Chinese American history
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Discrimination against Chinese Americans and Asians

Discrimination against Chinese Americans and Asians | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Anti-Chinese USA: a long history of US policies and race laws sanctioning discrimination and the systematic persecution of ethnic Chinese and Asian immigrants.
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A review of major developments involving racial prejudice toward Chinese in the U. S.

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Chinese American history
Websites related to the history of Chinese in North America
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Chow Chop Suey - Food and the Chinese American Journey | Columbia University Press

Chow Chop Suey - Food and the Chinese American Journey | Columbia University Press | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Anne Mendelson. Chinese food first became popular in America under the shadow of violence against Chinese aliens, a despised racial minority ineligible for United States citizenship. The founding of late-nineteenth-c
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A unique and thorough examination of the origins and development of Chinese restaurant food in the U. S. (and Canada, for that matter)by food historian Anne Mendelsohn.. She starts with a detailed history of Chinese immigrants in the U. S. starting from the mid 19th century to provide a context for understanding the significance of Chinese restaurant food and how it is prepared, using "chop suey" as the foundation and emphasizing the cooking method (chow, which came to be awkwardly translated as stir-fry) rather than the dish, chop suey, which in reality is not a specific dish with a set of fixed ingredients as providers of recipes imply.
Contrary to the rise of popularity of Chinese-Americanized food over the past century, it is important to note that it was derided and rejected initially because of its unfamiliar ingredients, cooking method, and unpleasant smell, at least to westerners. With the rapidly growing Chinese, and other Asian populations in many cities, newer Chinese restaurateurs are no longer finding it necessary to tailor their cooking to suit nonAsian tastes as in the past. Cuisines from many regions of China have arrived to compete with the original Cantonese dishes.
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The View of Chinese railroad workers in America - As Seen in China

The View of Chinese railroad workers in America - As Seen in China | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Chinese railroad workers played a crucial part in establishing a modern USA. Yet their endeavour and contribution have long been buried and hidden throughout the history. In this edition of Ink&Quill, we tap into some of those long-forgotten memories and push aside a cobweb of history to find out the truth.
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Historians, archeologists, and other scholars  in the U.S. have made significant discoveries about the role of Chinese immigrants in completing the western branch of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1869. 
Less is known about how scholars in China view this major achievement of Chinese emigrants to the U.S. (and Canada) to work on railroad building. This link provides one such view, and provides some information and viewpoints that were unfamiliar to me.
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The Blue, the Gray and the Chinese

The Blue, the Gray and the Chinese | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
American Civil War Participants of Chinese Descent
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Fascinating stories of Chinese in the US who fought, on both sides, in the American Civil War. The National Park Service published a book, Asians and Pacific Islanders and the Civl War, in 2015, which is featured, but the blogger, Alex Jay, includes detailed accounts of the experiences of other Chinese men who fought in the war.
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Rediscovered: An Eloquent Chinese Voice Against Exclusion | Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center NOW

Rediscovered: An Eloquent Chinese Voice Against Exclusion | Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center NOW | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Chinese-American voices were rarely heard during the national debate over Chinese exclusion that swept the United States in the 1870s and early 1880s. It w
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Wong Ar Chong, a 33 year old Boston merchant was an "unsung hero" who articulated an eloquent set of arguments agains the exclusion of Chinese immigrants sent to a sympathetic abolitionist, William Lloyd Garrison..  His pleas did not succeed, and in 1882, led to Senator James G. Blaine, (Maine, R) the Chinese ExclusionAct was passed.
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British Chinese Heritage Project

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NOT about Chinese in the U. S. but this oral history project in Birmingham, England about the British Chinese community bears strong similarity to the issues that Chinese faced in the U.S. and other countries over the past 150+ years.oral history project in Birmingham, England about the British Chinese community bears strong similarity to the issues that Chinese faced in the U.S. and other countries over the past 150+ years.

There is an excellent video on this page,.



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Flying Tigers: The Story Of The 14th Air Force – Video Made In 1945

This is a 1945 historical film called Flying Tigers: The Story Of The 14th Air Force. It is the amazing story of a group of americans in a strange land.
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 detailed 1945 footage of the background and significant contribution of the fabled "Flying Tigers" (a volunteer force of American pilots) toward defeating the Japanese in control of the Burma Road, which was critical for China's survival in WW II.  Gripping footage of aerial combat and suffering of refugees.
"The most interesting part of this video to us is the work that went in to getting the planes, bombs, fuel, and other stuff to China by land. It was multiple rail roads, ox carts, guys carrying stuff with sticks, amazing. The video is long but it is one that had us hanging on every word."
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How Chop Suey Saved San Francisco's Chinatown [Chinese Food: An All-American Cuisine, Pt. 1] | AJ+

Chinese-Americans have a long history of facing exclusion in the U.S. As a means of survival, many first-wave Chinese immigrants opened restaurants an
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First of a series on Chinese American history that connects Chinese food and Chinese communities.  This episode centers on San Francisco, and the role of chop suey in the development of Chinatown as a tourist mecca for food.
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Gong Lum v. Rice: The Forgotten Case for Equal Education in the Jim Crow South

Gong Lum v. Rice: The Forgotten Case for Equal Education in the Jim Crow South | Chinese American history | Scoop.it

An impressive research compilation by Cameron Tichy (apparently a high school student) created in 2016 about the landmark 1927 U. S. Supreme Court case, Gong Lum v. Rice, that upheld the Mississippi decision that ruled Chinese children could not attend white schools.

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An impressive website created in 2016 that is an accurate and comprehensive presentation of the landmark 1927 U.S. Supreme Court case, Gong Lum v. Rice, that upheld school segregation of Chinese school children, denying Martha and Bertha Lum admission to the white school in Rosedale, MS. in 1923.( It appears to be the creation of a high school student who was a Chinese immigrant, Cameron Tichy.)
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Chinese Laborers Built Sonoma’s Wineries. Racist Neighbors Drove Them Out

Chinese Laborers Built Sonoma’s Wineries. Racist Neighbors Drove Them Out | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Enjoying a chardonnay or cabernet sauvignon? In the 1800s, Chinese immigrants helped introduce those iconic varietals to California's wine country. But as
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Ho Po, a Chinese labor contractor from San Francisco, sent 150 of his countrymen to build Buena Vista, Sonoma’s oldest commercial winery.  Workers literally dug the t 15-by-30-foot caves of the winery out of rock by hand,”  They did backbreaking, physical labor, as well as horticultural work that required significant knowledge and skill.  Between 1856 and 1869, Chinese planted the majority of Sonoma County’s 3.2 million grapevines replacing old grapes with with Riesling, Muscatel, Traminer, Black Hamburg, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and other fine European varietals.

However, as the vineyards grew, backlash against the Chinese increased as anti-Chinese leagues were formed in many counties, with whites accusing Chinese of undercutting wages.
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Immigrant Voices: Discover Immigrant Stories from Angel Island

Immigrant Voices: Discover Immigrant Stories from Angel Island | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Discover the stories of Pacific Coast Immigrants from around the world.
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All Chinese immigrants entering the U. S. through San Francisco between 1910 and 1940 had to be detained and interrogated intensely at the Angel Island Immigration Station. The stories of the experiences of some of these immigrants are now archived and give readers a vivid understanding of the gauntlet that they have to face.  Many did not succeed and were denied admission.
Details of the ordeal faced by Louie Quan Bang who was not allowed to reenter the U. S. after he left California to visit China illustrate the tortuous and intricate maze of immigration.  https://www.aiisf.org/immigrant-voices/stories-by-author/1042-student-louie-quan-bang-barred-from-returning-to-the-us/

Note: The story of Louie Quan' Bang's fate is a third person account, but most of the stories are first-person accounts.
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History of Chinese in Prescott, AZ

History of Chinese in Prescott, AZ | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Chinese began to settle in Prescott, AZ. in the 1860s even though they were hardly welcome and faced racism..
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Chinese began to settle  in Prescott, AZ. in the 1860s even though they were hardly welcome and faced racism..   Some of them may have been laid-off laborers from the Transcontinental Railroad  in 1869.  They worked as produce farmers, miners, cooks in saloons and restaurants, domestic servants, laundry owners, and even a faro dealer.
Various factors contributed to the departure of the Chinese from Prescott. In 1886 Stephen B. Marcou started a campaign against the Chinese and established an Anti-Chinese League. In 1891 Granite Creek overran its banks and flooded Chinatown. The great fire on July 14, 1900, destroyed Whiskey Row and the red light district with their restaurants, hotels, saloons, stores, sporting parlors and other businesses which were owned by or which employed Chinese. Further erosion of employment opportunities occurred in 1907 when gambling was declared illegal in Arizona Territory. In 1900 the Chinese population peaked at 229.

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New York Chinatown's Historic Public School 23

In 1984 the New York Chinatown History Project took up residence in four rooms of 70 Mulberry Street. The museum was on the second floor; its gallery space designed by the NYC architects Billie Tsien and Tod Williams. 70 Mulberry Street was formerly Public School 23. The Norman Romanesque Revival building was constructed in 1892, and was one of the first school buildings designed by C.B.J. Snyder, a noted architect and Superintendent of School Buildings for the New York City Board of Education from 1891 to 1923. Schools designed by Snyder in other parts of the city have been landmarked (see the Census listing for P.S. 64/ El Bohio). Until it closed in 1976, many of Chinatown's children attended school at P.S. 23. The New York Chinatown History Project, which was subsequently named the Museum of Chinese in America (MoCA), hosted an exhibit called What Did You Learn In School Today? P.S. 23, 1893-1976.
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Chin Gee Hee, Labor Contractor and Engineer

Chin Gee Hee, Labor Contractor and Engineer | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Chin Gee Hee  was a Chinese merchant, labor contractor, and railway entrepreneur, who made his fortune in Seattle, Washington before returning to his native village in Guangdong province, where he continued his successes including the building of the first railway in Guangdong..
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Labor contractors, such as Chin Gee Hee in the Pacific Northwest,  played a key role in bringing Chinese laborers from China that is not fully recognized in accounts of the Chinese diaspora.
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"Chin Gee Hee (June 22, 1844 – 1929), courtesy name Chàngtíng (暢庭), Cheun Gee Yee, was a Chinese merchant, labor contractor, and railway entrepreneur, who made his fortune in Seattle, Washington before returning to his native village in Guangdong province, where he continued his successes." He built the Sun Ning Railway, the first in Guangdong, with funds raised mostly from overseas Chinese.
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Chinatown's Suffragist, Pastor, and Community Organizer

Chinatown's Suffragist, Pastor, and Community Organizer | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Why Mabel Lee left behind great expectations in China for her American immigrant community.
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In the 1920s, the Chinese American population had relatively few Christians in the U. S.  Mabel Lee, daughter of Lee To, the pastor at the  First Chinese Baptist Church in New York City, assumed his role upon his early and unexpected death in 1924. A graduate of Columbia University with a PhD in economic history in 1921, she was a community leader, and suffragist, for more than 40 years and led this church which still exists.

Under her leadership, she helped make the Chinese mission a self-supporting and independent congregation by growing its membership and raising support from the wider community.
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美洲华人历史博物馆

美洲华人历史博物馆 | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
A young Chinese blogger visited the U.S. and described what she learned about the history of Chinese in America during her visit to the Museum of Chinese in America in NYC.A young Chinese blogger visited the U.S. and described what she learned about the history of Chinese in America during her visit to the Museum of Chinese in America in NYC.
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Interesting to see the impressions of a  young Chinese woman who visited the U.S. in 2014  shared on a post on her travel blog about the history of Chinese in America that she saw on  her visit to the Museum of Chinese in America in NYC.
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Chinese American Eyes

Chinese American Eyes | Chinese American history | Scoop.it

Famous, forgotten, well-known, and obscure visual artists of Chinese descent in the United States     (above graphic about the Boxer rebellion was done in 1900 for the Chinese Weekly Herald newspaper by Sun Yow Pang)

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An informative and unique encyclopedic database of "famous, forgotten, well-known, and obscure visual artists of Chinese descent in the US compiled diligently by Alex Jay.  He includes many original biographical documents such as immigration and census records as well as graphics of the artist.

Right hand column lists chronologically from 1861, followed by artist names in alphabetical order.
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Why Chinese People Came To The United States | AJ+

There are now more than 4 million Chinese people living in the United States. Surprisingly, most of these immigrants came in the last few decades, startin
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A brief overview of the history of Chinese immigration in the U. S. that explains the different patterns and motivations for Chinese to leave China at different times. 
Part of a series produced and narrated by Dolli Li. for AJ+, the online documentary series for Al Jazeera Media Network.
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Of Race and Reconciliation: Tacoma and the Chinese

KBTC presents and hour long program called, Of Race and Reconciliation. It chronicles the Chinese experience in America around the year 1885. That was th
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In the last quarter of the 19th century, Chinese immigrant laborers were subjected to extreme racism and violence in many parts of the American west, and one of the most egregious places was in Tacoma, Washington.  In 1885, a few years after the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Law in 1882, the citizens of Tacoma gave the Chinese a month to leave the town. One night a mob forced all remaining Chinese to leave Tacoma by  train to Portland. The areas where the Chinese had lived were burned to the ground.  This approach served as a model for other cities to follow, and it was referred to as the  "Tacoma Method."

Several cities that had expelled Chinese during this period have created events and monuments to promote 'reconciliation' between these communities and the Chinese.
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New York Chinatown's Historic Public School 23

In 1984 the New York Chinatown History Project took up residence in four rooms of 70 Mulberry Street. The museum was on the second floor; its gallery space designed by the NYC architects Billie Tsien and Tod Williams. 70 Mulberry Street was formerly Public School 23. The Norman Romanesque Revival building was constructed in 1892, and was one of the first school buildings designed by C.B.J. Snyder, a noted architect and Superintendent of School Buildings for the New York City Board of Education from 1891 to 1923. Schools designed by Snyder in other parts of the city have been landmarked (see the Census listing for P.S. 64/ El Bohio). Until it closed in 1976, many of Chinatown's children attended school at P.S. 23. The New York Chinatown History Project, which was subsequently named the Museum of Chinese in America (MoCA), hosted an exhibit called What Did You Learn In School Today? P.S. 23, 1893-1976.
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The Untold Story Of America's Southern Chinese [Chinese Food: An All-American Cuisine, Pt. 2] | AJ+

There's a rather unknown community of Chinese-Americans who've lived in the Mississippi Delta for more than a hundred years. They played an important rol
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A look back at the legacy of a unique Chinese American community that once flourished despite long odds in the Jim Crow Mississippi Delta operating family-run grocery stores.  Several Chinese who grew up in these conditions and still live there provide rich details by sharing their memories.
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Home

Home | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Chinese students at M.I.T., 1877-1931
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A comprehensive compilation of biographical and academic backgrounds and achievements of pioneering students at MIT from China in the late 19th century by MIT Professor Emma Teng. 

Each photograph on the home screen is actually a menu item, which when clicked will provide much information about the lives and experiences of these remarkable young men.

Some of the students were  government sponsored with specific educational goals in mind. Under the "Self-strengthening" movement of the late 19th century, Chinese reformers promoted the acquisition of Western scientific, military and technical knowledge as the key to saving China from imperialist aggression.

Other students were mostly sons of merchants, bankers and compradores who recognized the practical value of Western scientific and engineering education. Families from this social stratum, many of them Christians, could be considered the "early adopters" of Western Learning (西學).
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How The White Establishment Waged A ‘War’ On Chinese Restaurants In The U.S. in Early 20th century

How The White Establishment Waged A ‘War’ On Chinese Restaurants In The U.S. in Early 20th century | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Though Chinese restaurants are now an American staple, during the late 1800s and early 1900s, some Americans staged a multipronged effort to shut them down.
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As Chinese restaurants expanded rapidly in the early 20th century, they were seen as threats to white America restaurants and their workers.  Laws directed against Chinese immigration and tighter regulation of Chinese restaurants were challenges for the Chinese. Fears of Chinese and white sexual contact led tin some places o laws prohibiting white women working in Chinese restaurants.
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Angel Island: America’s Other Immigrant Isle

Angel Island: America’s  Other Immigrant Isle | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
On Angel Island, exclusion, not admission, was the name of the immigration game
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Most Chinese who immigrated to the U. S. from 1910-1940 were processed at the Angel Island Immigration Station in San Francisco bay. Historian Judy Yung describes its history and the experiences of the Chinese, many who were detained for long periods and subjected to intense scrutiny of their identities and documents, in marked contrast to the easier entry procedures for most Anglo immigrants at Ellis Island in New York harbor.
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Chop Suey on San Francisco Street : How George Park beat anti-Chinese laws and started a prominent Santa Fe family

Chop Suey on San Francisco Street : How George Park beat anti-Chinese laws and started a prominent Santa Fe family | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
The woman watched as soldiers confiscated her family’s land and beat her husband to death—another horror in the bloody land reforms of Chairman Mao Zedong’s Communist Party.
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There were few Chinese in Sante Fe, New Mexico, during the Chinese Exclusion era, but George Park and his family had a restaurant there from the mid 1920s until 1975, originally named the Majestic but renamed in 1937 as the New Canton. This fascinating article describes in detail the immigration story of the family and how they became accepted in the Sante Fe community.
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Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882-1943 

Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882-1943  | Chinese American history | Scoop.it
Winston Ho's compilation of  Youtube videos related to the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.
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A compilation by historian Winston Ho of over 20 videos from various sources dealing with aspects of the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882-1943) that had profound and long lasting negative consequences for Chinese in America.  (A similar law existed in Canada)
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