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New rapid liquid-phase 3-D printing technique was inspired by ‘Terminator 2​’

New rapid liquid-phase 3-D printing technique was inspired by ‘Terminator 2​’ | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it

In an iconic scene in the movie "Terminator 2," the robotic villain T-1000 rises fully formed from a puddle of metallic goo. The newest innovation in 3-D printing looks pretty similar, and that's no mistake: Its creators were inspired by that very scene.


The company Carbon3D came out of two years of stealth mode Monday night with a simultaneous TED Talk and Science paper publication. Their new tech, which they say could be used in industrial applications within the next year, makes coveted 3-D printers the likes of those sold by MakerBotlook like child's play.


"We think that popular 3-D printing is actually misnamed — it's really just 2-D printing over and over again," said Joseph DeSimone, a professor of chemistry at University of North Carolina and North Carolina State as well as one of Carbon3D's co-founders. "The strides in that area have mostly been driven by mechanical engineers figuring our how to make things layer by layer to precisely create an object. We're two chemists and a physicist, so we came in with a different perspective."


Just as the evil T-1000 rises from its puddle of metal alloys, objects created by the new printer seem to ooze into existence from the ether. They come out fast, too: 25 to 100 times faster than anything on the market now, according to the study published in Science.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Germ-killing molecules identified in alligator blood

Germ-killing molecules identified in alligator blood | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it

Thick armor and jaws packed full of teeth aren't the only defences that alligators and crocodiles have. They also have formidable immune systems and some of the protective molecules that enable this have now been identified. Their discovery in the blood of the American alligator might even pave the way for a new generation of antibiotics.


Crocodilians have existed on Earth for at least 37 million years. Over the course of their evolution, they have developed a very strong defence against infection. "They inflict wounds on each other from which they frequently recover without complications from infection despite the fact that the environments in which they live are less than sterile," says Barney Bishop of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia, co-author of the new study.


American alligators have an enviable innate immune system, the "primitive" first line of defence that is shared by all vertebrates. In 2008, chemists in Louisiana found that blood serum taken from the reptiles destroyed 23 strains of bacteria and depleted reserves of the HIV virus. The germ-killing molecules were identified as enzymes that break down a type of lipid.


Although their results have yet to lead to any new antibiotics, enzymes aren't the only pathogen-busting molecules that alligators have up their sleeve. Bishop's group has now identified and isolated peptides known as a CAMPs or cationic antimicrobial peptides. These molecules are positively charged so the team developed nanoparticles to electrostatically pick them out of the complex mix of proteins in alligator blood plasma.


In total, the group fished out 45 peptides. Of these, they chemically synthesised eight and evaluated their antimicrobial properties. Five killed some of the E.colibacteria they were presented with, while the other three destroyed most of theE.coli and also showed some activity against bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can cause inflammation and sepsis, and Staphylococcus aureus, which can trigger skin infections, sinusitis and food poisoning. So far, the strains have performed well, says Bishop. Identifying novel antimicrobial peptides is urgently needed because of the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, says Guangshun Wang at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. "Because of the novelty of the sequences," he says, "these peptides provide new templates for developing antimicrobials to combat superbugs."


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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New Artificial Lighting Tricks Human Brain into Seeing Sunlight

New Artificial Lighting Tricks Human Brain into Seeing Sunlight | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it

Access to natural daylight has long been one of the biggest limiting factors in building design – some solutions involve reflecting real daylight from the outdoors, but until now no solution has been able to mimic natural refraction processes and fool our minds into thinking we are surrounded by actual sunlight. Developed by CoeLux in Italy, this new form of artificial light is able to dupe humans, cameras and computers alike using a thin coating of nanoparticules to simulate Rayleigh scattering, a natural process that takes place in Earth’s atmosphere causing diffuse sky radiation. It was not enough to make the lights brighter or bluer – variegation and other elements were needed as well.

 

The result is an effect that carries the same qualities we are used to experiencing outside, from color to light quality. The company also boasts that these photos are untouched and that their fake skylights in showrooms fool people in person just as effectively, appearing to have infinite depth just like one would expect looking up into the sky.

 

The potential applications are effectively endless, from lighting deep indoor spaces to replacing natural light in places where winters drag on and daylight hours are short. The company sees opportunities in areas like healthcare facilities where it may not be possible to put patients near real windows for spatial or health reasons. Currently, three lighting types are on offer to simulate various broad regions – Mediterranean, Tropical and Nordic – featuring various balances of light, shade, hue and contrast. They are also working on additional offerings, including simulated daytime sequences (sunrise through sunset) and color variations to reflect different kinds of weather conditions.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Sweet Science: Dancing Conversation Hearts

Sweet Science: Dancing Conversation Hearts | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
A Valentine's Day chemistry challenge from Science Buddies
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Researchers measure how fast electrons move through single atomic layers

Researchers measure how fast electrons move through single atomic layers | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it

How fast do electrons whiz through the atomic layers of a crystal lattice? A team of scientists led by researchers from the Technische Universität München (TUM) joined by colleagues from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ), the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich and the Technical University of Vienna has now investigated this fundamental question. The researchers measured the time electrons needed to travel through a film consisting of a few layers a of magnesium atoms.

The time frames, in which electrons travel within atoms, are unfathomably short. For example, electrons excited by light change their quantum-mechanical location within mere attoseconds – an attosecond corresponds to a billionth of a billionth of a second. But how fast do electrons whiz across distances corresponding to the diameter of individual atomic layers? Such distances are but a few billionths of a metre. An international team of researchers led by Reinhard Kienberger, Professor for Laser and X-Ray Physics at the TUM and Head of a Research Group at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics investigated the travel times of electrons over these extremely short distances.


To do so, the physicists applied a defined number of layers of magnesium atoms on top of a tungsten crystal. The researchers directed two pulses of light at these samples. The first pulse lasted approximately 450 attoseconds, at frequencies within the extreme ultraviolet. This light pulse penetrated the material and released an electron from a magnesium atom in the layer system as well as from an atom in the underlying tungsten crystal. Both the electrons that were set free stemmed from the immediate vicinity of the nucleus.


Once released, the "tungsten electron" and the "magnesium electron" travelled through the crystal to the surface at which point they left the solid body. (electrons from the tungsten crystal managed to penetrate up to four layers of magnesium atoms.) There, the particles were captured by the electric field of the second pulse, an infrared wave train lasting less than five femtoseconds.


As the "tungsten electron" and the "magnesium electron" reached the surface at different times due to different path lengths, they experienced the second pulse of infrared light at different times. That is, they were exposed to different strengths of the oscillating electric field. As a result, both particles were accelerated to varying degrees. From the resulting differences in the energy of the electrons, the researchers were able to determine how long an electron needed to pass through a single layer of atoms.


The measurements showed that upon release a "tungsten electron" possesses a speed of about 5,000 kilometers per second. When travelling through a layer of magnesium atoms it is delayed by approximately 40 attoseconds, i.e., this is exactly the time required to travel through this layer.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Why pesticides are so harmful to bees - Telegraph.co.uk

Why pesticides are so harmful to bees - Telegraph.co.uk | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
New concerns have been raised on tests of pesticides that are harmful for bees, we explain how important an issue this is
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Mirrors could replace air conditioning by beaming heat into space - The Guardian

Mirrors could replace air conditioning by beaming heat into space - The Guardian | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
Researchers have created a mirror that not only reflects 97% of light but also radiates heat into the cold depths of the universe
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Organic Coating Could Boost Photovoltaics' Conversion Efficiencies Far Beyond Today's Limits - IEEE Spectrum

Organic Coating Could Boost Photovoltaics' Conversion Efficiencies Far Beyond Today's Limits - IEEE Spectrum | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
Hybrid organic-inorganic material could create photovoltaics with 46-percent conversion efficiency

Via André Michel
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Polymer's Properties Could Mean Fewer Ice-related Accidents - Lab Manager Magazine

Polymer's Properties Could Mean Fewer Ice-related Accidents - Lab Manager Magazine | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
What started out several years ago as chance favoring the prepared mind has blossomed into a licensed partnership for UTSA graduates Mark Penick
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AkzoNobel Combs in New Partially Naturally Derived Hair Fixative, BIOSTYLE ... - WorldPressOnline (press release)

AkzoNobel Combs in New Partially Naturally Derived Hair Fixative, BIOSTYLE ... - WorldPressOnline (press release) | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
A sustainable styling solution, BIOSTYLE™ XH polymer offers superior hold and imparts clarity to hair gels and other styling aids without compromising on product aesthetics or economics
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A battery made up of billions of nanoscale batteries that could fit on a postage stamp

A battery made up of billions of nanoscale batteries that could fit on a postage stamp | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it

Imagine a battery made up of billions of nanoscale batteries — the ultimate miniaturization of energy storage. That’s what researchers at the University of Maryland (UMD) have invented, using a structure based on a nanopore: a tiny hole in a ceramic sheet that holds electrolyte to carry the electrical charge between nanotube electrodes at either end. Chanyuan Liu, a Ph.D. student in materials science & engineering, says that it can be fully charged in 12 minutes and can be recharged thousands of time.


Many millions of these nanobatteries can be crammed into one larger battery the size of a postage stamp. Each nanopore is shaped just like the others, which allows them to pack the tiny thin batteries together efficiently. They are all connected in parallel, each composed of an anode, a cathode, and a liquid electrolyte confined within the nanopores of anodic aluminium oxide, The space inside the holes is so small that the space they take up, all added together, would be no more than a grain of sand.


Now that the scientists have the battery working and have demonstrated the concept, they have also identified improvements that could make the next version 10 times more powerful. The next step to commercialization: manufacturing the battery in large batches.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Why "Interstellar" Belongs in the Pantheon of the Best "Realistic" Science ... - Smithsonian

Consequence of Sound
Why "Interstellar" Belongs in the Pantheon of the Best "Realistic" Science ...
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Ada Yonath – The Pioneer

Ada Yonath – The Pioneer | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
What do the polar bear, a fine head of hair and the ribosome have in common? A Nobel Prize story. There was nothing to predict this career. Ada Yonath was born on 22nd June 1939 into a poor family of Zionist Jewish immigrants in Jerusalem. At the age of 11 she had already been semi-orphaned […]
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The future of electronics could ultimately lead to electrical conductors that are 100% efficient

The future of electronics could ultimately lead to electrical conductors that are 100% efficient | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it

The future of electronics could lie in a material from its past, as researchers from The Ohio State University work to turn germanium—the material of 1940s transistors—into a potential replacement for silicon. At the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting, assistant professor of chemistryJoshua Goldberger reported progress in developing a form of germanium called germanane.


In 2013, Goldberger’s lab at Ohio State became the first to succeed at creating one-atom-thick sheet of germanane—a sheet so thin, it can be thought of as two-dimensional. Since then, he and his team have been tinkering with the atomic bonds across the top and bottom of the sheet, and creating hybrid versions of the material that incorporate other atoms such as tin.


The goal is to make a material that not only transmits electrons 10 times faster than silicon, but is also better at absorbing and emitting light—a key feature for the advancement of efficient LEDs and lasers. “We’ve found that by tuning the nature of these bonds, we can tune the electronic structure of the material. We can increase or decrease the energy it absorbs,” Goldberger said. “So potentially we could make a material that traverses the entire electromagnetic spectrum, or absorbs different colors, depending on those bonds.”


As they create the various forms of germanane, the researchers are trying to exploit traditional silicon manufacturing methods as much as possible, to make any advancements easily adoptable by industry.


Aside from these traditional semiconductor applications, there have been numerous predictions that a tin version of the material could conduct electricity with 100 percent efficiency at room temperature. The heavier tin atom allows the material to become a 2D “topological insulator,” which conducts electricity only at its edges., Goldberger explained. Such a material is predicted to occur only with specific bonds across the top and bottom surface, such as a hydroxide bond.


Goldberger’s lab has verified that this theoretical material can be chemically stable. His lab has created germanane with up to 9 percent tin atoms incorporated, and shown that tin atoms have strong preference to bond to hydroxide above and below the sheet. His group is currently developing routes towards preparing the pure tin 2D derivatives.



Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Public and Scientists’ Views on Science and Society

Public and Scientists’ Views on Science and Society | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
The public and scientists express strikingly different views about science-related issues, yet both groups agree that K-12 STEM education in America falls behind other nations.
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Laser-generated surface structures create extremely hydrophobic metals

Laser-generated surface structures create extremely hydrophobic metals | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
Scientists at the University of Rochester have used lasers to transform metals into extremely water repellent, or super-hydrophobic, materials without the need for temporary coatings.

 

Super-hydrophobic materials are desirable for a number of applications such as rust prevention, anti-icing, or even in sanitation uses. However, as Rochester's Chunlei Guo explains, most current hydrophobic materials rely on chemical coatings. In a paper published today in the Journal of Applied Physics, Guo and his colleague at the University's Institute of Optics, Anatoliy Vorobyev, describe a powerful and precise laser-patterning technique that creates an intricate pattern of micro- and nanoscale structures to give the metals their new properties. This work builds on earlier research by the team in which they used a similar laser-patterning technique that turned metals black. Guo states that using this technique they can create multifunctional surfaces that are not only super-hydrophobic but also highly-absorbent optically.


Guo adds that one of the big advantages of his team's process is that "the structures created by our laser on the metals are intrinsically part of the material surface." That means they won't rub off. And it is these patterns that make the metals repel water.


"The material is so strongly water-repellent, the water actually gets bounced off. Then it lands on the surface again, gets bounced off again, and then it will just roll off from the surface," said Guo, professor of optics at the University of Rochester. That whole process takes less than a second. As the water bounces off the super-hydrophobic surfaces, it also collects dust particles and takes them along for the ride. To test this self-cleaning property, Guo and his team took ordinary dust from a vacuum cleaner and dumped it onto the treated surface. Roughly half of the dust particles were removed with just three drops of water. It took only a dozen drops to leave the surface spotless. Better yet, it remains completely dry.

Guo is excited by potential applications of super-hydrophobic materials in developing countries. It is this potential that has piqued the interest of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which has supported the work.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Solid Nature of Glass Identified with Computer Simulations or Atomic Movements

Solid Nature of Glass Identified with Computer Simulations or Atomic Movements | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
By Will Soutter Scientists from Kyoto University and the University of Bristol have harnessed information theory and computer simulation to solve the long-running mystery of whether glass ever stops...
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3 Researchers Just Won $3 Million For Their Game-Changing Physics Finding - Business Insider

3 Researchers Just Won $3 Million For Their Game-Changing Physics Finding - Business Insider | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
Study the universe and win millions. Sweet deal.
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Elsewhere in Science, 28 November 2014 - ScienceCareers.org

Elsewhere in Science, 28 November 2014 - ScienceCareers.org | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
Elsewhere in Science, 28 November 2014
ScienceCareers.org
Each week, the Science family of publications publishes articles that are likely to be of interest to Science Careers readers.
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Turkish Ministry for Ecology approves nuclear power plant project - vestnik kavkaza

Turkish Ministry for Ecology approves nuclear power plant project - vestnik kavkaza | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
Turkish Ministry for Ecology approves nuclear power plant project
vestnik kavkaza
The Turkish Ministry for Ecology has passed a report on the ecological impact of the first nuclear power plant Akkuyu.
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How polymer banknotes were invented - Phys.Org

How polymer banknotes were invented - Phys.Org | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
The Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) and CSIRO's 20-year 'bank project' resulted in the introduction of the polymer banknote – the first ever of its kind, and the most secure form of currency in the world.
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Inexpensive Semiconducting Polymers Efficiently Transport Electrons - Azom.com

Inexpensive Semiconducting Polymers Efficiently Transport Electrons - Azom.com | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
A team of researchers led by Professor Henning Sirringhaus at the University of Cambridge, have discovered a new class of semiconducting polymers that can efficiently transport electrons despite their disorganised internal structure.
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Flexible polymer can interact with nerves - Pune Mirror

Flexible polymer can interact with nerves - Pune Mirror | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
Researchers have tested a new neural probe in the spines of genetically
altered mice. The device could artificially restore function to damaged
nerves through prosthetics in the future
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Confronting models with observations - National Science Foundation (press release)

Confronting models with observations - National Science Foundation (press release) | New Lothrop Chemistry | Scoop.it
NSF's mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education made by scientists, engineers, and educators from across the country.
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