Cilia Length Regulation
223 views | +0 today
Follow
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by adrian cuenca
Scoop.it!

Primary cilia elongation in response to interleukin-1 mediates the inflammatory response

Primary cilia elongation in response to interleukin-1 mediates the inflammatory response | Cilia Length Regulation | Scoop.it
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by adrian cuenca
Scoop.it!

Soluble levels of cytosolic tubulin regulate ciliary length control

Here we explore the importance of cytoskeletal dynamics in regulating cilia length. Using pharmacological approaches in different cell types, we demonstrate that actin depolymerization or stabilization and protein kinase A activation result in a rapid elongation of the primary cilium. The effects of pharmacological agents on cilia length are associated with a subsequent increase in soluble tubulin levels and can be impaired by depletion of soluble tubulin with taxol. In addition, subtle nocodazole treatment was able to induce ciliogenesis under conditions in which cilia are not normally formed and also increases cilia length on cells that have already established cilia. Together these data indicate that cilia length can be regulated through changes in either the actin or microtubule network and implicate a possible role for soluble tubulin levels in cilia length control.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by adrian cuenca
Scoop.it!

Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia | Cilia Length Regulation | Scoop.it

"Findings reported recently by Besschetnova et al. (2010 ) and Sharma et al. 2011 indicate that forskolin increases cilia length; however, this study has determined that cilia length can be

increased by treatment with lithium chloride (LiCl), but not by forskolin. Although LiCl is a potent inhibitor of GSK3β, which is known to affect tubulin dynamics (Hong et al., 1997 ), the proposed mechanism for LiCl here was through inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (AC3). The cause of this discrepancy is not known and may be related to the different cells used in this analyses.  LiCl was analysed in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, NIH3T3 cells, astrocytes, and PC12 cells, whereas analyses by Besschetnova et al. (2010 ) and Sharma et al. 2011 used renal or retinal-pigmented epithelia. In support of this possibility, another recent study has demonstrated that LiCl treatment can cause cilia elongation in some regions of the brain but not others, thus indicating that some cilia respond differently to LiCl than others (Miyoshi et al., 2009 )." (Sharma et al. 2011)

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by adrian cuenca
Scoop.it!

Functional genomic screen for modulators of ciliogenesis and cilium length

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by adrian cuenca
Scoop.it!

A chemical screen identifies class a g-protein coupled receptors as regulators of cilia.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by adrian cuenca
Scoop.it!

Identification of signaling pathways regulating primary cilium length and flow-mediated adaptation

Identification of signaling pathways regulating primary cilium length and flow-mediated adaptation | Cilia Length Regulation | Scoop.it

Here we demonstrate that decreased intracellular calcium (Ca2+) or increased cyclic AMP (cAMP), and subsequent PKA activation, increases primary cilium length in mammalian epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Anterograde intraflagellar transport is sped up in lengthened cilia, potentially increasing delivery flux of cilium components. The cilium length response creates a negative feedback loop whereby fluid shear-mediated deflection of the primary cilium, which decreases intracellular cAMP, leads to cilium shortening and thus decreases mechanotransductive signaling. This adaptive response is blocked when the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) gene products, polycystin-1 or -2, are reduced. Dynamic regulation of cilium length is thus intertwined with cilium-mediated signaling and provides a natural braking mechanism in response to external stimuli that may be compromised in PKD.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by adrian cuenca
Scoop.it!

Mechanisms regulating cilia growth and cilia function in endothelial cells

Mechanisms regulating cilia growth and cilia function in endothelial cells | Cilia Length Regulation | Scoop.it

For the first time, we show that intracellular cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulate both cilia length and function in vascular endothelial cells. Although calcium-dependent protein kinase modulates cilia length, it does not play a significant role in cilia function. Cilia length regulation also involves mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1), and cofilin. Furthermore, cofilin regulates cilia length through actin rearrangement. Overall, our study suggests that the molecular interactions between cilia function and length can be independent of one another. Although PKA regulates both cilia length and function, changes in cilia length by MAPK, PP-1, or cofilin do not have a direct correlation to changes in cilia function. We propose that cilia length and function are regulated by distinct, yet complex intertwined signaling pathways.

more...
No comment yet.