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The Science of What Makes an Introvert and an Extrovert

The Science of What Makes an Introvert and an Extrovert | Coaching Perspectives | Scoop.it
Do you like to make small talk? Do you prefer one-to-one conversations or group activities? These questions and many others often show up in personality quizzes to reveal how introverted or extroverted you are, but what does that really mean?
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How Positive Thoughts Build Skills, Boost Health And Improve Work

How Positive Thoughts Build Skills, Boost Health And Improve Work | Coaching Perspectives | Scoop.it

Positive thinking sounds useful on the surface. (Most of us would prefer to be positive rather than negative.) But “positive thinking” is also a soft and fluffy term that’s easy to dismiss. In the real world, it rarely carries the same weight as words like “work ethic” or “persistence”. But those views may be changing.

 

Research is beginning to reveal that positive thinking is about much more than just being happy or displaying an upbeat attitude. Positive thoughts can actually create real value in your life and help you build skills that last much longer than a smile. The impact of positive thinking on your work, your health, and your life is being studied by people who are much smarter than me. One of these people is Barbara Fredrickson.

 

Fredrickson is a positive psychology researcher at the University of North Carolina and she published alandmark paper that provides surprising insights about positive thinking and its impact on your skills. Her work is among the most referenced and cited in her field and it is surprisingly useful in everyday life. Let’s talk about Fredrickson’s discovery and what it means for you…

What Negative Thoughts Do To Your Brain

Play along with me for a moment. Let’s say that you’re walking through the forest and suddenly a tiger steps onto the path ahead of you. When this happens, your brain registers a negative emotion — in this case, fear.

 

Researchers have long known that negative emotions program your brain to do a specific action. When that tiger crosses your path, for example, you run. The rest of the world doesn’t matter. You are focused entirely on the tiger, the fear it creates, and how you can get away from it.

 

In other words, negative emotions narrow your mind and focus your thoughts. At that same moment, you might have the option to climb a tree, pick up a leaf, or grab a stick — but your brain ignores all of those options because they seem irrelevant when a tiger is standing in front of you. This is a useful instinct if you’re trying to save life and limb, but in our modern society we don’t have to worry about stumbling across tigers in the wilderness. The problem is that your brain is still programmed to respond to negative emotions in the same way — by shutting off the outside world

and limiting the options you see around you.

 

For example, when you’re in a fight with someone, your anger and emotion might consume you to the point where you can’t think about anything else.

 

Or, when you are stressed out about everything you have to get done today, you may find it hard to actual start anything because you’re paralysed by how long your to-do list has become. Or, if you feel bad about not exercising or not eating healthy, all you think about is how little willpower you have, how you’re lazy, and how you don’t have any motivation.

 

In each case, your brain closes off from the outside world and focuses on the negative emotions of fear, anger, and stress — just like it did with the tiger. Negative emotions prevent your brain from seeing the other options and choices that surround you. It’s your survival instinct.

 

Now, let’s compare this to what positive emotions do to your brain. This is where Barbara Fredrickson returns to the story.

What Positive Thoughts Do To Your Brain

Fredrickson tested the impact of positive emotions on the brain by setting up a little experiment. During this experiment, she divided her research subjects into five groups and showed each group different film clips. The first two groups were shown clips that created positive emotions. Group 1 saw images that created feelings of joy. Group 2 saw images that created feelings of contentment. Group 3 was the control group. They saw images that were neutral and produced no significant emotion. The last two groups were shown clips that created negative emotions. Group 4 saw images that created feelings of fear. Group 5 saw images that created feelings of anger.

 

Afterward, each participant was asked to imagine themselves in a situation where similar feelings would arise and to write down what they would do.

Each participant was handed a piece of paper with 20 blank lines that started with the phrase: “I would like to…” Participants who saw images of fear and anger wrote down the fewest responses. Meanwhile, the participants who saw images of joy and contentment, wrote down a significantly higher number of actions that they would take, even when compared to the neutral group.

 

In other words, when you are experiencing positive emotions like joy, contentment and love, you will see more possibilities in your life. These findings were among the first that proved that positive emotions broaden your sense of possibility and open your mind up to more options. But that was just the beginning. The really interesting impact of positive thinking happens later…

How Positive Thinking Builds Your Skill Set

The benefits of positive emotions don’t stop after a few minutes of good feelings subside. In fact, the biggest benefit that positive emotions provide is an enhanced ability to build skills and develop resources for use later in life. Let’s consider a real-world example.

 

A child who runs around outside, swinging on branches and playing with friends, develops the ability to move athletically (physical skills), the ability to play with others and communicate with a team (social skills), and the ability to explore and examine the world around them (creative skills). In this way, the positive emotions of play and joy prompt the child to build skills that are useful and valuable in everyday life.

 

These skills last much longer than the emotions that initiated them. Years later, that foundation of athletic movement might develop into a scholarship as a college athlete or the communication skills may blossom into a job offer as a business manager. The happiness that promoted the exploration and creation of new skills has long since ended, but the skills themselves live on. Fredrickson refers to this as the “broaden and build” theory because positive emotions broaden your sense of possibilities and open your mind, which in turn allows you to build new skills and resources that can provide value in other areas of your life.

 

As we discussed earlier, negative emotions do the opposite. Why? Because building skills for future use is irrelevant when there is immediate threat or danger (like the tiger on the path). All of this research begs the most important question of all: if positive thinking is so useful for developing valuable skills and appreciating the Big Picture of life, how do you actually get yourself to be positive?

How To Increase Positive Thinking In Your Life

What you can do to increase positive emotions and take advantage of the “broaden and build” theory in your life? Well, anything that sparks feelings of joy, contentment, and love will do the trick. You probably know what things work well for you. Maybe it’s playing the guitar. Maybe it’s spending time with a certain person. Maybe it’s carving tiny wooden lawn gnomes.

 

That said, here are three ideas for you to consider…


1. Meditation: Recent research by Fredrickson and her colleagues has revealed that people who meditate daily display more positive emotions that those who do not. As expected, people who meditated also built valuable long-term skills. For example, three months after the experiment was over, the people who meditated daily continued to display increased mindfulness, purpose in life, social support, and decreased illness symptoms.

Note: If you’re looking for an easy way to start meditation, here is a 10–minute guided meditationthat was recently sent to me. Just close your eyes, breathe, and follow along.


2. Writing: This study, published in the Journal of Research in Personality, examined a group of 90 undergraduate students who were split into two groups. The first group wrote about an intensely positive experience each day for three consecutive days. The second group wrote about a control topic. Three months later, the students who wrote about positive experiences had better mood levels, fewer visits to the health centre, and experienced fewer illnesses. (This blew me away. Better health after just three days of writing about positive things!)

Note: I used to be very erratic in my writing, but now I publish a new article every Monday and Thursday. I’ve written more about my writing process and how you can stick to your goals in this article and this article.


3. Play: Schedule time to play into your life. We schedule meetings, conference calls, weekly events, and other responsibilities into our daily calendars… why not schedule time to play?

When was the last time you blocked out an hour on your calendar just to explore and experiment? When was the last time you intentionally carved out time to have fun? You can’t tell me that being happy is less important than your Wednesday meeting, and yet, we act like it is because we never give it a time and space to live on our calendars. Give yourself permission to smile and enjoy the benefits of positive emotion. Schedule time for play and adventure so that you can experience contentment and joy, and explore and build new skills.

Happiness Versus Success: Which Comes First?

There’s no doubt that happiness is the result of achievement. Winning a championship, landing a better job, finding someone you love — these things will bring joy and contentment to your life. But so often, we wrongly assume that this means happiness always follows success.

 

How often have you thought, “If I just get ___, then I’ll be set.”

Or, “Once I achieve ___, I’ll be satisfied.”

 

I know I’m guilty of putting off happiness until I achieve some arbitrary goal. But as Fredrickson’s “broaden and build” theory proves, happiness is essential to building the skills that allow for success. In other words, happiness is both the precursor to success and the result of it.

 

In fact, researchers have often noticed a compounding effect or an “upward spiral” that occurs with happy people. They are happy, so they develop new skills, those skills lead to new success, which results in more happiness, and the process repeats itself.

Where to Go From Here

Positive thinking isn’t just a soft and fluffy feel–good term. Yes, it’s great to simply “be happy”, but those moments of happiness are also critical for opening your mind to explore and build the skills that become so valuable in other areas of your life. Finding ways to build happiness and positive emotions into your life — whether it is through meditation, writing, playing a pickup basketball game, or anything else — provides more than just a momentary decrease in stress and a few smiles.

 

Periods of positive emotion and unhindered exploration are when you see the possibilities for how your past experiences fit into your future life, when you begin to develop skills that blossom into useful talents later on, and when you spark the urge for further exploration and adventure. To put it simply: seek joy, play often, and pursue adventure. Your brain will do the rest.


Via Jim Manske
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Ilene Reed's curator insight, July 4, 2013 8:05 PM
It is important to think positively. It is especially important to think positively before, during, and after a job interview. This article reflects some useful insight into what happens to us when we are positive.
Randy Bauer's curator insight, February 2, 2015 12:33 AM

1. Define the "Broaden and Build" Theory

2. For One week commit to Meditation, Writing and/or Play.

3. How might this exploration create positive change in your future?

 

http://bauerhealthaction.com/category/positive-well-being/

 

 

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How your nervous system sabotages your ability to relate

How your nervous system sabotages your ability to relate | Coaching Perspectives | Scoop.it

What if many of your troubles could be explained by an automatic reaction in your body to what’s happing around you? What if the cure for mental and emotional disorders ranging from autism to panic attacks lay in a new understanding and approach to the way the nervous system operates? Stephen Porges, Ph.D., thinks it could be so. Porges, professor of psychiatry at the University of Illinois, Chicago, and director for that institution’s Brain-Body Center, has spent much of his life searching for clues to the way the brain operates, and has developed what he has termed polyvagal theory.

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What Is Leadership?

What Is Leadership? | Coaching Perspectives | Scoop.it
Simone Joyaux offers notions of leadership around concepts of learning, change, stewardship, and organizational glue. Is leadership an art? A developed skill? Joyaux explains.
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RSA Animate - The Power of Networks

In this new RSA Animate, Manuel Lima, senior UX design lead at Microsoft Bing, explores the power of network visualisation to help navigate our complex moder...
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What would our communities and organizations be like if we accepted the network model instead of the tree model?

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How Coaching Can Impact Teachers, Principals, and Students

How Coaching Can Impact Teachers, Principals, and Students | Coaching Perspectives | Scoop.it
The following is an excerpt from my new book, The Art of Coaching: Effective Strategies for School Transformation.
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How to change your mind

How to change your mind | Coaching Perspectives | Scoop.it
Just before diving into East of Eden, Lily absorbed a novel of almost the opposite kind — short, contemporary, overstated — unclassic in every way. She really liked it and wanted me to read it.
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Transformational leadership has positive effects on employee well-being

Transformational leadership has positive effects on employee well-being | Coaching Perspectives | Scoop.it
A transformational leadership style -- valued for stimulating innovation and worker performance -- is also associated with increased well-being among employees, a new study finds.
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PTSD from Childhood Abuse Profoundly Alters Gene Expression, May Be Distinct Subtype

PTSD from Childhood Abuse Profoundly Alters Gene Expression, May Be Distinct Subtype | Coaching Perspectives | Scoop.it
Adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have distinct patterns of gene expression if they suffered childhood abuse. Epigenetics may be the key to detailing biological subtypes of PTSD.
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The Surprising Health Benefits Of Connecting With Everyone Around You

The Surprising Health Benefits Of Connecting With Everyone Around You | Coaching Perspectives | Scoop.it

An expert in the field of positive psychology explores the perks of bonding -- with everyone around you.


Via Jim Manske
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Jim Manske's curator insight, April 26, 2013 3:34 PM

A deep bow of gratitude to Barbara for her groundbreaking work in positivity and Love.

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3 Types of Leaders Who Never Succeed

3 Types of Leaders Who Never Succeed | Coaching Perspectives | Scoop.it
Do you rise again and again to the very edge of success, only to fall back down? You may be guilty of one of these leadership styles.
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Individuals -- and organizations -- can find themselves using one of these ineffective styles.  (Why?  I suspect at the root of each is really fear and uncertainty, even where they appear fearless and certain.)

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Critical Friends: The Benefits of Instructional Coaches

Critical Friends: The Benefits of Instructional Coaches | Coaching Perspectives | Scoop.it
Instructional coaches can have an invaluable impact on how educators engage their students in learning every day.
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How To Ask Great Coaching Questions

How To Ask Great Coaching Questions | Coaching Perspectives | Scoop.it
As a manager your best development tool is yourself as a coach. Coaching is about making people think for themselves instead of being given the answers. It therefore relies on you to ask great coaching questions.
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