Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused
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Jonathan Fleming, wrongfully convicted in N.Y., to sue for $162M - CNN.com

Jonathan Fleming, wrongfully convicted in N.Y., to sue for $162M - CNN.com | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
A man who spent almost 25 years behind bars for a 1989 murder he didn't commit has filed a notice of claim to sue New York City for $162 million.
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

After Jonathan Fleming spent 24 years  and 8 months in prison for a murder he did not commit, he is finally released because of a phone receipt which proves his alibi of being at Disney World in Florida during the time of the murder. Although they've cleared his name, Jonathan's phone receipt somehow didn't make its way to Jonathan's lawyers and if it did, almost 25 years wouldn't have been wasted in prison trying to prove his innocence.  After Fleming (52 years old) got out of prison,  he filed to sue the city of New York, the police department and also the King County district attorney’s office for $162 million. -Nicole khoo

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Assisted suicide debate masks disability prejudice

Assisted suicide debate masks disability prejudice | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
Today (Oct. 15), the Supreme Court of Canada will hear argument in an appeal which seeks to strike down Canada’s Criminal Code prohibition against assisting suicide.
The appeal is mobilized by the B.C. Civil Liberties Association and supported by Death with Dignity advocates across the country, many of whom will take to the streets to urge Canadians to “stand on the side of history for assisted dying.”

Via Velvet Martin
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

The Topic of assisted suicide is very contriversial in the supreme court of canada right now. They are gearing up to hear arguments on behalf of the supporters behind this cause. This is relevent because it involves the canadian criminal code. It requires actually amending the code, threfore requiring a huge discision by the supreem court. - Brandon Lee

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Translation time and cost thwart deportation attempt

Translation time and cost thwart deportation attempt | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
Canada Border Services is dropping its attempt to immediately deport a suspected war criminal because of the cost of translating documents into French.

The man had claimed refugee status when he entered Canada in 2013. He spoke neither French nor English, but settled in the Montreal area and hired an immigration lawyer known to be a hardliner on the right to speak French in immigration court in Quebec.

Investigators compiled 150 pages of evidence - written in English - that the man had participated in war crimes in the former Yugoslavia.

La Presse reports that when lawyer Stephane Handfield demanded a translation, Ottawa balked, saying it would cost $75,000 and take six months.

The deportation attempt has been abandoned and the man's refugee claim will proceed as usual to a hearing.

Via Charles Tiayon
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

This article outlines the dramatic need for funding to support canadas border services. Becuase of this lack of funding, a war crininal now can keep using canada as a safe haven from international persecution. - Brandon Lee

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Murder Case Dropped After MetroCard Verifies Alibi - NYTimes.com

Federal prosecutors have dropped murder charges against a Bronx man and his brother after the man’s lawyers produced his MetroCard, saying it showed that he was innocent.
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

Both brothers were charged with fatally shooting a man in May who prosecutors said was a government witness in drug and gun cases. They could have faced the death penalty had the government decided to seek it. While the men were in jail, Jason Jones’s lawyers asked New York City Transit to trace his movements on the night of the murder, using his MetroCard. The results showed that the card had been used on a bus and later on a subway, roughly five miles from the shooting, as Mr. Jones had maintained. Both brothers said on Wednesday that they felt relief, but also anger that they were arrested in the first place. “Right now, it’s a combination of feelings,” Jason Jones said. “It messed our life up totally.”

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B.C. officer charged with murder says man aimed gun at police

B.C. officer charged with murder says man aimed gun at police | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
A British Columbia police officer facing both a civil lawsuit and a murder charge says he fired his rifle after a "distraught and violent man" pointed a handgun at police during a tense standoff.
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

An officer in Vancouver shoots and kills a man, and claims self defense and that he had a reasonable fear. The victim killed was Mehrdad Bayrami, 48 years old and believed to be a threat to himself and others, possibly. The officer who killed the man was Const. Jordan MacWilliams, he claims that he was pointing a gun at him or holding it up. The officer indeed had the right to be worried and fear the possible outcomes that could unravel. However the fact that he killed the man with no guarantee that his intentions were going to end up hurting someone is questionable, the fact that he might get away with this is definitely concerning. The daughter of the victim is challenging the officer and explains he was no threat. After reading this article I start to question the power of the Canadian court system, and how people of a powerful position get away with crimes. Police are suppose to enforce laws, what gives them the right to break them. I believe that all people should abide by the same laws, that we are all equal and there should be ramifications for murder and breaking the law. Canada needs to change how the police get away with murder.


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Grand Jury Mulls Case Against Canadian Diplomat's Son

Grand Jury Mulls Case Against Canadian Diplomat's Son | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
MIAMI - A Canadian teenager accused of involvement in a drug-related rip-off in Miami that left his older brother dead said they had pulled similar stunts in Canada, police documents state.The documents obtained by The Canadian Press also show Marc W...
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

The Son of a Canadian Diplomat that had just moved to Florida with his mother and brother has recently been involved in a crime, and is now facing murder charges. Marc Wabafiyebazu was involved in a drug deal gone bad which led to the death of his brother Jean and another teen Joshua Wright. His charge is now being decided as if he is going to be tried as a youth or an adult. “Under Florida Law people can be charged with felony murder if they were involved in a crime that leads to a killing — even if a person didn't participate directly in the killing.” This differs from the Canadian criminal court system as Marc would either be charged for the drug deal, and known as a material witness, meaning he participated in a crime that led to the murder. Marc would not being charged as heavily as he is in the states.


 

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Bill C-51 Will Make It Easier To Throw Canadians In Jail Without a Charge

Bill C-51 Will Make It Easier To Throw Canadians In Jail Without a Charge | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
The legal threshold for police to obtain a warrant to arrest individuals who have committed no crimes would be lowered. Canadians could be held in custody for up to seven days without charges. Bill C-51's gives powers of "preventive detention,&q...
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

As a direct result of the latest terrorist attacks Canada has seen the introduction of a bill known as Bill C-51 is being introduced. Bill C-51 is essentially an anti-terrorist bill that allows the police and government to regulate internet conversations, posts, and essentially our thoughts and opinions, and take any action against these if they are viewed to be a “threat”. This Bill if introduced and implemented would dramatically shift our canadian court system and give the government extreme power over social media and access to the publics information. The problem that is most likely to arise with the introduction of this bill, is the confliction of freedom of expression and speech. It would allow the government and police to charge and arrest people for posting their concerns or opinions about the government and how things are being run. Bill C-51 would surely change Canada and it’s court system as we know it.

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A Toronto judge, two veteran prosecutors, and a lion for the defence: Who's who in the Mike Duffy trial

A Toronto judge, two veteran prosecutors, and a lion for the defence: Who's who in the Mike Duffy trial | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
Here's your guide to the main legal players in the Mike Duffy trial.
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

This is relevant to chapter 10. 

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Vancouver oil spill reaches West Vancouver's Sandy Cove

Vancouver oil spill reaches West Vancouver's Sandy Cove | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
Canadian Coast Guard officials said Thursday the estimated size of an oil spill in English Bay had nearly doubled from 1,400 litres to 2,700 litres, or more than two metric tonnes.
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

This relates to chapter 10; the cause of the spill is quoted as 'not known', and it may involve a lot of investigation and defence to discover if charges should be pressed against anybody. 

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Calgary Young Offender Centre sending inmates to Edmonton amid cutbacks

Calgary Young Offender Centre sending inmates to Edmonton amid cutbacks | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
The Alberta Government plans to pare down the Calgary Young Offender Centre and close the Calgary Maintenance Enforcement Program office.
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

Is it fair to export the young offenders away from their home where it will be harder for family to visit them? Maybe it would be more effective just to reduce the physical size of the original compound. "The goal of the youth corrections system is to rehabilitate young offenders so they can become productive members of society as adults. Shipping them more than three hours away will do nothing to achieve that aim." Couldn't have said it better myself.

~A. Hokanson, Edmonton AB

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Freddie James's racial profiling complaint is part of larger issue inside Montreal police force

Freddie James's racial profiling complaint is part of larger issue inside Montreal police force | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
Montreal singer Freddie James went public this week with a complaint of police racial profiling — an issue Montreal's police chief Marc Parent admits is a problem in his force.
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

Only 10 percent of Montreal's police men are part of minority. James shares a story of how he was followed and then treated unreasonably by an officer. Even though he respected the police mans orders and wasn't resisted the officer still treated him aggressively and gave him a ticket of that was not realistic. James brings to light the distrust the population of Montreal has for their police force. Because of incidents like this citizens are afraid of the men who are supposed to enforce the law in order to make this country a better place. 

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Ontario man acquitted of charges in home attack says case sets self defence precedent | Toronto Star

Ontario man acquitted of charges in home attack says case sets self defence precedent  | Toronto Star | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
Ontario man cleared of charges stemming from an attack on his home, says he is proud of precedent set with regard to Canadians’ right to armed self defence
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

Thomas' house was under attack and vandalized by two other men. After being rudely awoken Thomas searched for his for protection. When he came to realization that his house was on fire be began shooting "warning" bullets to scare the persecutors off of his property. Later on that evening when the cops arrived Thomas was charged for firearm. However, in the trial, Thomas used self-defense to back up his case. He argued that the shots fired were the most logical actions he could have done in this situation. For Canada when Thomas won his case, this was a turning point. It is important because people who own machines capable of shooting and keep them locked away responsibly should be allowed to use their firearm if they are being harmed on their own property. 

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4 Tips for Quality Jury Instruction Transcription

4 Tips for Quality Jury Instruction Transcription | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
4 Tips for Quality Jury Instruction Transcription…!!!

Posted by: Champak Pol | Posted on: November 10th, 2014



Transcribing legal recordings is quite a demanding job; it leaves no scape for any single error. Such low quality transcription is enough to make or break a lawyer’s reputation.  And that’s precisely why, lawyers worldwide stress a lot over quality legal transcriptions!

Maintaining quality becomes all the more crucial while transcribing jury instructions. Typically recorded after all the evidences are presented in the case and following the closing arguments; it is one of the ways for the court to counsel the jury regarding the case and how to conduct their deliberations.

Jury instruction is an extensive and diverse area – the transcription by and large depend on the type of court case. Therefore, one needs to understand different types of instructions to get a firm hold and produce high-quality transcripts.

The Different Types of Jury Instructions Include:
General Instructions:

There are some instructions that come even before the trial begins. They are related to selecting the jury, challenges for jurors, questioning in capital cases as well as statement of the charge.
Also, a new set of instructions usually come up once the trial begins. The jurors are supposed to go through the preliminary instructions as well as to instructions pertaining to the stipulations, closing arguments, queries by jurors, and the defendant advocating themselves.
The next thing that comes is the final charge. These instructions consists the statement, alibis, entered pleas, evidences, crime spot, eyewitnesses testimonies, rules of deliberation and the final verdict.
At times, it is also possible that supplemental instructions are required given out. These would be applicable when there is a jury deadlock or jury discharge.
Following this sequence helps you reduce the errors in the transcript and produce superior results.

Instructions on Crimes:

The court provide specific instructions for Criminal cases like homicides, illegal possession of  weapons, kidnapping, assault, arson, burglary, gambling, fraud, racketeering, etc. Therefore, one needs to keep a close watch on these guidelines to avoid any mistakes.

Grand Jury Proceedings & Instruction:

These specific guidelines on their duties and responsibilities in court are directed to a grand jury comprising 12-23 individuals.

Preliminary instructions for a grand jury consist of the topics like juror oath, their duties, responsibilities and the value of their work.
In criminal cases, guidelines include “probably cause”, “true bill”, indictment, capital crimes, subpoenas, and witnesses.
For civil cases, the jury is instructed in areas like inquiries, investigations, and conclusions, etc.
Grand juries usually have a foreperson, vice-foreperson, a clerk, and jurors. There are specific guidelines pertaining to participant’s exact role on the grand jury.
Other minor instructions comprises of disqualifications, jury roles, elections, oaths, verdict, and appointments.
Special Proceedings:

There are special proceedings where accurate degrees of guilt are attributed to various crimes. In such cases, the jury instructions particularly address the aforementioned categories and their degree of guilt. Judgment of the level of guilt can be quite tough, so the jury guidelines in these types of special proceedings are very complex and highly detailed.Transcribing these guidelines requires a very keen ear to the details, along with a quick action in recording the audio for outstanding transcripts.

Via Charles Tiayon
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

  Many believe lawyers  play  the main essential role in the process of cases and while this is true the jury is as well a huge key factor.  In this article it remind the many tasks that jurors have to proceed and follow through with. Along with the many duties there are strict enforced rules that can as well be lead up with punishment,and must stay independent to theire views.  Adding on to the trees everything must be dealt with fine detail work as you must make sure you process ALL evidence given and factor in all points made.

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Unilingualism needs no apology

Unilingualism needs no apology | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it

Judge Marshall Rothstein was not fluent in the French language when he was appointed as a judge on the Supreme Court of Canada.
At the parliamentary committee hearing preceding his appointment, he expressed his willingness to become more proficient in the French language, and in furtherance of that undertaking, he has been taking lessons to improve his skills in Canada's other official language.
Apparently, this is not good enough to please at least some members of Parliament.
About two months ago, two new nominees to the court went through the hearing process. One of the nominees was Judge Michael J. Moldaver, an experienced member of the Ontario Court of Appeal and an expert in the area of criminal law. He is eminently suited to sit on Canada's highest court, save for the fact that he is not fluent in French.


Via Charles Tiayon
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

A supreme court judge has been caught in a lie. Judge Marshall Rothstien was not fluent in french at the time of his opointment to the supreme court. This is very relevent. The judge of the highest court in canada is technically un-qualified for his job. This is a very major flaw in the canadian criminal court system. The government needs to preform more background tests to insure that proper justice can be served to everyone equally, not just by which judge you happen to get. - Brandon Lee

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Who Needs Lawful Access?: Canadian Telcos Hand Over Data on Thousands of Subscribers Without a Warrant | Michael Geist Blog

The debate over Bill C-13, the government's latest lawful access bill, is set to resume shortly.  The government has argued that the bill should not raise concerns since new police powers involve court oversight and the mandatory warrantless disclosure provisions that raised widespread concern in the last bill have been removed. 

 

While that is the government's talking points, I've posted on how this bill now includes incentives for telecom companies and other intermediaries to disclose subscriber information without court oversight since it grants them full civil and criminal immunity for doing so.

 

Moreover, newly released data suggests that the telecom companies don't seem to need much of an incentive as they are already disclosing subscriber data on thousands of Canadians every year without court oversight.

This week, the government responded to NDP MP Charmaine Borg's request for information on government agencies requests to telecom providers for customer information.

 

The data reveals that the telecom companies have established law enforcement databases that provides ready access to subscriber information. For example, the Competition Bureau reports that it "accessed the Bell Canada Law Enforcement Database" 20 times in 2012-13. 

 

The wording may be important, since the Bureau indicates that it accessed the information, rather than Bell provided it. It is not clear what oversight or review is used before a government agency may access the Bell database.

 

Click headline to read more--


Via Chuck Sherwood, Senior Associate, TeleDimensions, Inc
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

This data and information leak has been done without concesnt from the clients of the Canadian Telcos. This is relevent becuase, usually, this would require the use of a warrant. However, the companies have found someway to realease this information without the use of a warrant. Sounds Suspicious - Brandon Lee

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CANADA LAW: Top court to decide if pellet guns are firearms - Ottawa Citizen

CANADA LAW: Top court to decide if pellet guns are firearms - Ottawa Citizen | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
Is a pellet gun a firearm? That is the question that Canada’s Supreme Court will answer after an Ottawa man’s lawyer argued that a recent Ontario Court of Appeal decision has exposed owners of pellet guns purchased at sporting good stores to criminal prosecution and potentially lengthy mandatory minimum prison sentences.

Via Thumpy Covey
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

Canada's supreme court will rule on the matter "If pellet guns are firearms". This in my opinion is a dramatic waste of time. I have used pellet guns for years, and have used firearms as well. The difference cant even be quantified. If this law passes, the reprecussions will be bad as well. This would mean more young adults filling up canadas jails. - Brandon Lee

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Thumpy Covey's curator insight, March 28, 2014 9:56 AM

Let us help you with this, Canadian Lawyers.


Um, NO!


FIREarm = Bad (in some people's minds)  but AIR does NOT = FIREarm....see, pretty simple.  And I thought we spoke the same language....

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Sikh human rights group pushes for charges against Indian PM | Toronto Star

Sikh human rights group pushes for charges against Indian PM | Toronto Star | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
Complaint to Attorney General of Canada alleges visiting Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi encouraged deadly riots against Muslims.
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

For the first time in 40 years India’s prime minister is to visit Canada and meet with Stephen Harper. The plan is to discuss business and to further build ties with India and develop the relationship between the two countries. However there are allegations that the Indian prime minister is involved with a genocide and mass killings within India. If these are true and Stephen Harper continues to wish to develop relations with a man that supports this, how would it affect Canada, would we be ridiculed? It makes me think that we are starting to value business and profit over the people we deal with, we need to see criminals as criminals and not associate with them.

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Will Canada ever get to prosecute Amanda Todd’s alleged predator?

Will Canada ever get to prosecute Amanda Todd’s alleged predator? | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
Legal experts are divided on the chances of extradition and all agree it will be a complicated process.
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

A well known case here in Canada that is fairly recent is the case of Amanda Todd. She is a teenage girl who became the victim of sexual harassment and faced many threats to have explicit photos of herself leaked. Amanda Todd was ridiculed and made fun of, and eventually ended up committing suicide. This article talks about what has happened to Amanda and reveals unsettling news that her harasser has not yet been tried in a Canadian court system. After reading the article further one can see the difference between Canada’s court system and the rest of the worlds. What is spoken about in the article is the efforts in bring the perpetrator to Canada from the Netherlands. One thing that I believe should be changed, after reading this article is the policies on extradition. Amanda Todd deserves justice and the perpetrator deserves to serve for his crime, and should be tried in Canada.

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Harper Lacks Compassion and Leadership When it Comes to the Safety of Indigenous Women

Harper Lacks Compassion and Leadership When it Comes to the Safety of Indigenous Women | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
Prime Minister Harper's dismissal of the growing over-representation of Indigenous women and girls as victims of violence, homicide and persons who go missing as isolated crimes to be investigated by police illustrates just how out of touch he is. Mo...
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

A shocking discovery in the missing persons report reveals that 1 in 4 women that go missing are indigenous. You might think why is this the case, how can we change and stop this, however Stephen Harper our Prime minister disregards it and does not view this as an issue. Despite the statistics that depict the 15% increase of missing aboriginal women going missing he says it means nothing. The RCMP have made many reports and are conducting investigations that look further into these types of cases. This truly speaks to how the whole system of Canada starts from the top. The fact that our government is doing nothing about this makes you wonder what is happening with our country, and what could be wrong with our criminal court system.

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Jamie Kennedy: a restaurant era comes to an end in Toronto | Toronto Star

Jamie Kennedy: a restaurant era comes to an end in Toronto | Toronto Star | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
On March 31, Gilead Cafe & Wine Bar quietly closed its doors, marking the end of the Jamie Kennedy restaurant era. What’s next for Toronto’s first celebrity chef and passionate local food advocate?
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

This relates to chapter 10.

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Natasha Hope-Simpson, prosthetic leg user, gets note saying she 'should be ashamed'

Natasha Hope-Simpson, prosthetic leg user, gets note saying she 'should be ashamed' | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
A Halifax woman with a prosthetic leg was shocked to find an anonymous note on her car that accuses her of using an accessible parking space when she doesn't appear to have a disability.
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

This relates to chapter 10. A woman with a prosthetic leg had a note left on her car telling her not to park in handicapped spots, because someone judgemental had been recording her walking in to work. Why was this person recording her? 

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Truckload of freezies stolen in Brampton

Truckload of freezies stolen in Brampton | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
Two truckloads of Mr. Freeze freezies were reportedly stolen from a freight yard in Brampton on Wednesday night.
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

More than 10,500 freezies have been stolen in Brampton!

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R. v. Sparrow - SCC Cases (Lexum)

R. v. Sparrow - SCC Cases (Lexum) | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

 

The Government tried to make it so fishing on Fraser River Delta was only for consumption for the First Nations people. 

In 1984, Musqueam band member Ronald Sparrow was arrested for fishing with a net longer than was permitted by his food fishing license. His arrest and subsequent court case led to one of the most defining decisions by the Supreme Court of Canada regarding Aboriginal Rights. 

Mr. Sparrow had an “existing” right to fish at the time of his arrest.  The Court also ruled that the words “recognized and affirmed,” as they appear in Section 35, mean that the government cannot override or infringe upon these rights without justification.

-Callahan McMaster

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B.C. Child Killer Should Get Supervised Outings: Doctor

B.C. Child Killer Should Get Supervised Outings: Doctor | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
Allan Schoenborn murdered his three children nearly seven years ago....
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

The Merritt, B.C., father, who admitted killing his three children, was found not criminally responsible for the April 2008 slayings. After a trial in which the pivotal issue was Schoenborn's state of mind, a judge ruled that the killings were deliberate and planned, but that Shoenborn was not sane at the time he committed them. This trial is important because this man committed a terrible atrocity but is held responsible due to his mental state. Many mentally unstable criminals use this defense and are given a "jail-free pass." 

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THIS IS ALSO COMMON WITH NATIVES IN ALBERTA, CANADA...RACIAL PROFILING & ARRESTS OF NATIVE PEOPLE BY LOCAL COPS/RCMP. AND YOU WONDER WHY THE PRISON POPULATION HAS A HIGH PERCENTAGE OF NATIVE INMATE...

THIS IS ALSO COMMON WITH NATIVES IN ALBERTA, CANADA...RACIAL PROFILING & ARRESTS OF NATIVE PEOPLE BY LOCAL COPS/RCMP. AND YOU WONDER WHY THE PRISON POPULATION HAS A HIGH PERCENTAGE OF NATIVE INMATE... | Chapter 9&10: The Criminal Court System & Defence for the Accused | Scoop.it
THIS IS ALSO COMMON WITH NATIVES IN ALBERTA, CANADA...RACIAL PROFILING & ARRESTS OF NATIVE PEOPLE BY LOCAL COPS/RC http://t.co/K0EfrxuPXd

Via A/Prof Jon Willis
Shawnigan Lake School Law 12's insight:

Similar to the states, Canada is accused for racial profiling. Often, police men are found guilty of mistreating another human due to theit ethnic background. 

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