College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students
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When you're the first to go to college

When you're the first to go to college | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
Last spring, Raven Gribbins was the first in her family to graduate from high school. Now she begins the next chapter -- as a college student. (I love hearing success stories!
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"First-Generation College Students and Social Capital" by Michael Peabody

This paper examines institutional identification of first-generation college students and corresponding campus retention programs utilizing a Social Capital lens.
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Why Aren't Low-Income Students Succeeding in School ...

Why Aren't Low-Income Students Succeeding in School ... | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
Carol J. Carter - Many low income first-generation college students who are reading and doing math at a seventh or eighth grade level are admitted into. ...
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Colleges sharpen efforts to meet needs of first-generation students - Worcester Telegram

Colleges sharpen efforts to meet needs of first-generation students - Worcester Telegram | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
Colleges sharpen efforts to meet needs of first-generation students
Worcester Telegram
These students are ''first generation,'' the first in their families to go to college.
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CSUN student shares her story and experiences with first generation guilt - Daily Sundial

CSUN student shares her story and experiences with first generation guilt - Daily Sundial | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
Daily Sundial CSUN student shares her story and experiences with first generation guilt Daily Sundial Missing her father's funeral and not being involved in rearing her younger siblings are a few examples of paradoxical guilt felt by many first...
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Common Core myths debunked (Your view) - The Birmingham News - al.com

Common Core myths debunked (Your view) - The Birmingham News - al.com | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
Common Core myths debunked (Your view)
The Birmingham News - al.com
Alabama has combined the Common Core standards with its own standards to create the Alabama College & Career Ready Standards (CCRS).
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Ask Arne - New Flexibility On Career And College Ready Standards And Assessments

With higher standards, better assessments, and other new systems coming to education throughout the country, schools are experiencing unprecedented change. T...
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JSTOR: Language Arts, Vol. 62, No. 8 (December 1985), pp. 860-869

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JSTOR: The Reading Teacher, Vol. 47, No. 6 (Mar., 1994), pp. 438-449

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Learning To Learn

Learning To Learn | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it

In college:
Learning to Learn is a research-based system of learning strategies. LTL has been proven effective for both average-admits and first-generation, high-poverty college students. Results show strong, significant, and lasting gains in students’ academic achievement across the curriculum and graduation rates. LTL is a U.S. Department of Education-validated National Diffusion Network (NDN) program.  


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Gust MEES's curator insight, January 2, 2013 9:40 AM

- My preferred #quote: “If you can't explain it to a six year old, you don't #understand it yourself.” Albert Einstein #education #edchat

 

- The principal goal of education is to create men who are capable of doing new things, not simply of repeating what other generations have done.


- #quote The whole object of #education is...to develop the mind. The#mind should be a thing that works. Sherwood Anderson (1876–1941)

 

- #quote “It is not because things are difficult that we do not dare; it is because we do not dare that they are difficult.” (Seneca the Younger)


- #Learning2Learn: A good #TimeManagement = ALSO less #stress + BETTER #Learning! #Education #edchat #edtech #teachers#educators


- The object of teaching a child is to enable him to get along without a teacher. Elbert Hubbard (1856-1915) American author #quote


 

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Pathway to College and Career Readiness

Pathway to College and Career Readiness | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it

The Board of Education recently adopted a 5 year Strategic Framework for ensuring an aggressive plan for improving graduation rates and college and career readiness. Here is a one page graphical overview of the framework.


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Do Faculty Understand First Generation College Students? - Policyshop (blog)

Do Faculty Understand First Generation College Students?
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Michele Rosario's curator insight, March 13, 2014 11:04 AM

As I read this article, I thought I was going to get a student's perspective on how college faculty don't understand them, but instead the get the exact opposite.  What I see is a college advisor explaining how the personal lives of college students aren't taken into consideration.  As she reports, she advised a very promising student to get a PhD with full tuition benefits, only to later find out that that student dropped out because of extreme financial issues and a mom that was dying.  I guess what the advisor lacked was the student's financial and personal background.  

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Speaking and Listening (CCSS Goes Deep)

Speaking and Listening (CCSS Goes Deep). The Common Core State Standards reach beyond reading and writing to address speaking and listening. The anchor standards for college and career readiness come under two ...

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Charles Fischer's curator insight, May 13, 2013 8:30 PM

Speaking and listening can be expertly addressed in Socratic Seminar! Listening is a skill that can be taught. Start with "Pre-listening" and prepare students for what is expected. There is an important difference between hearing and listening...

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Strengthening ‘grit’: One key to helping low-income, first-generation students succeed

Strengthening ‘grit’: One key to helping low-income, first-generation students succeed | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
What’s the role of ‘grit’ in helping first-generation students from low-income families succeed in college?
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Parental Involvement: A Neglected Resource | ASCD Inservice

Parental Involvement: A Neglected Resource | ASCD Inservice | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
Another factor that was crucial to the success of the black male first-generation students who participated in my study was parental support. Their parents placed a high value on education. Although the parents ...
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Colleges try to meet needs of first-generation students - Boston Globe

Colleges try to meet needs of first-generation students - Boston Globe | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
Boston Globe Colleges try to meet needs of first-generation students Boston Globe CAMBRIDGE — To the legions of students who have been tutored and molded and prodded toward a top college most of their young lives, it would be an absurd question:...
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Common Core opponents see specter of globalism behind educational standards - Yes! Weekly

Common Core opponents see specter of globalism behind educational standards - Yes! Weekly | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
Yes! Weekly
Common Core opponents see specter of globalism behind educational standards
Yes!
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College and Career Readiness -- Part Two - Huffington Post

College and Career Readiness -- Part Two - Huffington Post | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
College and Career Readiness -- Part Two
Huffington Post
College and career readiness clearly represents an adaptive challenge. We're all working on it, but no one has figured out how to reliably achieve this outcome for all students.
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Silver standard: Casa Grande Union High School prepares students well for ... - TriValley Central

Silver standard: Casa Grande Union High School prepares students well for ... - TriValley Central | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
Silver standard: Casa Grande Union High School prepares students well for ...
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Public colleges leaders in reaching first-generation students - Boston Globe

Public colleges leaders in reaching first-generation students - Boston Globe | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
Public colleges leaders in reaching first-generation students
Boston Globe
RE “COLLEGES sharpen efforts to meet needs of first-generation students” (Page A1, Sept.
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College Readiness and Academic Preparation for Postsecondary Education

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The financial awareness gap: Getting first-generation college students the info they need

The financial awareness gap: Getting first-generation college students the info they need | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
Low-income families like mine need counseling, not just tools.
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Counseling High School Freshmen Can Influence College-Going Rates

Counseling High School Freshmen Can Influence College-Going Rates | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
A new report encourages counselors to talk to high school freshmen about college.

 

The influence of a counselor was especially critical in influencing the behaviors of first-generation college students, the NACAC report found.


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GEAR UP NC's curator insight, June 24, 2013 11:08 AM

The intersection between GEAR UP Coordinators, Facilitators, and school counseling. #GEARUPworks

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College, Careers, Citizenship: A Common Core of Readiness

College, Careers, Citizenship: A Common Core of Readiness | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it

April 2012 | Volume 69 | Number 7
College, Careers, Citizenship Pages 10-15

A Common Core of Readiness
Robert Rothman

A large proportion of U.S. high school graduates are ill-prepared to meet the challenges of college or career. The new common core state standards can help.

The common core state standards, which have now been adopted by 46 states and the District of Columbia, differ from most previous state standards in many ways. Perhaps the most significant difference, however, is that the new standards were explicitly designed around the goal of ensuring college and career readiness for all students. How likely are the common core state standards to achieve this goal?

Ready or (Mostly) Not
In the past decade, a growing body of research has shown the increased importance of postsecondary education. A 2004 study by labor economists Frank Levy and Richard Murnane, for example, found that technology is transforming the workplace by reducing the need for routine skills and placing a premium on problem-solving and communication skills. Carnevale, Smith, and Strohl (2010) quantified this workplace shift. They projected that 62 percent of U.S. jobs in 2018 (compared with just 28 percent in 1973) will require education beyond high school.

The resulting shortage of college-educated workers has driven up the wage premium for postsecondary education: Workers with bachelor's degrees earned 74 percent more than those with high school diplomas in 2010, compared with 40 percent more in 1980. If current trends continue, college-educated workers will earn twice as much as high school graduates by 2025 (Carnevale & Rose, 2011).

Unfortunately, the proportion of U.S. students with college degrees is not rising fast enough to meet the demand. Although the U.S. college graduation rate increased from 42 percent in 2000 to 49 percent in 2009, the rate increased much faster in other countries. As a result, in 2011, the United States ranked 15th among 20 major industrialized countries in the number of adults ages 25–34 with bachelor's degrees. In fact, the United States is the only country in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in which the college-completion rate is lower among younger people than it is among older workers (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2011).

One likely reason for the shortfall in postsecondary success is the inadequate preparation of students in high school. ACT has conducted research for years to determine the level of performance a student would have to achieve on its widely used college admissions test to have a 50 percent chance of earning a grade of B or higher, or a 75 percent chance of earning a C or higher, in an entry-level college class. In 2011, just one in four students who took the ACT test met the benchmark scores in all four subjects: English, mathematics, reading, and science (ACT, 2011). And because these data were based on scores for students who had taken the test—that is, students who had indicated their intentions to go to college—we can assume that the preparation of high school students overall is lower.

The ACT findings are consistent with the relatively high remediation rates in colleges and universities. Nationwide, about 40 percent of entering college students are required to take at least one remedial course before enrolling in credit-bearing coursework, and the rates are much higher for students of color.1 Students who enroll in remedial courses are more likely than those who do not to drop out of college before earning a degree.

Businesses, college professors, and students themselves agree that there are gaps in student preparation for the postsecondary world. In a 2005 survey, U.S. employers stated that 39 percent of high school graduates were unprepared for entry-level work and 45 percent of graduates were inadequately prepared for jobs beyond the entry level. Only 18 percent of college instructors said that students came to their classes extremely or very well prepared. And 39 percent of graduates themselves said that they were unprepared for college or the workplace (Peter D. Hart Research Associates, 2005).

The Trouble with State Standards
What has caused this mismatch between student preparation and the needs of college and career? A growing number of educators believe the answer might be inadequate curriculum standards. If standards are too low, K–12 students may do everything we expect them to do but still come up short when they get to college or begin a career.

Standards-based reform has been the de facto national education reform strategy for more than two decades. Spurred by federal legislation, states have placed standards—statements of the content and skills all students should learn—at the center of their improvement efforts. By the end of the 1990s, all states had adopted standards for student learning, assessments aligned to the standards, and accountability systems that measured school performance on the basis of student attainment of the standards.

But gradually, educators and policymakers have realized that many state standards were set too low and that these standards varied widely from state to state. A 2008 study conducted by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania compared state content standards in mathematics and found very little commonality among the states (National Research Council, 2008).

The most glaring evidence of the variation in state standards came from the results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). No Child Left Behind requires every state to administer the NAEP in reading and mathematics every two years, and the data appear to show some wide differences between NAEP results and the results on state tests. For example, in 2005, 87 percent of 4th graders in Tennessee were proficient on the state test in mathematics, but only 28 percent were proficient on the NAEP. In contrast, in Massachusetts, 40 percent of 4th graders were proficient on the state test in mathematics and almost the same proportion (41 percent) were proficient on the NAEP. These discrepancies have raised concerns that some states' standards set expectations below what students need to succeed in college and careers.

New Standards Focused on Readiness
Faced with such data, state leaders in 2006 began to consider developing standards that would be common among states, not only to reduce variability but also to ensure that the expectations matched the requirements of postsecondary education. The Council of Chief State School Officers and the National Governors Association led the effort, which became known as the Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSS).

The project, launched in April 2009, was divided into two parts. First, teams would develop anchor standards for college and career readiness in English language arts and mathematics, which would indicate the knowledge and skills students needed at the end of high school. Then a separate team would design grade-by-grade standards in those two subjects that would lead students to the anchor standards. The final set of standards was released in June 2010.

From the outset, CCSS leaders designed the effort to differ from the process most states had used to set their standards. Many state standards were developed by teams of educators and community members, using a variety of criteria. In many cases, the process involved logrolling to gain political support; the result was a long list of standards that might or might not have anything to do with college and career readiness.

CCSS leaders, in contrast, established clear criteria for the standards; one of the most important was that the standards reflect research on college and career readiness. Topics that might be interesting but that were not essential for postsecondary success would be thrown out. The research did not have to be ironclad; it just had to represent the best available knowledge. This criterion guided the standards writers' work and minimized some of the ideological battles that had plagued standards setting in the past.

In addition, the CCSS leaders asked representatives from Achieve, ACT, and the College Board to craft the anchor standards. These organizations had considerable expertise in the area of college and career readiness, and they could enlist business and higher education partners to verify their judgments about what might be necessary for employment or postsecondary education.

In developing the college and career readiness standards, the standards writers defined readiness as the ability to succeed in entry-level, credit-bearing, academic college courses and in workforce training programs. That is, students who met the standards should be able to enroll in postsecondary education without needing remediation. For college, that meant enrolling in either a two-year or four-year institution; for workforce training, it meant enrolling in programs that prepare students for careers that offer competitive, livable salaries and opportunities for career advancement in a growing or sustainable industry.

To develop the standards for college and career readiness, the standards writers started with evidence from postsecondary education and the workplace. They also conducted their own research by buying introductory college textbooks and studying the kinds of reading and mathematics that students would be expected to do in their first year of college. And they asked teachers of first-year college courses to confirm their judgments about what students should know and be able to do.

What's New in the New Standards?
Will the common core state standards succeed in their ultimate aim of improving the college and career readiness of U.S. students? We won't have the definitive answer to that question until states have implemented the standards and collected evidence to determine whether students who meet them can function successfully in postsecondary education and in the workplace.

Preliminary reviews indicate, however, that the standards at least reflect the expectations of colleges. For example, in a survey by the Education Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) at the University of Oregon, professors of first-year college courses agreed that the standards reflect the knowledge and skills students need to have in their courses (Conley, Drummond, deGonzalez, Rooseboom, & Stout, 2011a). And a separate EPIC study found that the standards match well with the expectations students encounter in such highly regarded programs as the International Baccalaureate (Conley et al., 2011b).

In the end, the standards define some clear expectations for what students should know and be able to do. And these expectations are more closely aligned in several important ways with what students need to succeed in college and careers.

Reading. In reading, the standards place a heavy emphasis on the ability to comprehend complex texts. This emphasis stems from research that shows that students who can comprehend complex texts are more likely to be successful after high school (ACT, 2006). Many students currently lack this ability. The complexity of workplace materials and college textbooks have held steady or increased over the past 50 years (Council of Chief State School Officers & National Governors Association Center on Best Practices, 2010); meanwhile, the level of text complexity in high schools has actually declined over time (Chall, Conard, & Harris, 1977; Hayes, Wolfer, & Wolfe, 1996). And in many high schools, teachers often don't even require students to read or comprehend these easier texts. Instead, many teachers attempt to make comprehension simpler for students by presenting material via PowerPoint or reading aloud.

Writing. In writing, the common core state standards reflect college and career readiness by reducing the traditional emphasis on narrative writing and placing a greater emphasis on informational and explanatory writing. Personal narratives are a staple of schooling ("How I Spent My Summer Vacation"), but except for college application essays, students will seldom be required to write personal narratives in college or the workplace. Informational writing, in which the author attempts to explain something or to inform others about a topic, is a much more important skill in these settings.

Mathematics. The high school mathematics standards are intended for all students and represent the threshold level necessary for college and career readiness. In fact, as the standards document notes, research on college and career readiness suggests that much of the mathematics necessary for postsecondary success is taught in grades 6–8. This includes applying ratio reasoning in solving problems; computing fluently with fractions and decimals; and solving problems involving angle measure, surface area, and volume. However, the standards also include content that students would need to know if they pursue higher-level mathematics, such as calculus, discrete mathematics, or advanced statistics. This content is designated with a special symbol (+).

Next Steps
Even the most fervent advocate of the common core state standards would acknowledge that the standards themselves will not ensure that students graduate from high school ready for college and careers. A lot more has to happen to bring that about.

The first big step is underway: Two consortia of states are developing assessments to measure student attainment of the standards. The consortia's plans state that the results from the assessments will indicate whether students are on track for college and career readiness. But for those plans to be realized, higher education institutions must be engaged to validate that the assessments actually measure readiness. If these institutions agree to use the assessment scores for placement in first-year college courses, it will send a clear signal to students that passing the exams means they are ready for postsecondary education.

More significant, teachers must be prepared to teach the new standards. The standards call for some major changes in classroom practice to enable students to meet higher expectations, such as the greater level of text complexity in reading and challenging math expectations for all. Many teachers are not prepared for these shifts. Teacher preparation institutions must embrace the standards to ensure that those entering the profession are ready to teach what students are expected to learn.

The United States has, since its inception, acted on the belief that all students deserve a basic education. The common core state standards define a basic education in a new way: readiness for college and careers. And for the first time, the expectations are the same for almost all students, regardless of where they live. These standards represent a great opportunity to advance equity and excellence.


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Beyond mere talk: how to really help first-generation college students - The Guardian

Beyond mere talk: how to really help first-generation college students - The Guardian | College and Career Readiness for future First Generation Students | Scoop.it
The Guardian
Beyond mere talk: how to really help first-generation college students
The Guardian
Yet even now, there have been few accounts of first-generation college students who attend highly selective institutions such as Harvard and Yale.
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