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Green cement: Concrete solutions

Green cement: Concrete solutions | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Cement manufacturing is a major source of greenhouse gases. But cutting emissions means mastering one of the most complex materials known.
YEC Geo's insight:

 

If I had to do it over again, I would supplement my geology curriculum with courses in hydrodynamics and concrete technology.  After all, diagenesis is essentially the process of cementation.

 

This article is a fascinating look into some as-yet-unplumbed mysteries of cement, with inferences for diagenesis.

 

Example:

 

"... cement powder is mixed with water to form a paste, the consistency of which depends on its intended use — in a bridge piling, say, or a pavement. Most often, the paste is mixed with sand, gravel or larger stones to form concrete. The concrete slurry is then trucked to the construction site and poured into a mould, where it cures in a process that begins quickly but can take months to complete.

 

'One of the miracles, and the subject of intense research,' says Jennings, “is that the mix stays fluid for the first few hours, after which a furious set of simultaneous chemical reactions starts to produce the products that lead to the hardening process.'

 

Most important to the final material are the hydration reactions that turn the water and powdered clinker into artificial stone: a matrix of calcium silicate hydrate (CaO–SiO2–H2O, or C–S–H). 'All construction on this planet relies on this liquid-to-stone transition,” says Roland Pellenq, a physical chemist at the CSHub.' "

 

The immediate takeaway from here is that cementation, or sedimentary diagenesis, as it's known in geology, takes hours to months--not years.  The implication is that, if the present really is the key to the past, then most, if not all, cemented sedimentary layers formed in less than a year's time.

 

Derived from that is the implication that syndepositional deformation, such as unmetamorphosed folds, occurred in that time span as well.

 

As I said before, fascinating stuff.

 

Image credit:  sdwhaven.deviantart.com

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Conformable Contacts
Notes from the intersection of faith, reason and geology
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Raison d'etre

Raison d'etre | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

In geological terms, a contact is the place where two different types of rocks come together. This ezine is a place to find content from my favorite web sources on the the creation-evolution issue, with a focus on the subject of geology.  Just as the layers of a rock can be composed of many different materials, so my sources often differ in their assumptions and in their views on the issue, but their common intersection is the belief that this is an important subject.

 

(Image source:  Glyn Baker, http://www.geograph.org.uk/reuse.php?id=167895)

YEC Geo's insight:

While my interests are wide-ranging, as even a cursory glance at this site will show,  a subject of great personal interest to me is the preservation of biological material in fossils presumed tens to hundreds of millions of years old.  In my view, the increasing pace of discovery of such material is one of the strongest evidences in support of a young age for the earth.

 

Below is a continuously updated archive of articles I've found on the subject:


2017:


182 million year old blood cell-like structures, collagen and cholesterol in ichtyosaur bone: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320565555_Palaeobiology_of_red_and_white_blood_cell-like_structures_collagen_and_cholesterol_in_an_ichthyosaur_bone


120 million year old bird bone tissue: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/10/03/1707237114.abstract


54 million year old pigmented shell and skin tissues in sea turtle: http://www.heritagedaily.com/2017/10/exceptionally-preserved-sea-turtle-reveals-ancient-sun-protection/117115


66-72 million year old original dinosaur eggshell pigments: https://peerj.com/articles/3706/


112-125 million year old Nodosaur melanin and kerogen: http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(17)30808-4


200 million year old organic plant molecules: https://static-content.springer.com/esm/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41559-017-0224-5/MediaObjects/41559_2017_224_MOESM1_ESM.pdf


66-million year old dinosaur bone cell: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mark_Armitage2/publication/289686201_Preservation_of_Triceratops_horridus_Tissue_Cells_from_the_Hell_Creek_Formation_MT/links/57ad0e1a08ae3765c3bb0cf7.pdf


15-45 million year old mammal blood: https://academic.oup.com/jme/article/3073510/Fossilized-Mammalian-Erythrocytes-Associated-With


146-100 milllion year old bird tendon and cartilage-like tissues: http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14779


195 million year old dinosaur blood:  http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14220


80 million year old brachylophosaur protein: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170123145210.htm


400-14 million year old plant amino acids: https://www.livescience.com/60944-ancient-fossil-forest-discovered-in-antarctica.html


2016:

130 million year old bird melanosomes: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2016/11/16/1617168113.abstract

75 million year old keratin: http://phys.org/news/2016-11-dinosaur-claw-sheath-proteins-million.html

120 million year old Psittacosaurus pigment and protein:  http://www.icr.org/article/9595/

1.4 million year old chloroplast DNA from deep sea sediments: http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/44/8/615.full.pdf+html

100 million year old mummified bird wings: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160628/ncomms12089/full/ncomms12089.html

1.88 billion year old microbial protein preservation: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160617/ncomms11977/full/ncomms11977.html

445 million year old echinoderm organic molecules: http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/44/5/379.abstract

8-11 million year old snake proteins: http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822%2816%2930120-8

247 million year old preserved dinosaur soft tissue: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151143, http://www.reuters.com/video/2016/04/04/fossilised-blood-vessels-oldest-in-world?videoId=367980360&videoChannel=6&channelName=Technology

520 million year old preserved arthropod neural tissue: http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/44765/title/To-Retain-a-Brain/, http://sco.lt/7fLsw5

2015 :

Presence of blood confirmed in 80-million-year-old hadrosaur fossil: https://news.ncsu.edu/2015/12/schweitzer-vessels/

Unperminalized hadrosaur bones: http://creation.com/unpermineralized-hadrosaur-bones-alaska

50-million year old melanosomes in bats: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/09/150928155852.htm

150-million year old melanosomes in bird fossil: http://crev.info/2015/09/original-pigment-dinosaur-feathers/

Radiocarbon in dinosaur bone: http://crev.info/2015/06/c14-dinosaur-bone/

Preserved coloration in dinosaur eggshell: http://www.icr.org/article/8805/

Collagen and blood cells in Cretaceous dinosaur museum specimens: http://crev.info/2015/06/more-dino-blood-found/, http://crev.info/2015/06/dinosaur-soft-tissue-surprise/

8-18-million year old proteins in seashells: http://blog.drwile.com/?p=13504, http://phys.org/news/2015-02-million-year-old-mollusk-protein.html

2014:

550 million year old tube worms: http://blog.drwile.com/?p=12518, http://www.icr.org/article/8059/

2013:


23 million year old lizard: http://www.icr.org/article/7569/ 46 million year old mosquito blood: http://crev.info/2013/

46 million year old mosquito blood: http://www.pnas.org/content/110/46/18496.abstract

49 million year old beetle scales: https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn23786-iridescent-beetle-shimmers-for-49-million-years/#.UeeXxZwSTbC

70 million year old hadrosaur skin: http://creation.com/hadrosaur-skin, http://phys.org/news/2013-04-scientists-rare-dinosaur-skin-fossil.html

160 year old mollusk melanin: http://phys.org/news/2013-06-melanin-jurassic-era-mollusk-tool-cancer.html

Brian Thomas’ overviews: http://www.icr.org/article/7520/

Archaeopteryx feather: http://blog.drwile.com/?p=10235#more-10235

190-197 million year old sauropod egg proteins: http://crev.info/2013/04/protein-found-in-dinosaur-eggs/

250 million year old coloration on trilobites: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/03/130327-trilobite-spots-marine-paleontology-science/

Cretaceous triceratops horn: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065128113000020, http://blog.drwile.com/?p=10065

350 million year old crinoids & 417 million year old eurypterid chitin: http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/oldbiomarkers.htm

Soft tissue overview from Answers in Genesis: https://answersingenesis.org/fossils/3-soft-tissue-in-fossils/

2012:

Jurassic squid ink: http://creation.com/fossil-squid-ink (see here for Charles Dickens reporting on fresh squid ink and fresh squid eye discovery: http://observationdeck.kinja.com/mary-anning-the-fossil-finder-by-charles-dickens-1579691341)

C-14 in dinosaur bones, a presentation at an AGU-AOGS conference that was later stricken from the conference records: http://creation.com/c14-dinos

Dr. Mary Schweitzer’s dinosaur tissue research: http://www.icr.org/article/7091/

Brian Thomas update: http://www.icr.org/article/7183/


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Sierra Nevada rose an inch due to water loss from California drought

Sierra Nevada rose an inch due to water loss from California drought | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
It was that bad.
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Fossil Trees in Antarctica Preserve Ancient Proteins

Fossil Trees in Antarctica Preserve Ancient Proteins | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
How could proteins and original amino acids survive for millions of years? The secular science community has no viable answers to explain remarkable finds like these.
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Colorado River Gives Up on Lawsuit

Colorado River Gives Up on Lawsuit | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it


The lawsuit to declare the Colorado River a “person” entitled to human-type rights has been dropped. It isn’t that the environmental radicals who brought the case realized that geological phenomena should never be considered rights-bearing entities.

Instead, for once, the defendants threatened the radicals with real pain for pursuing the case.
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The Sedimentary Record Demonstrates Minimal Flooding of the Continents During Sauk Deposition

The Sedimentary Record Demonstrates Minimal Flooding of the Continents During Sauk Deposition | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
The Sauk megasequence is thought to have been deposited during one of the highest sea level episodes of the Phanerozoic. However, few, if any, have examined the extent and volume of sediments deposited across entire continents in order to test the published, secular sea level curve against the rock record.
YEC Geo's insight:
Another example of innovative creationist research, thinking outside the box.
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Jurassic Coast:  Icon for Genesis Flood

Jurassic Coast:  Icon for Genesis Flood | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"Secular geologists totally reject any possibility of a global Flood as described in the Bible. So they see what they want to see, which is evidence of slow processes over millions of years, or uniformitarianism, forming the rocks. Such a tendency was noted by sleep researcher, William Dement, and writer, Christopher Vaughan, in regard to the discovery of REM sleep:

“…even when they are looking, people usually see only what they expect to find and they do not see what they assume for whatever reason could not exist.”

However, when we put ‘biblical glasses’ on, we see a totally different explanation. The Jurassic Coast actually becomes an ‘icon for the Flood’."

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Lightning Can Produce Carbon-14

Lightning Can Produce Carbon-14 | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
In a surprise announcement, Japanese researchers found that lightning bolts can be powerful enough to cause nuclear fission, leading to new isotopes— including carbon-14.
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Another Atheist Comes to Christ Because of Science

Another Atheist Comes to Christ Because of Science | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
In 2009, one of the largest German events celebrating the 150th anniversary of Darwin’s book, On the Origin of Species, was headed up by Dr. Günter Bechly, a world-renowned paleontologist with an incredibly impressive list of original research published in the peer-reviewed literature. At the time, he was the curator of the Stuttgart Museum of Natural History, and he wanted to show, in no uncertain terms, that there is absolutely no scientific dispute about origins. As a result, one of the displays in his museum’s celebratory exhibit (shown above) was a scale with creationist and intelligent design resources on one side and Darwin’s book on the other. Darwin’s single book tipped the scale, indicating that the weight of the scientific evidence was in evolution’s favor.

There was only one small problem. Dr. Bechly had not actually investigated any of the resources that were on the “light” side of the scale.
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An international group of scientists reveals the mystery about the origin of gold

An international group of scientists reveals the mystery about the origin of gold | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it



"An international group of scientists, with the participation of the University of Granada (UGR), has shed new light on the origin of gold, one of the most intriguing mysteries for Mankind since ancient times and which even today doesn’t have an answer that convinces the scientific community."

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Flows of 'water' on Mars may actually be sand

Flows of 'water' on Mars may actually be sand | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it

"Since the discovery of dark streaks on the slopes of Mars in 2011, astronomers have been excited about potential evidence of water beneath the surface of the red planet.

If there are subsurface water flows on Mars, they could allow life -- even on a microbial level -- to exist as well.


But further study of these recurring slope lineae, known as RSL, is revealing something else"

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Below the Boat - Christmas presents for map enthusiasts

Below the Boat - Christmas presents for map enthusiasts | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Starting with a bathymetric chart (the underwater equivalent of a topographic map), the contours are laser-cut into sheets of Baltic birch and glued together to create a powerful visual depth. Select layers are hand-colored blue so it's easy to discern land from water, major byways are etched into the land, then the whole thing's framed in a custom, solid-wood frame and protected seamlessly with a sheet of durable, ultra-transparent Plexiglas.

The result is stunning.
YEC Geo's insight:
More gift suggestions for the geologist or geographer who has everything...
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The quietest places on Earth

The quietest places on Earth | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
From remote forests and silent rooms to the city with the least noise pollution, here are 15 of the best places for a quiet escape.
YEC Geo's insight:
Not surprisingly, many of these are of geologic interest.
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AAAS Tries to Downplay Dinosaur Soft Tissue

AAAS Tries to Downplay Dinosaur Soft Tissue | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
The biggest bombshell of the century in paleontology threatens evolutionary time. It’s not surprising that the AAAS would want to put out the fire.
YEC Geo's insight:
Includes interesting background information on Mary Schweitzer that I was not aware of before. 
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Are Dinosaur Proteins Virtually Immortal?

Are Dinosaur Proteins Virtually Immortal? | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
The presence of tissue, cells, and proteins remaining in dinosaur fossils poses a direct biochemical challenge to the standard geologic dating paradigm.
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Wikipedia Co-Founder Blasts “Appallingly Biased” Wikipedia Entry on Intelligent Design

Wikipedia Co-Founder Blasts “Appallingly Biased” Wikipedia Entry on Intelligent Design | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
When it comes to intelligent design, Wikipedia and its axe-grinding editors are ridiculously biased and unfair. And guess what? Even Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger agrees.
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Another way to look at the fossil record? By examining coal.

Another way to look at the fossil record? By examining coal. | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
If you’re like most people, you probably think of coal as a chunk of black fossil fuel. Geologist Jen O’Keefe sees it differently: For her, each piece of coal is a window back in time.
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Ancient Animal Biochemicals Again

Ancient Animal Biochemicals Again | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Dozens of technical reports show original biochemistry within the bodies of long-buried fossils, and the reports just keep coming. Three new reports give occasion to reconsider the age assignments for all these fossils.
YEC Geo's insight:
It's getting hard to keep up with the pace of discovery of preserved soft tissue.  The more people look, the more they find.

Yet it wasn't that long ago that people were vociferously informing Mary Schweitzer that there simply could not be preserved blood cells in dinosaur bone...
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The 1970s Global Cooling Scare (and how the warming scare could not have happened without it)

The 1970s Global Cooling Scare (and how the warming scare could not have happened without it) | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
The time has come to clear up the confusion and give the cooling scare its proper place in history.
YEC Geo's insight:
I remember reading sci fi books about people in the future who were emerging from the Ice Age that was being predicted at the time.
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Where is the remotest spot in the United States?

Where is the remotest spot in the United States? | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
A pair of scientists from Florida, and their eight-year-old daughter, are visiting the remotest spot in every US state.
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How dangerous is Bali's Mount Agung and what action has been taken?

How dangerous is Bali's Mount Agung and what action has been taken? | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
Worst possible scenario involves pyroclastic flows – currents of hot gas and rock moving at 70 miles per hour
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A desert odyssey in search of Saudi Arabia’s hidden riches

A desert odyssey in search of Saudi Arabia’s hidden riches | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
There’s more than oil beneath Saudi’s sands
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Fossil Forest Found in Antarctica

Fossil Forest Found in Antarctica | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
The most astonishing part of the story, however, is near the end:

The plants are so well-preserved in rock that some of the amino acid building blocks that made up the trees’ proteins can still be extracted, said Gulbranson, who specializes in geochemistry techniques.
YEC Geo's insight:
A new record for my list (see my "Raison d'etre" post, top left of the page):  12 individual discoveries this year of preserved biologic material in fossils presumed to be tens to hundreds of millions years old.
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A paleoclimatology tool is shown to give false positives

A paleoclimatology tool is shown to give false positives | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
A popular tool to trace Earth’s oxygen history can give false positives
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Ancient life form discovered in remote Tasmanian valley

Ancient life form discovered in remote Tasmanian valley | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it


"A team of Tasmanian researchers has uncovered rare, living stromatolites deep within the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area."

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ID’s Top Six — The Origin of Humans

ID’s Top Six — The Origin of Humans | Conformable Contacts | Scoop.it
There are many aspects of humanity that point to intelligent design.
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