Collectivity
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Collectivity
Collective Intelligence, Virtual Communities, PLNs, DIY, Remix Culture, Mashup as any of these topics seem relevant to education and the work of teachers. I will separate these into separate galleries later. June 16, 2012.
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Practices of distributed intelligence and designs for education

Practices of distributed intelligence and designs for education | Collectivity | Scoop.it

downloadable PDF

 

Pea, R. D. (1993). Practices of distributed intelligence and designs for education. In G. Salomon (Ed.). Distributed cognitions (pp. 47-87). New York: Cambridge University Press.

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Wired 14.06: The Rise of Crowdsourcing

Wired

Issue 14.06 - June 2006

By Jeff Howe

 

[excerpt] 

 

Technological advances in everything from product design software to digital video cameras are breaking down the cost barriers that once separated amateurs from professionals. Hobbyists, part-timers, and dabblers suddenly have a market for their efforts, as smart companies in industries as disparate as pharmaceuticals and television discover ways to tap the latent talent of the crowd. The labor isn’t always free, but it costs a lot less than paying traditional employees. It’s not outsourcing; it’s crowdsourcing.

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Responses to DIGITAL MAOISM: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism By Jaron Lanier

Responses to Lanier's essay On "Digital Maoism: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism" By Jaron Lanier [5.30.06] from Douglas Rushkoff, Quentin Hardy, Yochai Benkler, Clay Shirky, Cory Doctorow, Kevin Kelly, Esther Dyson, Larry Sanger, Fernanda Viegas & Martin Wattenberg, Jimmy Wales, George Dyson, Dan Gillmor, Howard Rheingold

 

http://www.edge.org/discourse/digital_maoism.html

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Top Five Women Tech Organizations: Building Networks and Bridging the Gap

Top Five Women Tech Organizations: Building Networks and Bridging the Gap | Collectivity | Scoop.it
In this era, supporting women in technology is crucial. The statistics are stacked against girls and women who aspire for STEM careers and yet, role models do still exist.

Via Dr. Susan Bainbridge
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Watch | Everything Is a Remix

Watch | Everything Is a Remix | Collectivity | Scoop.it

Everything is a Remix is produced by Kirby Ferguson, a New York-based filmmaker. This site is a companion piece to the four-part video series.  a blog accompanies the videos.

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Creativity, Stealing, and your Media Diet

Creativity, Stealing, and your Media Diet | Collectivity | Scoop.it

Viacom blog. See the video. 

 

[excerpt]

 

Around here, we talk a lot about Millennials and “mashup culture.” Growing up with unprecedented access to information, we say, has exposed Millennials to a wider variety of music, art, and culture than any generation before them – and they’ve got no problem folding the bits and pieces that appeal to them into their personal style. A kid from California wearing a Palestinian scarf? Not weird at all. A NY-based skate brand selling t shirts with art from the 1960’s printed on them? Yep, that’s cool.

 

Author, poet, and speaker Austin Kleon says that the idea of “mashup” is nothing new. In the video below (from the Economist), Kleon says creativity is all about stealing ideas.

 

I love Kleon’s thesis here: “Nothing is original. All artists build on the work of other artists. Every new idea is a remix of old ideas.”

 

Also love the implication of that thesis: “You are a mashup of what you let into your life”. If all new ideas are informed by older ideas, your creative output is a result of the content you consume.

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The Unbearable Obsolescence of Learning

The Unbearable Obsolescence of Learning | Collectivity | Scoop.it
It may be a sad fact of life, but when something has ceased to be of any practical use or value, it needs to be disposed of. Dismantled. Torn apart. Recycled and re-purposed where possible, and the...

Via Dr. Susan Bainbridge
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Watch | Everything Is a Remix

Watch | Everything Is a Remix | Collectivity | Scoop.it

Remixing is a folk art but the techniques are the same ones used at any level of creation: copy, transform, and combine. You could even say that everything is a remix.


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Do It Yourself

Do It Yourself | Collectivity | Scoop.it

this is from a diy wiki

 

[excerpts]

 

Do It Yourself, or DIY, is a term that is used by various communities of practice that focus on people creating things for themselves without the aid of a paid professional. Many DIY subcultures explicitly critique consumer culture, which emphasizes that the solution to our needs is to purchase things, and instead encourage people to take technologies into their own hands.
Recently, DIY has re-emerged in the hipster "craft movement" (applying postmodern sensibilities to decoupage and sewing projects), the Burning Man event/community ("No spectators"), the techie Open Source movement (free, user-modifiable software), and, of course, wikis.

 

DIY is associated with the international alternative and punk music scenes. Members of these subcultures strive to blur the lines between creator and consumer by constructing a social network that ties users and makers close together. The phrase Do It Yourself along with its acronym is also commonly used where a layman endeavors to complete a project without the physical aid of a paid professional.

There are various communities of media-makers that consider themselves DIY, for example the indymedia network, pirate radio stations, and the zine community.

 

There is also a community of people who use the term DIY to refer to fabricating or repairing things for home needs, on one's own rather than purchasing them or paying for professional repair. In other words, home improvement done by the householder without the aid of paid professionals.

 

DIY has a lengthy history around the world, since through the ages of camp life, and later village and town life, the most common situation has been for people to use local technologies to take care of their needs for themselves

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Cyberpunk Definitional Paper

Cyberpunk Definitional Paper | Collectivity | Scoop.it
Cyberpunk Definitional Paper....

 

[Excerpted]

 

This text is from Todd English, 19 September 1995

In the late 1970's and early '80's and new type of writing style came about that relied on many of the traditional criteria to be called science fiction, but had a certain something else that had many people agreeing that it was not just science fiction. This new style of writing was so different and so many people started writing in this style that the general public decided that it was time this genre of writing deserved a label: cyberpunk. Cyberpunk is not an easy group of writing to define on paper, but it is easy to spot when one is reading it. The cyberpunk writing movement started out with many short stories then became recognizable to the masses with probably the movements most successful novel, entitled Neuromancer. William Gibson's novel was the first major work to get recognized from this category, it seemed to set the precedence of what cyberpunk included, and what a piece of writing needed to have to get labeled cyberpunk. Cyberpunk does not define the works that are in it, rather, the works define what cyberpunk consists of.

 

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A Cypherpunk's Manifesto

A Cypherpunk's Manifesto | Collectivity | Scoop.it
Cypherpunk's Manifesto....

 

by Eric Hughes 1993

 

Privacy

 

[Excerpts]

 

Privacy is necessary for an open society in the electronic age. Privacy is not secrecy. A private matter is something one doesn't want the whole world to know, but a secret matter is something one doesn't want anybody to know. Privacy is the power to selectively reveal oneself to the world.

 

We must defend our own privacy if we expect to have any. We must come together and create systems which allow anonymous transactions to take place. People have been defending their own privacy for centuries with whispers, darkness, envelopes, closed doors, secret handshakes, and couriers. The technologies of the past did not allow for strong privacy, but electronic technologies do.

 

 

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ANALYSIS OF A SUBCULTURE GROUP: CYBERPUNK by Robert Weir

[Excerpted]

 

CyberPunks, the wave of the future. Techno nerds just waiting to damage and pillage any computer system that is not secure enough. Is this the CyberPunk? Or is this the false appearance portrayed by the uninformed. This assignment attempts to portray an unbiased view of the CyberPunk.

 

Mention the word CyberPunk and immediately these words follow: Hackers and Internet. CyberPunks are more than this. CyberPunk has two facets to it. One, the CyberPunk literary genre, and two, the CyberPunk subculture. It is almost impossible to separate the two, so I will briefly introduce the literary movement, which gave rise to the Subculture (or Counter Culture) of the CyberPunk.

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Main Page - ZineWiki - the history and culture of zines, independent media and the small press.

Main Page - ZineWiki - the history and culture of zines, independent media and the small press. | Collectivity | Scoop.it

[Excerpted]

 

ZineWiki is an open-source encyclopedia devoted to zines and independent media. It covers the history, production, distribution and culture of the small press. Feel free to add your project, contribute additional information to already existing pages, or to edit what’s already published. Subjects should be explained in terms of their relevance to zines and independent media.

 

ZineWiki was created by Alan Lastufka and Kate Sandler in June 2006.

 

ZineWiki's content is written collaboratively by many of its readers.

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Wired 14.06: Look Who's Crowdsourcing

Issue 14.06 - June 2006. By Jeff Howe

 

[excerpt]

 

The crowd is ready to work. So who’s hiring? Companies in a wide array of industries are devising ways to harness the intelligence and creativity of distributed labor.

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Web Site Operators & Liability for UGC - Facing up to Reality?

[excerpts]

 

Social networking and other Web sites that enable user-generated content (known as UGC) to be uploaded and viewed by users are big news and big business. Robert Goldstone and James Gill review the dangers that arise in relation to copyright infringement.

 

Web sites such as YouTube, MySpace and Facebook are some of the most popular Web sites on the Internet. Facebook, for example, which only opened up to the worldwide market in September 2006, has an estimated 70 million users worldwide and (at least pre-credit crunch) had an estimated value in excess of $8 billion. UGC Web sites that drive huge numbers of users to their sites can attract lucrative advertising revenue and can provide strategic synergies for traditional media companies. So much so, that in July 2005 News Corp acquired MySpace for $580 million and in October 2006 Google Inc acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion.

 

Copyright Infringement

 

UGC Web sites often hit our headlines, particularly in relation to the legality of their business models. The main reason for this is that, although some UGC is ‘original’ from a copyright perspective, UGC often includes, or is based on, valuable third-party copyright works such as films, music and pictures. Copyright owners, who invest significant time and resources in developing their content, are feeling increasingly aggrieved that their content is being made available without any financial return and are taking the issue of infringement very seriously. This is evident from the ongoing, high profile, litigation brought in the USA by Viacom against YouTube (whose business relies heavily on being able to provide a video sharing platform).

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Edge; DIGITAL MAOISM: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism By Jaron Lanier

Edge; DIGITAL MAOISM: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism By Jaron Lanier | Collectivity | Scoop.it

DIGITAL MAOISM:
The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism [5.30.06]
By Jaron Lanier

An Edge Original Essay

 

[excerpts]

 

In "Digital Maosim", an original essay written for Edge, computer scientist and digital visionary Jaron Lanier finds fault with what he terms the new online collectivism. He cites as an example the Wikipedia, noting that "reading a Wikipedia entry is like reading the bible closely. There are faint traces of the voices of various anonymous authors and editors, though it is impossible to be sure".

 

His problem is not with the unfolding experiment of the Wikipedia itself, but "the way the Wikipedia has come to be regarded and used; how it's been elevated to such importance so quickly. And that is part of the larger pattern of the appeal of a new online collectivism that is nothing less than a resurgence of the idea that the collective is all-wise, that it is desirable to have influence concentrated in a bottleneck that can channel the collective with the most verity and force. This is different from representative democracy, or meritocracy. This idea has had dreadful consequences when thrust upon us from the extreme Right or the extreme Left in various historical periods. The fact that it's now being re-introduced today by prominent technologists and futurists, people who in many cases I know and like, doesn't make it any less dangerous".

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Web 2.0 Technologies and Social Constructivist Practices in the Classroom: Possibilities and Challenges - Learning Theory and Educational Technology

This site hosts a class book project produced by an EDTECH Spring 2009 class at Boise State University.

 

[excerpt of a paper from the site]

 

Alexander (2008) suggests that there are several characteristics that must be present in order for a particular technology to be classified as a web 2.0 technology. First, the technology must be social in nature. In other words, it must, at its most basic level, connect people. Second, the technology must also employ microcontent, which is content that is “small in terms of size and contributor effort” (Alexander, 2001, p. 152). Third, web 2.0 technologies also include mechanisms for social filtering, which is a term that describes the phenomenon of multiple authorship that is encouraged by the social nature of web 2.0. Finally, web 2.0 technologies also employ a concept knows as folksonomy, which plays off of social filtering by allowing users to assign single, descriptive words to content. As these tags are applied and refined, the larger contextual meaning of the content evolves (Alexander, 2008).

 

Alexander Reference (should be available in JSTOR or Wilson):

Alexander, B. (2008). Web 2.0 and emergent multiliteracies. Theory Into Practice, 47(2), 150-160.

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Everything is a Remix Part 4 Transcript

Everything is a Remix Part 4 Transcript | Collectivity | Scoop.it

The blog about the web video series, "Everything is a Remix"

 

The genes in our bodies can be traced back over three-and-a-half billion years to a single organism, Luca, the Last Universal Common Ancestor. As Luca reproduced, its genes copied and copied and copied and copied, sometimes with mistakes — they transformed. Over time this produced every one of the billions of species of life on earth. Some of these adopted sexual reproduction, combining the genes of individuals, and altogether, the best-adapted life forms prospered.

 

This is evolution. Copy, transform and combine.

And culture evolves in a similar way, but the elements aren’t genes, they’re memes — ideas, behaviors, skills. Memes are copied, transformed, and combined. And the dominant ideas of our time are the memes that spread the most.

 

This is social evolution.

 

Copy, transform and combine. It’s who we are, it’s how we live, and of course, it’s how we create. Our new ideas evolve from the old ones.

But our system of law doesn’t acknowledge the derivative nature of creativity. Instead, ideas are regarded as property, as unique and original lots with distinct boundaries.

But ideas aren’t so tidy. They’re layered, they’re interwoven, they’re tangled. And when the system conflicts with the reality… the system starts to fail.

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EFF Working to Expand Jailbreaking and Remix Rights with DMCA

EFF Working to Expand Jailbreaking and Remix Rights with DMCA | Collectivity | Scoop.it

BY BRANDON MIETZNER – DECEMBER 7, 2011

 

[excerpt]

 

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has recently recommended that the U.S. Copyright Office renew and expand the critical exemptions to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). Last year, the request was granted in response to EFF’s request to protect the rights of consumers who modify electronic gadgets and make remix videos.

 

The request is going further to protect the rights of those consumers who partake in “jailbreaking” of smartphones, electronic tablets, and video game consoles. The EFF is also seeking legal protections for artists and critics who use excerpts from DVDs or downloading services to create new, remixed works.

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Remix culture: a rights nightmare - Indepth - Catapult - ABC Online

Remix culture: a rights nightmare - Indepth - Catapult - ABC Online | Collectivity | Scoop.it

"Digital technology is blurring the boundaries of artistic ownership", writes Rebecca Martin."


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Whole Earth Catalog online (DIY Culture)

Whole Earth Catalog online (DIY Culture) | Collectivity | Scoop.it
Whole Earth Catalog and its family of publications provide an innovative, groundbreaking pattern of thought that provides access to tools, information and ideas that help individuals make decisions for themselves.

 

[excerpt]

 

In 1968 Stewart Brand launched an innovative publication called The Whole Earth Catalog.It was groundbreaking, enlightening, and spawned a group of later publications.

 

The collection of that work provided on this site is not complete — and probably never will be — but it is a gift to readers who loved the CATALOG and those who are discovering it for the first time.

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The Courage to Screw Up: Why DIY Is Good for You

The Courage to Screw Up: Why DIY Is Good for You | Collectivity | Scoop.it

The Courage to Screw Up: Why DIY Is Good for You. Mark Frauenfelder

Posted: 05/28/10 09:13 AM ET

 

[excerpts]

 

As the editor-in-chief of the do-it-yourself magazine Make, I've met scores of dedicated makers. They come from all walks of life -- rich, poor, young, old, male, female, religious, atheist, liberal, conservative. They're as varied as the things they make: kites with cameras, homebrew biodiesel, treehouses with ziplines, cigar box guitars, remote-control lawnmowers, automatic cat-feeders, high-altitude water rockets, robotic blimps, worm composting systems, stylish plywood furniture, pinhole cameras, experimental surfboards, solar water heaters, portable drive-in movie projectors -- there's no limit to their aspirations. And while no two DIYers are alike, in general they're an upbeat and friendly group that shares a special trait: the courage to screw up.

 

Five benefits you gain from having the courage to screw up:

 

1. A deeper connection to the things that keep us alive and well.

2. An appreciation for the things you have and the systems that make it possible.

3. An opportunity to use your hands and your brain.

4. A connection to other people.

5. A path to freedom.

 

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Bruce Bethke: Cyberpunk

Bruce Bethke: Cyberpunk | Collectivity | Scoop.it

Cyberpunk

Copyright © 1980 Bruce Bethke. All rights reserved.

 

This is the story where word 'cyberpunk' appears first time ever.

 

First published in AMAZING Science Fiction Stories, Volume 57, Number 4, November 1983

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A Portrait of J. Random Hacker

A Portrait of J. Random Hacker | Collectivity | Scoop.it
A Portrait of J. Random Hacker....

 

Brought to you by The Cyberpunk Project
Page last modified on 11/11/2003 09:17:03

 

[Excerpted]

 

This profile reflects detailed comments on an earlier 'trial balloon' version from about a hundred USENET respondents. Where comparatives are used, the implicit 'other' is a randomly selected segment of the non-hacker population of the same size as hackerdom.

 

An important point: Except in some relatively minor respects such as slang vocabulary, hackers don't get to be the way they are by imitating each other. Rather, it seems to be the case that the combination of personality traits that makes a hacker so conditions one's outlook on life that one tends to end up being like other hackers whether one wants to or not (much as bizarrely detailed similarities in behavior and preferences are found in genetic twins raised separately).

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IS THERE A HACKER ETHIC FOR 90s HACKERS? by Steve Mizrach

[Excerpts]

 

The goal of this text analysis project was to take the texts of the computer underground and to analyze them for the presence of a) knowledge about the Hacker Ethic and b) evolution of that Ethic. Many writers, such as Steven Levy, bemoan the fact that modern-day hackers (the computer underground) are not worthy of the name because they do not live up to the principles of the original Hacker Ethic, and as unethical individuals, should simply be called "computer terrorists" or "juvenile delinquents." I sought to examine whether 90s new hackers knew of the old Hacker Ethic, if they had added anything to it, and the reasons why they felt they acted differently from their predecessors. I broadened my text analysis to look at what they saw as ethical violations, and reasons why some might repudiate the Hacker Ethic or the idea of having an ethic.

 

Who is the Computer Underground?

 

I define the computer underground as members of the following six groups. Sometimes I refer to the CU as "90s hackers" or "new hackers," as opposed to old hackers, who are hackers (old sense of the term) from the 60s who subscribed to the original Hacker Ethic.

 

1. Hackers (Crackers, system intruders) - These are people who attempt to penetrate security systems on remote computers. This is the new sense of the term, whereas the old sense of the term simply referred to a person who was capable of creating hacks, or elegant, unusual, and unexpected uses of technology. Typical magazines (both print and online) read by hackers include 2600 and Iron Feather Journal.

 

2. Phreaks (Phone Phreakers, Blue Boxers) - These are people who attempt to use technology to explore and/or control the telephone system. Originally, this involved the use of "blue boxes" or tone generators, but as the phone company began using digital instead of electro-mechanical switches, the phreaks became more like hackers. Typical magazines read by Phreaks include Phrack, Line Noize, and New Fone Express.

 

3. Virus writers (also, creators of Trojans, worms, logic bombs) - These are people who write code which attempts to a) reproduce itself on other systems without authorization and b) often has a side effect, whether that be to display a message, play a prank, or trash a hard drive. Agents and spiders are essentially 'benevolent' virii, raising the question of how underground this activity really is. Typical magazines read by Virus writers include 40HEX.

 

4. Pirates - Piracy is sort of a non-technical matter. Originally, it involved breaking copy protection on software, and this activity was called "cracking." Nowadays, few software vendors use copy protection, but there are still various minor measures used to prevent the unauthorized duplication of software. Pirates devote themselves to thwarting these things and sharing commercial software freely with their friends. They usually read Pirate Newsletter and Pirate magazine.

 

5. Cypherpunks (cryptoanarchists) - Cypherpunks freely distribute the tools and methods for making use of strong encryption, which is basically unbreakable except by massive supercomputers. Because the NSA and FBI cannot break strong encryption (which is the basis of the PGP or Pretty Good Privacy), programs that employ it are classified as munitions, and distribution of algorithms that make use of it is a felony. Some cryptoanarchists advocate strong encryption as a tool to completely evade the State, by preventing any access whatsoever to financial or personal information. They typically read the Cypherpunks mailing list.

 

6. Anarchists - are committed to distributing illegal (or at least morally suspect) information, including but not limited to data on bombmaking, lockpicking, pornography, drug manufacturing, pirate radio, and cable and satellite TV piracy. In this parlance of the computer underground, anarchists are less likely to advocate the overthrow of government than the simple refusal to obey restrictions on distributing information. They tend to read Cult of the Dead Cow (CDC) and Activist Times Incorporated (ATI).

 

7. Cyberpunk - usually some combination of the above, plus interest in technological self-modification, science fiction of the Neuromancer genre, and interest in hardware hacking and "street tech." A youth subculture in its own right, with some overlaps with the "modern primitive" and "raver" subcultures.

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