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TCP3 interacts with R2R3-MYB proteins, promotes flavonoid biosynthesis and negatively regulates the auxin response in Arabidopsis thaliana - Li - 2013 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

TCP3 interacts with R2R3-MYB proteins, promotes flavonoid biosynthesis and negatively regulates the auxin response in Arabidopsis thaliana - Li - 2013 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | Cell Culture | Scoop.it
Article discussing how TCP3 regulates flavonoid and auxin pathways: http://t.co/e2AYuV6d9A #Arabidopsis
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Spatial and temporal expression patterns of auxin response transcription factors in the syncytium induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis

Spatial and temporal expression patterns of auxin response transcription factors in the syncytium induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis | Cell Culture | Scoop.it

Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes induce the formation of multinucleated feeding site in the infected roots, termed syncytium. Recent studies pointed to key roles of the phytohormone auxin in the regulation of gene expression and establishment of the syncytium. Nevertheless, information about the spatiotemporal expression patterns of the transcription factors that mediate auxin transcriptional responses during syncytium formation is limited. Here, we provide a gene expression map of 22 auxin response factors (ARFs) during initiation, formation and maintenance stages of the syncytium induced by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis. We observed distinct and overlapping expression patterns of ARFs throughout syncytium development phases. We identified a set of ARFs whose expression is predominantly located inside the developing syncytium, while others are expressed in the neighboring cells, presumably to initiate specific transcriptional programs required for their incorporation with the developing syncytium. Our analyses also point to a role of certain ARFs in determining the maximum size of the syncytium. In addition, several ARFs were found to be highly expressed in fully-developed syncytia, suggesting a role in maintaining the functional phenotype of mature syncytia. The dynamic distribution and overlapping expression patterns of various ARFs seem to be essential characteristics of ARF activity during syncytium development.

 

 

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Wisconsin researchers identify key pathway for plant cell growth ...

Wisconsin researchers identify key pathway for plant cell growth ... | Cell Culture | Scoop.it
MADISON, Wis. — For plants, the only way to grow is for cells to expand. Unlike animals, cell division in plants happens only within a tiny region of the root and stem apex, making cell expansion the critical path to increased ...
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Auxin biosynthetic gene TAR2 is involved in low nitrogen mediated reprogramming of root architecture in Arabidopsis

Auxin biosynthetic gene TAR2 is involved in low nitrogen mediated reprogramming of root architecture in Arabidopsis | Cell Culture | Scoop.it

In plants, the plasticity of root architecture in response to nitrogen availability largely determines nitrogen acquisition efficiency. One poorly understood root growth response to low nitrogen availability is an observed increase in the number and length of lateral roots (LRs). Here, we show that low nitrogen-induced Arabidopsis lateral root growth depended on the function of the auxin biosynthesis gene TAR2 (tryptophan aminotransferase related 2). TAR2 was expressed in the pericycle and the vasculature of the mature root zone near the root tip, and was induced under low nitrogen conditions. In the wild type plants, low nitrogen stimulated auxin accumulation in the non-emerged LR primordia with >3 cell layers and LR emergence. Conversely, these low nitrogen-mediated auxin accumulation and root growth responses were impaired in the tar2-c null mutant. Overexpression of TAR2 increased LR numbers under both high and low nitrogen conditions. Our results suggest that TAR2 is required for reprogramming root architecture in response to low nitrogen conditions. This finding suggests a new strategy for improving nitrogen use efficiency through the engineering of TAR2 expression in roots.

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Arabidopsis ERG28 Tethers the Sterol C4-Demethylation Complex to Prevent Accumulation of a Biosynthetic Intermediate That Interferes with Polar Auxin Transport

Arabidopsis ERG28 Tethers the Sterol C4-Demethylation Complex to Prevent Accumulation of a Biosynthetic Intermediate That Interferes with Polar Auxin Transport | Cell Culture | Scoop.it

Sterols are vital for cellular functions and eukaryotic development because of their essential role as membrane constituents. Sterol biosynthetic intermediates (SBIs) represent a potential reservoir of signaling molecules in mammals and fungi, but little is known about their functions in plants. SBIs are derived from the sterol C4-demethylation enzyme complex that is tethered to the membrane by Ergosterol biosynthetic protein28 (ERG28). Here, using nonlethal loss-of-function strategies focused on Arabidopsis thaliana ERG28, we found that the previously undetected SBI 4-carboxy-4-methyl-24-methylenecycloartanol (CMMC) inhibits polar auxin transport (PAT), a key mechanism by which the phytohormone auxin regulates several aspects of plant growth, including development and responses to environmental factors. The induced accumulation of CMMC in Arabidopsis erg28 plants was associated with diagnostic hallmarks of altered PAT, including the differentiation of pin-like inflorescence, loss of apical dominance, leaf fusion, and reduced root growth. PAT inhibition by CMMC occurs in a brassinosteroid-independent manner. The data presented show that ERG28 is required for PAT in plants. Furthermore, it is accumulation of an atypical SBI that may act to negatively regulate PAT in plants. Hence, the sterol pathway offers further prospects for mining new target molecules that could regulate plant development.

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Plant Auxin ManipulationCreativity Group | Creativity Group

Plant Auxin ManipulationCreativity Group | Creativity Group | Cell Culture | Scoop.it
Plants grow in the direction of light by the use of auxins (chemicals that are reactive to light). With this basic high school knowledge, I started to work on.
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Vegetable Freak: Auxin: The Tipping Point. Why Plants Tip Toward ...

Vegetable Freak: Auxin: The Tipping Point. Why Plants Tip Toward ... | Cell Culture | Scoop.it
Have you ever wondered why your plants grow towards the sun? The credit for this phenomenon is due to Auxin, a plant hormone that elongates the cells furthest from the light. Auxin is a hormone that reacts when ...
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Auxin Producing Area of the Plant | A P Biology 2013 - 2014

Auxins themselves are a class of plant hormones recognized for their ability to elongate and divide the cells of plant. Auxins are mainly produced at the various meristems of plants and are responsible for plant growth and ...
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Somatic embryogenesis of pathogen-free horseradish (Armoracia ...

The use of pathogen-free (PF) horseradish planting stock was a means for the Illinois horseradish growers to restore root quality and yields. Micropropagation of PF plants through tissue culture could be used to deliver PF ...
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Influence of Abscisic Acid and Sucrose on Somatic Embryogenesis ...

Influence of Abscisic Acid and Sucrose on Somatic Embryogenesis ... | Cell Culture | Scoop.it
But the most effective methods of micropropagation are based on somatic embryogenesis which allows for producing valuable genotypes on a large scale in a very short time. Somatic ..... View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus; A.
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Juicy Stories on Female Reproductive Tissue Development: Coordinating the Hormone Flows - Grieneisen - Journal of Integrative Plant Biology - Wiley Online Library

Juicy Stories on Female Reproductive Tissue Development: Coordinating the Hormone Flows - Grieneisen - Journal of Integrative Plant Biology - Wiley Online Library | Cell Culture | Scoop.it
Sassy title on interesting review paper "Juicy Stories on Female Reproductive Tissue Development" #plantsci #auxin http://t.co/cfVMepmGgk
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Auxin And Gibberellin Growth Hormone Of The Plant

Auxin And Gibberellin Growth Hormone Of The Plant | Cell Culture | Scoop.it
Frits W. Went (1928), a Dutch expert in plant anatomy, had succeeded proofing that auxin can influence shoot growth. Auxin produced on the shoot and young leaves will be distributed to the lower parts.
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Genetic basis of cytokinin and auxin functions during root nodule development.

Genetic basis of cytokinin and auxin functions during root nodule development. | Cell Culture | Scoop.it

\The phytohormones cytokinin and auxin are essential for the control of diverse aspects of cell proliferation and differentiation processes in plants. Although both phytohormones have been suggested to play key roles in the regulation of root nodule development, only recently, significant progress has been made in the elucidation of the molecular genetic basis of cytokinin action in the model leguminous species, and . Identification and functional analyses of the putative cytokinin receptors LOTUS HISTIDINE KINASE 1 and CYTOKININ RESPONSE 1 have brought a greater understanding of how activation of cytokinin signaling is crucial to the initiation of nodule primordia. Recent studies have also started to shed light on the roles of auxin in the regulation of nodule development. Here, we review the history and recent progress of research into the roles of cytokinin and auxin, and their possible interactions, in nodule development.

 

Suzaki T, Ito M, Kawaguchi M. (2013).  Front Plant Sci. 4:42. . Epub Mar 11.


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Plant Cell: AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 Links Cell W...

Plant Cell: AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 Links Cell W... | Cell Culture | Scoop.it
" Molecular and genetic evidence indicates that ABP1 affects the expression of a broad range of cell wall–related genes, especially cell wall remodeling genes, mainly via an SCFTIR/AFB-dependent pathway.
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Mutants of Phospholipase A (pPLA-I) have a Red Light and Auxin Phenotype

Mutants of Phospholipase A (pPLA-I) have a Red Light and Auxin Phenotype | Cell Culture | Scoop.it

pPLA-I is the evolutionarily oldest patatin-related phospholipase A (pPLA) in plants which have previously been implicated to function in auxin and defense signaling. Molecular and physiological analysis of two allelic null mutants for pPLA-I (ppla-I-1 in Wassilewskija (Ws) and ppla-I-3 in Columbia (Col) revealed pPLA-I functions in auxin and light signaling. The enzyme is localised in the cytosol and to membranes. After auxin application expression of early auxin-induced genes is significantly slower compared to wild type (WT) and both alleles show a slower gravitropic response of hypocotyls, indicating compromised auxin signaling. Additionally, phytochrome-modulated responses like abrogation of gravitropism, enhancement of phototropism and growth in far red-(FR)-enriched light are decreased in both alleles. While early flowering, root coils and delayed phototropism are only observed in the Ws mutant devoid of phyD, the light related phenotypes observed in both alleles point to an involvement of pPLA-I in phytochrome signaling.

 

 

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WOX5-IAA17 Feedback Circuit-Mediated Cellular Auxin Response Is Crucial for the Patterning of Root Stem Cell Niches in Arabidopsis

WOX5-IAA17 Feedback Circuit-Mediated Cellular Auxin Response Is Crucial for the Patterning of Root Stem Cell Niches in Arabidopsis | Cell Culture | Scoop.it

In plants, the patterning of stem cell-enriched meristems requires a graded auxin response maximum that emerges from the concerted action of polar auxin transport, auxin biosynthesis, auxin metabolism, and cellular auxin response machinery. However, mechanisms underlying this auxin response maximum-mediated root stem cell maintenance are not fully understood. Here, we present unexpected evidence that WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 5 (WOX5) transcription factor modulates expression of auxin biosynthetic genes in the quiescent center (QC) of the root and thus provides a robust mechanism for the maintenance of auxin response maximum in the root tip. This WOX5 action is balanced through the activity of indole-3-acetic acid 17 (IAA17) auxin response repressor. Our combined genetic, cell biology, and computational modeling studies revealed a previously uncharacterized feedback loop linking WOX5-mediated auxin production to IAA17-dependent repression of auxin responses. This WOX5–IAA17 feedback circuit further assures the maintenance of auxin response maximum in the root tip and thereby contributes to the maintenance of distal stem cell (DSC) populations. Our experimental studies and in silico computer simulations both demonstrate that the WOX5–IAA17 feedback circuit is essential for the maintenance of auxin gradient in the root tip and the auxin-mediated root DSC differentiation.

 

 

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Developmental Cell - Auxin-Callose-Mediated Plasmodesmal Gating Is Essential for Tropic Auxin Gradient Formation and Signaling

Developmental Cell - Auxin-Callose-Mediated Plasmodesmal Gating Is Essential for Tropic Auxin Gradient Formation and Signaling | Cell Culture | Scoop.it

HighlightsGSL8 controls plasmodesmata (PD) callose deposition, essential for tropic responseGSL8 RNAi lines show increased PD permeability and auxin diffusion via PDAuxin-ARF7-callose-mediated PD gating is essential for tropic auxin responseAuxin could regulate symplasmic delivery of a wide range of signaling agentsSummary

In plants, auxin functions as a master controller of development, pattern formation, morphogenesis, and tropic responses. A sophisticated transport system has evolved to allow the establishment of precise spatiotemporal auxin gradients that regulate specific developmental programs. A critical unresolved question relates to how these gradients can be maintained in the presence of open plasmodesmata that allow for symplasmic exchange of essential nutrients and signaling macromolecules. Here we addressed this conundrum using genetic, physiological, and cell biological approaches and identified the operation of an auxin-GSL8 feedback circuit that regulates the level of plasmodesmal-localized callose in order to locally downregulate symplasmic permeability during hypocotyl tropic response. This system likely involves a plasmodesmal switch that would prevent the dissipation of a forming gradient by auxin diffusion through the symplasm. This regulatory system may represent a mechanism by which auxin could also regulate symplasmic delivery of a wide range of signaling agents.


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Inter-regulation of the unfolded protein response and auxin signaling - Chen - 2013 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

Inter-regulation of the unfolded protein response and auxin signaling - Chen - 2013 - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | Cell Culture | Scoop.it
From Vol. 77, Issue 1, article exploring inter-regulation of UPR and auxin response: http://t.co/zUsQ4SFA1d
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Auxin distribution is differentially affected by nitrate in roots of two ...

Auxin distribution is differentially affected by nitrate in roots of two ... | Cell Culture | Scoop.it
Background and Aims Although ammonium (NH4+) is the preferred form of nitrogen over nitrate (NO3−) for rice (Oryza sativa), lateral root (LR) growth in roots is enhanced by partial NO3− nutrition (PNN).
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Auxin and tropisms

An overview of auxin and the plant tropisms of photo, gravi, and thigmo. Layout inspired by Khan Academy...no copyright intended By AP BIO Hatchlings: Amber ...
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Meristematic cell proliferation and ribosome biogenesis are decoupled in ... - 7thSpace Interactive (press release)

Meristematic cell proliferation and ribosome biogenesis are decoupled in ...
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'Fountain of youth' for leaves discovered - Phys

'Fountain of youth' for leaves discovered - Phys | Cell Culture | Scoop.it
At the start of that pathway is salicylic acid, precursor of the active ingredient in aspirin, which is used by plants as a hormone to trigger development and to fire up a response to a pathogen attack.
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High frequency in vitro propagation of Kidney Tea Plant | Natural ...

Elangomathavan, R; Prakash, S; Kathiravan, K; Seshadri, S; Ignacimuthu, S., 2003: High frequency in vitro propagation of Kidney Tea Plant. Plant cell tissu... ...
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Scientists Reveal Secrets of Plant Architecture: The Angles of Trees - Science World Report

Scientists Reveal Secrets of Plant Architecture: The Angles of Trees - Science World Report | Cell Culture | Scoop.it
Science World Report Scientists Reveal Secrets of Plant Architecture: The Angles of Trees Science World Report It turns out that this countervailing growth is also driven by auxin, the same hormone that causes gravity responsive growth on the lower...
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Frontiers (Review): Regulation of cell division and expansion by sugar and auxin signaling (OA)

Frontiers (Review): Regulation of cell division and expansion by sugar and auxin signaling (OA) | Cell Culture | Scoop.it

"Here, based on recent progress of genetic analyses and gene expression profiling studies, we summarize the functional similarities, diversities, and their interactions of sugar and auxin signals in regulating two major processes of plant development: cell division and cell expansion."


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