidence to the Chinese, which could have disrupted an American prosecution if Li ever returned to the U.S.

But then, a delegation of Chinese officials came to Iowa to discuss the case. Gonzalez became convinced that a Chinese prosecution was the best option.

"Ideally we would like to prosecute here, but when it comes down to it … we wanted to get some type of justice served, one way or another," he said.

Li pleaded guilty during a roughly six-hour trial in the Chinese city of Wenzhou and was sentenced in 2016 to life in prison.

The other international prosecution began with the murder of Tianmei Gao, whose body was found in a trash can floating in a lake at L.A. County's Whittier Narrows Recreation Area in early 2007.

By the time investigators gathered enough evidence to charge Gao's husband, Bo Li, he had moved back to China.

Officials from the district attorney's extradition unit asked the prosecutor, Lisa Coen, not to give any evidence to the Chinese until they had researched the Chinese legal system and felt assured that Li would not be mistreated while in custody.

"Obviously, we also want to stay true to our principles in the U.S.," Coen said. "If we found that they had an unjust system, then it's not something we would have wanted to participate in."

Rob Duke's insight:

In China a 2012 law grants criminal defendants similar rights to those guaranteed in Europe and in the U.S. (right to an attorney, etc.).  Human Rights groups report those rights are largely being honored, at least for mala per se crimes, if not yet for political prisoners.

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Trapped in self-service hell

Trapped in self-service hell | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The self-service revolution is reversing the division of labour. You find yourself doing all sorts of jobs that you’re untrained for – acting as a travel agent booking a trip, an airport porter weighing and labelling bags or a shop-attendant checking out a basket of goods. Meanwhile a handful of companies suck up abnormal profits by turning their customers into unpaid labourers. The real sweatshop workers in the post-industrial economy are you and me.

In previous eras workers who were rendered surplus to requirements by technological advances were redeployed to more productive activities. Today they are being deployed to less productive ones such as public relations and consulting.
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Tattooed travellers in Japan beware - Go undercover

Tattooed travellers in Japan beware - Go undercover | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it

MINE is barely three inches long but gives people a case of the vapours at Japanese swimming pools. Invariably, a lifeguard will tut-tut from his high chair before demanding it be covered up. Tattoos come freighted with taboos in Japan. They have long been associated with “anti-social elements”, code for yakuza mobsters. That makes the law-abiding among us collateral damage in a cultural war against body art.

Gyms, pools and public baths typically ban them, or insist they be concealed. Some even provide bandages and sticky tape for that purpose. The mayor of Osaka, Japan’s second city, felt so strongly he launched a witch-hunt against tattooed civil servants in 2012. Employees were required to fill out a form describing their tattoos and exactly what part of the body they decorated.

For foreign business travellers, this can be a nuisance. Most of us can survive a few days off from the gym, but what about Japan’s matchless hot spring resorts? Every good guidebook recommends a soak in a country onsen but the best of luck getting in: a survey released last month by the Japan Tourism Agency (JTA) found that well over half bar tattooed guests.  

Until recently, such bans shut out a relatively small number of potentially thuggish local clients. That is changing. More than 15m foreign tourists visited Japan this year, a record. The government hopes to hit 20m ahead of the Tokyo Olympic Games in 2020. That means a mini army of bewildered customers stranded outside some of the nation’s key tourist attractions: the same JTA poll found that a third of foreign tourists cite hot springs as among their key reasons for visiting the country.

Susumu Kida, a government official, says the country is still exploring options. A fact sheet may be sent to the thousands of portals for foreign travellers explaining that tattoos do not carry the same social stigma elsewhere. “Much of the problem is caused by lack of knowledge about foreign cultures,” he says, citing the case of a Maori woman who was recently barred from a resort because of her elaborately painted face.

Changing wider cultural attitudes will not be so easy. Michael Dick, an executive producer with Canadian TV who lived in Japan for two years with his heavily tattooed arms and legs, says he grew used to the disapproving looks. Mothers moved their children away from him in the subway, he recalls. “It drastically modified how I conducted myself; my entire wardrobe was long-sleeve shirts.” As for hot springs, he didn’t even try.

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iOS 11.4 to Disable USB Port After 7 Days: What It Means for Mobile Forensics

iOS 11.4 to Disable USB Port After 7 Days: What It Means for Mobile Forensics | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Forensic Consequences of USB Restricted Mode
Restricted USB Mode requires an iPhone running 11.3 to be unlocked at least once every 7 days. Otherwise, the Lightning port will lock down to charge only mode. The iPhone or iPad will still charge, but it will no longer attempt to establish a data connection. Even the “Trust this computer?” prompt will not be displayed once the device is connected to the computer, and any existing lockdown records (iTunes pairing records) will not be honoured until the user unlocks the device with a passcode.

In other words, law enforcement will have at most 7 days from the time the device was last unlocked to perform the extraction using any known forensic techniques, be it logical acquisition or passcode recovery via GreyKey or other services . Even the 7 days are not a given, since the exact date and time the device was last unlocked may not be known.
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Pro-Bail-Reform Website Profiles Rogue Bail Bondsmen and Bounty Hunters |

Pro-Bail-Reform Website Profiles Rogue Bail Bondsmen and Bounty Hunters | | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
As California lawmakers and state officials move toward reforming the cash bail industry via SB 10, a statewide coalition of social justice, labor, business, and faith-based organizations, called Bail Reform California, has launched a website training a spotlight on corruption and other abuses by agents of the bail industry–an industry which purports to defend public safety.

The site, BondsmenAndBountyHunters.com, profiles badly behaving bail bondsmen and largely unregulated bounty hunters in California, including Shawn Allen “Frosty” Rapoza, the former owner of Sacramento’s Ace Deuce Bail Bonds, who posted a pretrial defendant’s bail. Rapoza allegedly accepted stolen assault weapons as payment from his client. The bail bondsman was charged with two counts of possession and two counts of transportation of assault weapons, and with possessing firearms with a prior felony conviction. When police searched the company and Rapoza’s house, they found a dozen weapons and a meth stash.
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katrina watson's comment, May 8, 2:09 PM
This is just crazy, these people aren't even police officers!!!! And yet they get away with breaking into peoples homes and taking what they want, and abusing people??? Why aren't these people charged with anything? What would happen if they tried to bust their way into a home and the home owner shot them for trespassing?
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National Lynching Memorial: On a Hill in Alabama, the Lynched Haunt Us

National Lynching Memorial: On a Hill in Alabama, the Lynched Haunt Us | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The new museum and memorial in Montgomery are exactly the remembrance America needs
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Gun, Badge, Camera

Gun, Badge, Camera | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Fatal shootings by police officers that are recorded on video often get national media coverage, fueling calls for reform, as we saw last week in the shootings …
Rob Duke's insight:

About 1000 per year and less than 1% are not supported by the officer's body camera.

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The Supreme Court lets states legalise sport gambling - You bet

The Supreme Court lets states legalise sport gambling - You bet | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
AT THE dawn of the republic, the Federalist Party advocated a strong national government with an energetic executive, while anti-Federalists worried that too much power at the centre would make for a monarchy, not a democracy. They wanted power to go to the peripheries. But “federalism” has since become synonymous with states’ rights. Devolving power from Washington, DC to states and localities has been a priority of the modern Republican Party. The current era is changing that. Donald Trump's administration is clamping down on states that are loosening marijuana laws or failing to cooperate with federal authorities to deport undocumented immigrants.

A Supreme Court decision on May 13th strikes a major blow for states’ rights. By a 7-2 vote in Murphy v National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the justices ruled that a 1992 statute banning sports betting is unconstitutional. The law, the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act (PASPA), was a bit of an odd duck. It wasn’t a ban on betting, per se, but a law prohibiting states that already banned betting from legalising it. So states where sport betting was legal in 1992—Delaware, Montana, Nevada and Oregon—were at least partially exempted from the ban. New Jersey thumbed its nose at the law when it legalised sport gambling in 2012, a move that was promptly halted by lower courts. In its appeal to the Supreme Court, New Jersey said PASPA violated the rarely litigated 10th Amendment, the constitution’s textual hook for preserving state’s rights: “the powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people”.
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California parents waterboarded, shot crossbows and BB guns at 10 children: prosecutor

California parents waterboarded, shot crossbows and BB guns at 10 children: prosecutor | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
A northern California couple charged with child abuse is now being accused of waterboarding and shooting crossbows and BB guns at their 10 children, according to prosecutors.
Rob Duke's insight:

"just that one time".....

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Legalize and tax marijuana to truly end the disproportionate arrests of black and Latino New Yorkers  - NY Daily News

Legalize and tax marijuana to truly end the disproportionate arrests of black and Latino New Yorkers  - NY Daily News | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it

Hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers have suffered life-altering harms because of marijuana prohibition and the pretext it provides for law enforcement to over-police communities of color.

Sixty New Yorkers are arrested every day for marijuana possession — since 1996, there have been more than 800,000 such arrests.

Although marijuana possession was decriminalized in New York in 1977, a loophole maintains possession in "public view" as a crime. This loophole — coupled with pervasive and racially biased over-policing of certain communities — has resulted in continued mass arrests.

Research shows that many of the people arrested over the past 20 years for marijuana possession were not smoking in public, but simply had a small amount in their pocket, purse, or bag — a legal violation, not a criminal offense. These people were either subject to an illegal search by police or given a directive by an officer to empty their pockets or open their bags. The discovery of marijuana by police then resulted in their arrest for possession in "public view."

Rob Duke's insight:

They should legalize and tax marijuana in order to normalize a gray market.

I doubt it will do much to stop mass incarceration or any perceived disproportionate arrests.  The reason I say this is that cops by-and-large try not to make arrests unless a whole array of factors align that make arrest necessary:

1. politics (this might be #2);

2. whether the officer will be perceived poorly by peers (not a "warrior");

3. their particular supervisor would be unhappy;

4. what administration dictates are priorities;

5. mandatory arrests;

6. likelihood of prosecution;

7. tragedy of the victim;

8. likability of the victim;

9. degree of vileness of the offender;

10. offender's "attitude";

11. likelihood of the crime continuing.

 

These are just the most compelling reasons--there are a thousand more nuances.

 

In addition, cops tends to leave an area alone in terms of arrests.  Your neighborhood probably just gets mild patrol.  Until it becomes apparent (now it's getting easier because of predictive policing, etc.) that there's a crime problem.  When that happens, officers either take it upon themselves or are directed to intervene.

 

The point is that when an area reaches that threshold, then officers start looking for proxies--both in the types of offenses, but also in the ready and available offenders.  It's not that you want to make examples, but on some subconscious level that's what happens.  And, it seems to work.  (But, it may be that it's "push down--pop up" where the real offenders work an area until the cops show up and then move to a new area.)

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Who has the right to judge Americans? - The Economist explains

Who has the right to judge Americans? - The Economist explains | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
America’s federal structure rests on three pillars: a congress to enact laws, an executive to administer them, and a judiciary to settle disputes. While in practice these divisions have never been entirely clean, circumstances have become muddier with the rise of agencies like the SEC that have gained sweeping authority over American life. Their employees are largely removed from the electoral process, but nonetheless create rules, police them and arbitrate disputes. The SEC’s enforcement division traditionally brings cases to a federal court directly or in conjunction with the justice department. But it can also adjudicate matters itself using administrative law judges (ALJs) who work for the SEC. It was before one of these that Mr Lucia found himself in 2012. 
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A church wants to give homeless people safe parking at night – but neighbors aren’t happy –

A church wants to give homeless people safe parking at night – but neighbors aren’t happy – | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
St. Philip Benizi Catholic Church and the nonprofit homeless assistance provider Illumination Foundation hope to begin operating a safe parking program in Fullerton.
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DNA analysis helps solve crimes and clear those who are innocent –

DNA analysis helps solve crimes and clear those who are innocent – | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
DNA has become an invaluable instrument in the search for truth in the criminal justice system. The significant role of DNA in identifying suspects was most vividly displayed in the past weeks when…
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An L.A. triple-murder suspect was tried in China, and his case could open the door for similar prosecutions

An L.A. triple-murder suspect was tried in China, and his case could open the door for similar prosecutions | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it

If Chinese police would confirm that Cui was indeed in China, Teague could at least close the almost decade-old case. In a cavernous room off Tiananmen Square, he met with nearly two dozen Chinese police officials.

The highest-ranking officer then made an unexpected offer to Teague, a Los Angeles Police Department lieutenant: "We're very interested in trying him in our courts."

Late last year, Cui was found guilty by a panel of three Chinese judges. There has been no word from China on his punishment.

Teague and other American authorities said they would have preferred to prosecute Cui in the U.S. but believed that working with the Chinese was better than letting him go free. They believe he was treated fairly, they said.

The Chinese legal system, however, has a reputation for coerced confessions, speedy executions and politically motivated arrests. Many trials are not public, and court files are generally not available for public review. In the U.S., Cui's trial would have likely lasted weeks. In China, it took 90 minutes.

Chinese prosecutors appear to have made significant use of evidence the LAPD handed over. The cooperation was approved by L.A. County prosecutors, who weighed concerns about China's judicial system against the violent nature of Cui's crimes. It is unclear what role federal officials played in the decision.

The Times examined the Cui case and two others in which a defendant was prosecuted in China for a crime committed on American soil. The cases are among the first of their kind and could open the door for similar prosecutions, especially in Southern California, with its large Chinese immigrant population.

"The U.S. doesn't want to say, 'No way, no how, we never cooperate,' " said Margaret Lewis, a professor at Seton Hall Law School who researches China's criminal justice system. "But once we open the door for that … where do we draw the line?"

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Symantec Stock Drops as Internal Investigation Launches

Symantec Stock Drops as Internal Investigation Launches | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Symantec said that it's launched an internal probe into a potential problem and is unsure how it could affect its financial performance.
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What in today’s world will appal our grandchildren?

What in today’s world will appal our grandchildren? | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
My grandson spent his 150th birthday surrounded by his descendants. They arrived as usual in their kiddie-drones, landing in the drone-port in the old loft.

He tried to be relaxed as they rootled around in his study. “Great-great-great grandpa,” shouted one. “Is this one of those things you called books?”

“That’s right, my dear.”

“These pictures!” she cried. “Are they those African tribesmen you told us about?”

“No, no. They’re white people like me. Humans used to be all sorts of colours and hated each other if they were a different one. Those markings were called tattoos. People thought it was cool to have a needle stuck in them and get their body defaced.”

They were all with him now, giggling and making faces. “Weird!”

“And what are those?”

“Cars. You had to pilot yourself. Damn dangerous.”

“And those funny buildings?”

“Ah, that was London. It had to be abandoned after the floods in the 2040s, but the water wasn’t the real problem. It was the poison and all the plastic bottles. No one could clear up the mess.”

“The houses are so big. Did anyone live in them?”

“Oh, yes. That was Kensington. All the basements had been dug out, so when the water came in the houses just floated away. Company bosses lived in them. They earned 300 times more than the workers and said they deserved it because they were so clever. We had a system called capitalism. But then a famous writer produced two brilliant books called ‘Human Farm’ and ‘2084’. And we got rid of it.”

“And why are those people walking around outside? You can’t do that!”

“Well, you could do all kinds of things. It was quite safe before the sea rose and the big heats came and then the Chinese smog. That’s why we just go from house to house in our drones.”

“So was it better in the old days?”

My grandson paused. “Yes, in many ways it was,” he said finally. “But the people who ran the world were really, really stupid.” 
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Former top Chinese leader gets life in prison on corruption charges

Former top Chinese leader gets life in prison on corruption charges | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Sun Zhengcai, a former top Chinese Communist Party official once considered a potential successor to President Xi Jinping, has been sentenced to life in prison after being convicted of taking bribes.

Sun, a former Communist party chief of the sprawling Chongqing municipality, told a court in northern China Tuesday that he will accept the ruling and would not appeal it, according to state media.
"I sincerely admit my guilt and regret my crime," Sun was seen telling the First Intermediate People's Court of Tianjin on national broadcaster CCTV.
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katrina watson's comment, May 8, 1:25 PM
When money blinds you. On 4 November 2017, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress passed the amendment to the PRC Anti-Unfair Competition Law (the “AUCL“) which provides more clarity on the scope of what constitutes commercial bribery.

The Amendment will become effective on 1 January 2018 and is the first amendment to the AUCL since its implementation in 1993. This important development indicates that China’s anti-corruption campaign continues to escalate.
katrina watson's comment, May 8, 1:25 PM
The Amendment creates potentially greater risks for commercial bribery activities in China, including exposure to increased penalties. The Amendment reflects the legislators’ advanced understanding and awareness of the nature of commercial bribery, which follows global anti-corruption trends.

Multinational companies in China will find that the Amendment clarifies the activity of commercial bribery, which requires a purpose of “seeking transaction opportunities or competitive advantage”. A transaction counterparty is no longer expressly listed as a potential bribe recipient and bribe recipients are now clearly stated to include third parties engaged by a transaction counterparty. We anticipate that commercial bribery via third parties will be a focus of future investigations and enforcement in China which follows a similar pattern of recent enforcement under US, UK and Brazilian anti-corruption laws.
katrina watson's comment, May 8, 1:26 PM
(Global Compliance News)
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Building affordable housing around transit: plan ahead and spread it out

Building affordable housing around transit: plan ahead and spread it out | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Cities of all sizes are facing a shortage of housing for their poorest, most vulnerable residents. And a smaller set of booming cities are becoming completely unaffordable to even the middle class. To ensure enough attainable housing is built to satisfy demand, particularly as new transit service comes to an area and raises land values, such housing has to be planned for and spread out as much as possible.
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katrina watson's comment, May 8, 1:31 PM
Why in the world would people put such a high price on housing, where these places are not even occupied? Like what was the point in building these? An idea could be a community of tiny houses...I think maybe more people would have homes and food, and save money. There has to be a better way of doing things.