Cory Annexation of Hawaii
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Primary Sources #1

The Dust bowl

 

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The Dust Bowl is one of the largest examples of a manmade environmental disaster. The destruction largely happened due to the heavy farming that occurred in the Great Plains region of the Midwest. The area of the United States is mostly grassland and relies on the root systems of grasses to hold down the topsoil vital for growing crops. Several factors such as homestead and other land grant programs opened the Great Plains to settlers looking to start their own farms. Unfortunately common farming practices used to preserved topsoil were not put to use. Common practices such as rotation of crops or leaving soil fallow usually extend the use of land allowing for plants to always have root systems in the ground holding top soil in place.

While the role that humans played in creating the dust bowl is significant the droughts that occurred during the 1930s acted as the match to the fuse. By the time of the droughts the topsoil of the Great Plains had been subjected to the farming practices that harmed it for decades. The drought finished the job by drying up the loose topsoil into dust. The winds that regularly sweep the Midwest did the rest. Tons of topsoil were carried into gargantuan dust storms and dumped into the Atlantic Ocean. This made large regions of Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona useless for farming.

The economic impact was devastating literally ending the age of independent farming. Many families already on the brink of starvation due to the drought and the Great Depression were forced to migrate to other regions of the country. Due to the expense of restoring the farmland after the drought small farms became economically impossible to maintain. Dust Bowls are not just caused by poor farming practices. There are also the effects of overgrazing by cattle and of course climate change making a region more arid. The threat of the Dust Bowl scenario happening elsewhere in the world is high and governments are looking to find ways to protect the delicate balance of their ecosystems.




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Prensa Latina News Agency - Puerto Rican Medalist Javier Culson Repudiates Annexation

Website of the Latin American News Agency Prensa Latina with the head office in Havana, Cuba, and 28 bureaus worldwide.
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Primary Source #3

Primary Source #3 | Cory Annexation of Hawaii | Scoop.it

On July 7, 1898, President William McKinley signed a bill that annexed the Hawaiian Islands, making them part of the United States.American military victories in the Pacific during the Spanish-American War helped bring to a close almost a decade of uncertainty about the status of the Hawaiian Islands. Prominent American colonists had supported the overthrow of Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani in early 1891, but Democratic and anti-imperialist Republican opposition to annexation blocked the island chain's incorporation into the United States. When William McKinley assumed the presidency in 1897, he reversed the policy of his predecessor, Democrat Grover Cleveland, and advocated Hawaiian annexation. McKinley, however, was unable to push a new annexation treaty through Congress that year.After American forces swung into action in the Pacific during the Spanish-American War, the island chain's strategic importance became apparent. Thereafter, McKinley played a more forceful role in advocating Hawaiian annexation. He pressured senators to approve annexation as the fulfillment of American manifest destiny, as a means to cement American presence in the Pacific, and as a vital support link for America's new claim on the Philippines. McKinley also worried that the growing Japanese community on the island would lead the islands into the hands of the increasingly active Japanese Empire.An annexation resolution supported by the President made its way into the House of Representatives on May 4, 1898. The Senate passed the measure on July 6, and McKinley signed it one day later. The United States took formal possession of the islands on August 12, 1898. Hawaii's first territorial governor was posted in 1900.The annexation of the Hawaiian Islands was one illustration of how the United States emerged on the world stage in new and unprecedented ways during the presidency of William McKinley. His aggressive policy on Hawaii, coupled with America's seizure of the Philippines, brought the United States squarely into the increasingly competitive realm of power politics in the Pacific.

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Primary Source #2

Primary Source #2 | Cory Annexation of Hawaii | Scoop.it

The Hawaiian Islands are a chain of eight large islands approximately 2,000 miles west of California. Hawaii entered the decade of the 1890s as a kingdom ruled by a monarch and emerged from it as a territory of the United States, with a provisional government and a republic. Americans introduced sugar cane to Hawaii during the 1830s bringing many traders and the construction of plantations. Sugar cane grew to be an enormous industry controlled mostly by the United States. Hawaii fell strongly under American influence as more Americans became involved in the politics of the ruling family.In 1875, the United States allowed Hawaii to import sugar without being taxed. American planters became fabulously wealthy and wanted to establish a seaport for more convenient exportation. In the early 1890’s, the United States Congress eliminated Hawaii’s tax-exempt status. The sugar planters experienced a severe economic downfall as they were forced to drop their sugar prices. This led planters to seek making Hawaii a territory of the United States.Queen Lili’uokalani was strongly against the influence of Americans and deeply concerned about the well-being of the Hawaiian people and maintaining the independence of the kingdom. She drafted a new Constitution in 1893 trying to reestablish the monarchy and preserve the native culture. The new Constitution was never ratified. The American planters revolted and sent Lili’uokalani into exile. She gave up her throne to spare her people from bloodshed. It was her hope that the United States would intervene.As Lili’uokalani left the throne she said, "I, Lili'uokalani, by the grace of God and under the constitution of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Queen, do hereby solemnly protest against any and all acts done against myself and the constitutional government of the Hawaiian Kingdom by certain persons claiming to have established a Provisional Government of and for this Kingdom."That I yield to the superior force of the United States of America…Now, to avoid any collision of armed forces and perhaps loss of life, I do, under this protest, and impelled by said forces, yield my authority until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon the facts being presented to it, undo the action of its representative and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the constitutional sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands." At this time, the United States was not interested in acquiring Hawaii. It wasn’t until the Spanish American War five years later that the United States recognized the strategic value of the islands.Students will study the annexation of Hawaii within the context of American expansionism and imperialism. Americans had the “manifest destiny” mindset that it was a god-given right for the United States to expand her boundaries west. Students will read parts of Queen Lili’uokalain’s Story, the Constitution she wrote in 1893, and segments of the Blount Report. Students will formulate their own opinion about the integrity of how the United States acquired Hawaii.

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Historical Websites Topic 3: Annexation of Hawaii

Historical Websites Topic 3: Annexation of Hawaii | Cory Annexation of Hawaii | Scoop.it
The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii The last monarch of Hawaii was Queen Lili’uokalani in 1892, which was later replaced by a provisional government. President Benjamin Harriso...
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Puerto Rico's vote for US statehood signals dissatisfaction with status quo

Puerto Rico's vote for US statehood signals dissatisfaction with status quo | Cory Annexation of Hawaii | Scoop.it
Ed Morales: The pro-statehood plebiscite is unlikely to bear fruit, but it does express Puerto Ricans' anger at being second-class Americans...
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Vocabulary

Vocabulary | Cory Annexation of Hawaii | Scoop.it

Vocabulary

1. Annexation-To Incorporate territory into an existing political unit such as a country, state, county, or city.

2. Committee-a person or group of persons elected or appointed to perform some service or function, as to investigate, report on, or act upon a particular matter.

3. Provisional-Providing or serving for the time being only; existing only until permanently or properly replaced; temporary: a provisional government.

4. Petition-a formally drawn request, often bearing the names of a number of those making the request, that is addressed to a person or group of persons in authority or power, soliciting some favor, right, mercy, or other benefit: a petition for clemency; a petition for the repeal of an unfair law.

5. Resolution- a formal expression of opinion or intention made, usually after voting, by a formal organization, a legislature, a club, or other group. Compare concurrent resolution, joint resolution.

6. Eventually- at the very end

7. Missionaries-One who is sent on a mission, especially one sent to do religious or charitable work in a territory or foreign country.

8. Extraordinarily- Beyond what is ordinary or usual

9. Approximately- Almost exact or correct

10. Representative- One that serves as an example or type for others of the same classification.

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Primary source #1

Primary source #1 | Cory Annexation of Hawaii | Scoop.it

In 1887 he led the revolution that forced King Kalakaua to accept a new Constitution reducing him to a mere figurehead. Later that year Kalakaua appointed him to the Kingdom's Supreme Court. In 1893 Justice Dole honorably resigned his judgeship before the final revolution on January 17. He then led the Provisional Government afterward. He tried to rush a treaty of annexation through the U.S. Senate during the six remaining weeks while Harrison was still U.S. President (through March 3, in those days), but was unsuccessful because of the time it took to send a document to Washington by ship and train, and because of the slowness of the Senate. Immediately after taking power on March 4, 1893, the new U.S. President Grover Cleveland withdrew the proposed treaty of annexation, and on March 11 he sent a personal envoy to Hawai'i to conduct a one-sided secret "investigation" of the revolution. Following Mr. Blount's report, President Cleveland "ordered" Dole to undo the revolution and reinstate the Queen. President Dole wrote a blistering, lengthy letter of refusal, thereby confirming that Hawai'i remained an independent nation and not a puppet regime, even while desiring annexation. President Dole then helped form the Republic of Hawai'i and was its only President through four more years as an independent nation, recognized by all the nations who had previously recognized the Kingdom. His strong leadership allowed the Republic of Hawai'i to defy the U.S. President and to crush the attempted counter-revolution of 1895 which made use of rifles and bombs the U.S. permitted to be smuggled in to Robert Wilcox. When U.S. President McKinley came into office in 1897, President Dole led renewed negotiations for annexation. The Republic of Hawai'i offered a treaty of annexation, which the U.S. accepted by joint resolution in 1898. Dole drove a hard bargain, in which the U.S. paid off the accumulated national debt of the Kingdom and Republic (paying more than the market value of the ceded lands at that time). Dole also successfully demanded that although the public lands of Hawai'i would be ceded to U.S. control, those lands would not become part of the U.S. land inventory but would be held as a public trust for the benefit of all the residents of Hawai'i. Dole wrote the Organic Act whereby annexation was implemented. In 1900, he became Hawai'i's first Territorial Governor. In 1903 he became presiding judge of the U.S. District Court for Hawai’i where he served for 12 years until retiring at age 72. Following ten more years of charitable works, he died in 1926. Dole and Lili'uokalani were friends. He protected her safety and civil rights during the 1893 revolution. Unlike the monarchs beheaded and shot during the French and Russian revolutions, Lilu'uokalani was allowed to simply walk a block from the Palace to her private home and live there unmolested. Rifles and bombs in her flower bed during the Wilcox revolt (1895) earned her a genteel "imprisonment" in a huge private room at 'Iolani Palace (with full-time servant, and sewing and writing supplies). After a few months President Dole pardoned her, allowing her to speak, write, and travel freely. She was allowed to organize a petition drive opposing the Republic's most cherished goal of annexation, and she was allowed to go to Washington D.C. and lobby Congress against annexation. Regarding Dole’s personal relationship with Lili’uokalani, Ethel M. Damon, on page 370 of her book “Sanford Ballard Dole and His Hawaii” says: “Judge Frear, who, as the President’s choice for Hawaii’s third governor, had closed his term of office as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, once remarked that Judge Dole would frequently oppose people on violently controversial topics without losing their friendship. This had been particularly true in the case of the queen, for after annexation Mr. Dole always attended public receptions at her home, Washington Place, and Judge Frear knew that the kindliest feelings existed between the two who had been Hawaii’s chief executives in a time of political crisis.” Sanford B. Dole was Hawai'i's longest-ruling chief executive at 'Iolani Palace (1893-1903), where his firm hand guided Hawai'i peacefully through a decade of extraordinarily turbulent times. His spirit remains there, and his statue belongs there. April 23, 2004 is his 160th birthday. Happy birthday, Mr. President!

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Historical Websites Topic 2: The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii

Historical Websites Topic 2: The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii | Cory Annexation of Hawaii | Scoop.it
The National Archives Digital Classroom: Primary Sources, Activities and Training for Educators and Students.
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