Complexity
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Complexity
Emergence, complexity, chaos, nonlinear systems, fractals, nature
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Why Is 'Systems Thinking' So Rare?

Center for Collective Dynamics of Complex Systems (CoCo) Seminar Series
April 27, 2017
Mark Sellers (Systems Science, Binghamton University / Northrop Grumman Laser Systems)
"Why Is 'Systems Thinking' So Rare?"
Slides are available at http://bit.ly/2p51VEc

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Biologists Find New Rules for Life at the Edge of Chaos | Science | WIRED

Biologists Find New Rules for Life at the Edge of Chaos | Science | WIRED | Complexity | Scoop.it
In the space between order and chaos, a zone usually described with the mathematics of impending avalanches and liquifying gases, scientists are finding new rules for life.
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How Can the Study of Complexity Transform Our Understanding of the World?

How Can the Study of Complexity Transform Our Understanding of the World? | Complexity | Scoop.it

The “study of complexity” refers to the attempt to find common principles underlying the behavior of complex systems—systems in which large collections of components interact in nonlinear ways. Here, the term nonlinear implies that the system can’t be understood simply by understanding its individual components; nonlinear interactions cause the whole to be “more than the sum of its parts.”

 

How Can the Study of Complexity Transform Our Understanding of the World?

Melanie Mitchell

https://www.bigquestionsonline.com/content/how-can-study-complexity-transform-our-understanding-world


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António F Fonseca's curator insight, January 22, 2014 4:45 AM

Wonderful and clarifying text.

Lorien Pratt's curator insight, January 22, 2014 11:20 PM

One of my favorite complexity authors.  An excerpt: "In the past it was widely assumed that such phenomena are hard to predict because the underlying processes are highly complex, and that random factors must play a key role.  However, Complex Systems science—especially the study of dynamics and chaos—have shown that complex behavior and unpredictability can arise in a system even if the underlying rules are extremely simple and completely deterministic.  Often, the key to complexity is the iteration over time of simple, though nonlinear, interaction rules among the system’s components."


This insight is at the core of Decision Intelligence, which adds an understanding of these emergent behaviors to the usual big data/predictive analytics/optimization stack.

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CfP: Interdependent Networks: Structure, Dynamics and Evolution

Not only are our interactions limited and thus best described not by well-mixed models but rather by models entailing networks, it is also a fact that these networks are often interconnected and indeed very much interdependent. From the World economy to Google Circles, it is clear that processes taking place in one network might affect what is happening in many other networks. Within an interdependent system, each type of interaction has certain relevance or meaning, so that treating all the links identically inevitably leads to information loss. Interdependent or multiplex networks are therefore a much better description of such systems, and this Thematic Series is devoted to their structure, dynamics and evolution, as well as to the study of emergent properties in multi-layered systems in general. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the spread of epidemics and information, synchronization, diffusion, random walks, collective behavior and evolutionary games on interdependent networks.

 

Deadline for submissions: June 30, 2014

 

http://www.casmodeling.com/sites/10349/pdf/A01900_DF_SO_CFP_CASModelling_web.pdf

 

Springer Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling
http://www.casmodeling.com/ ;

 

Lead guest editor: Matjaz Perc, University of Maribor | matjaz.perc@gmail.com

 

Guest editor: Muaz A. Niazi, Bahria University | muaz.niazi@gmail.com


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Can chaos theory help predict heart attacks?

Can chaos theory help predict heart attacks? | Complexity | Scoop.it
Chaos models may someday help model cardiac arrhythmias -- abnormal electrical rhythms of the heart, say researchers.
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Chaos theory may model heart attacks

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The case of the missing fractals - Alex Rosenthal and George Zaidan

View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-case-of-the-missing-fractals-alex-rosenthal-and-george-zaidan A bump on the head, a mysterious femme fatale and a strange encounter on a windswept...
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Toward a Theory of Self-Organized Criticality in the Brain | Simons Foundation

Toward a Theory of Self-Organized Criticality in the Brain | Simons Foundation | Complexity | Scoop.it
Support is growing for a decades-old physics idea suggesting that localized episodes of disordered brain activity help keep the overall system in healthy balance.
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A Theoretically Based Index of Consciousness Independent of Sensory Processing and Behavior

One challenging aspect of the clinical assessment of brain-injured, unresponsive patients is the lack of an objective measure of consciousness that is independent of the subject’s ability to interact with the external environment. Theoretical considerations suggest that consciousness depends on the brain’s ability to support complex activity patterns that are, at once, distributed among interacting cortical areas (integrated) and differentiated in space and time (information-rich). We introduce and test a theory-driven index of the level of consciousness called the perturbational complexity index (PCI). PCI is calculated by (i) perturbing the cortex with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to engage distributed interactions in the brain (integration) and (ii) compressing the spatiotemporal pattern of these electrocortical responses to measure their algorithmic complexity (information). We test PCI on a large data set of TMS-evoked potentials recorded in healthy subjects during wakefulness, dreaming, nonrapid eye movement sleep, and different levels of sedation induced by anesthetic agents (midazolam, xenon, and propofol), as well as in patients who had emerged from coma (vegetative state, minimally conscious state, and locked-in syndrome). PCI reliably discriminated the level of consciousness in single individuals during wakefulness, sleep, and anesthesia, as well as in patients who had emerged from coma and recovered a minimal level of consciousness. PCI can potentially be used for objective determination of the level of consciousness at the bedside.


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Big-O Algorithm Complexity Cheat Sheet

Great resource on algorithmic complexity notations + sorting, searching and the usual data structures : http://t.co/L5I3wJRfrR
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BIO-Complexity Paper: Why Chaitin's Mathematical "Proof" of Darwinian ... - Discovery Institute

BIO-Complexity Paper: Why Chaitin's Mathematical "Proof" of Darwinian ... - Discovery Institute | Complexity | Scoop.it
BIO-Complexity Paper: Why Chaitin's Mathematical "Proof" of Darwinian ...
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THE HOCKEY SCHTICK: Father of chaos theory explains why it is ...

THE HOCKEY SCHTICK: Father of chaos theory explains why it is ... | Complexity | Scoop.it
Dr. Lorenz notes that although other fields that deal with complex, non-linear systems have accepted the implications of chaos theory, some meteorologists and climatologists remain reluctant to accept the implications of chaos theory, ....

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An Introduction to Chaos Theory

http://theturbulencetraining.com/an-introduction-to-chaos-theory.html Edward Lorenz was a meteorologist, who was obsessed with predicting the weather. In 1960, he had a computer set up with twelve equations, to model the weather. Though it failed to model the weather, it managed to theoretically predict what the weather might be. Anytime in the future, if he...


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Video: Chaos theory, the butterfly effect, complexity, and new tools for ... - Phys.Org

Video: Chaos theory, the butterfly effect, complexity, and new tools for ... - Phys.Org | Complexity | Scoop.it
Video: Chaos theory, the butterfly effect, complexity, and new tools for ...
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complexity theory applied to society and policy making.

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Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos - Steven Strogatz, Cornell University - YouTube

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos - Steven Strogatz, Cornell University - YouTube | Complexity | Scoop.it

This course of 25 lectures, filmed at Cornell University in Spring 2014, is intended for newcomers to nonlinear dynamics and chaos. It closely follows Prof. Strogatz's book, "Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering." The mathematical treatment is friendly and informal, but still careful. Analytical methods, concrete examples, and geometric intuition are stressed. The theory is developed systematically, starting with first-order differential equations and their bifurcations, followed by phase plane analysis, limit cycles and their bifurcations, and culminating with the Lorenz equations, chaos, iterated maps, period doubling, renormalization, fractals, and strange attractors. A unique feature of the course is its emphasis on applications. These include airplane wing vibrations, biological rhythms, insect outbreaks, chemical oscillators, chaotic waterwheels, and even a technique for using chaos to send secret messages. In each case, the scientific background is explained at an elementary level and closely integrated with the mathematical theory. The theoretical work is enlivened by frequent use of computer graphics, simulations, and videotaped demonstrations of nonlinear phenomena. The essential prerequisite is single-variable calculus, including curve sketching, Taylor series, and separable differential equations. In a few places, multivariable calculus (partial derivatives, Jacobian matrix, divergence theorem) and linear algebra (eigenvalues and eigenvectors) are used. Fourier analysis is not assumed, and is developed where needed. Introductory physics is used throughout. Other scientific prerequisites would depend on the applications considered, but in all cases, a first course should be adequate preparation

 

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos - Steven Strogatz, Cornell University

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLbN57C5Zdl6j_qJA-pARJnKsmROzPnO9V


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Jean-Michel Livowsky's curator insight, June 2, 2014 3:22 AM

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos...

Jean-Michel Livowsky's curator insight, June 2, 2014 3:23 AM

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos

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Starling Flocks Behave Like Flying Magnets | Science | WIRED

Starling Flocks Behave Like Flying Magnets | Science | WIRED | Complexity | Scoop.it
To achieve their extraordinary coordination, starling flocks in flight behave mathematically like magnetized metals and avalanches. Their formations don't just transcend biology, but span multiple physical phenomena.
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What kind of science is computational science? A rebuttal.

What kind of science is computational science? A rebuttal. | Complexity | Scoop.it

“ Tamara Kolda (Sandia National Laboratories) writes: Recently, physicist Rhett Allain posted a Wired Science blog entry entitled, What kind of science is computational science?.”


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San Diego Supercomputer Center:

San Diego Supercomputer Center: | Complexity | Scoop.it
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Chaos theory and ventricular fibrillation  

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Scientists create circuit board modeled on the human brain (w/ Video) - Phys.Org

Scientists create circuit board modeled on the human brain (w/ Video) - Phys.Org | Complexity | Scoop.it
Phys.Org
Scientists create circuit board modeled on the human brain (w/ Video)
Phys.Org
For all their sophistication, computers pale in comparison to the brain.
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Ants Build Complex Structures With a Few Simple Rules | Simons Foundation

Ants Build Complex Structures With a Few Simple Rules | Simons Foundation | Complexity | Scoop.it
Knowing the rules behind ant-made structures could help scientists understand how other complex systems emerge in nature.
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Summary:

* Tools of study -- observation of ant behavior, computational modeling, modern imaging techniques

* The ants obey few simple rules  and local interactions in order to do complex tasks such as for foraging for food, build nests, survival tasks, 

* Benefit of such study -- make better decentralized swarm robots that can self-organize, design self-healing structures, understand the emergence of organs from simple groups of cells and other complex biological systems, etc.

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Alexey Potapov - Differences between Kolmogorov Complexity and Solomonoff Probability

Winter Intelligence Oxford - AGI12 - http://agi-conference.org/2012 ==Differences between Kolmogorov Complexity and Solomonoff Probability: Consequences for ...
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Online Algorithmic Complexity Calculator

Online Algorithmic Complexity Calculator | Complexity | Scoop.it

For a long time researchers from all disciplines have avoided the use of universal mathematical measures of information theory (beyond the traditional computable, but limited, Shannon information entropy), measures such as Kolmogorov-Chaitin complexity, Solomonoff-Levin universal induction or Bennett's logical depth, as well as other related measures, citing the fact that they are uncomputable.

These measures are, however, upper or lower semi-computable and are therefore approachable from below or above. For example, lossless compression algorithms can approximate Kolmogorov-Chaitin complexity (a compressed string is a sufficient test of non-randomness) and applications have proven to be successful in many areas. Nevertheless, compression algorithms fail to compress short strings and do not represent an option for approximating their Kolmogorov complexity. This online calculator provides a means for approximating the complexity of binary short strings for which no other method has existed until now by taking advantage of the formal connections among these measures and putting together several concepts and results from theoretical computer science.


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Science in a Complex World: A small group of Santa Fe researchers changed ... - Santa Fe New Mexican.com

Science in a Complex World: A small group of Santa Fe researchers changed ... - Santa Fe New Mexican.com | Complexity | Scoop.it
Science in a Complex World: A small group of Santa Fe researchers changed ...
Santa Fe New Mexican.com
By the late 1980s and early '90s, we had new mathematical tools, new ideas from cognitive science and computational power at our disposal.
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Why scientific reductionism does not work for biology (Chaos theory)

Brilliant lecture about chaos theory and the butterfly effect.
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HowStuffWorks "How Chaos Theory Works"

HowStuffWorks "How Chaos Theory Works" | Complexity | Scoop.it
Chaos theory is the idea that the ordered, obsequious universe we take for granted may be the exception to the rule. Learn more about chaos theory.

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