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Meet the instructors: Paul Schulze-Lefert, Max Planck Institute, Koeln

Meet the instructors: Paul Schulze-Lefert, Max Planck Institute, Koeln | cell biology | Scoop.it

Cell death control plays a fundamental role in plant defense against pathogens. Our objective is to decipher the regulatory network underlying the processes of cell death activation and cell death rescue upon pathogen attack.We concentrate our work on the molecular dissection of disease resistance to common obligate biotrophic powdery mildew fungi (e.g. Blumeria graminis) in Arabidopsis and barley. Multiple genetic pathways have been identified in both plants leading to resistance (Fig. 1). If powdery mildew fungi defeat plant defense, they can actively suppress host cell death. This is dramatically illustrated by the so-called green island effect (Fig. 2). Individual research projects include...

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The rust hunter - Peter Dodds

The rust hunter - Peter Dodds | cell biology | Scoop.it

It was only when his supervisor showed him a picture of a tractor crossing a rust-infected field of wheat that Peter Dodds really understood what he was up against. Behind the tractor bloomed an orange plume of spores several times higher than the vehicle itself. "It is just amazing the amount of spores that get released in an infected wheat field," says Dodds. "It is like looking at Mount Everest."

The cloud of fungal spores revealed a terrifying strength in numbers. You might think that if a mutation that will overcome wheat's resistance to a strain of rust is a one in a million fluke it would not be worth worrying about. But there in that one picture were thousands of billions of spores, obscuring the sky. And there are millions of fields.


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FLS2: a model for studying subcellular reprogramming

FLS2: a model for studying subcellular reprogramming | cell biology | Scoop.it

The receptor for bacterial flagellin (FLS2) resides in two locations within the cell: at the plasma membrane from where it gets internalized into endosomes upon activation by its ligand flg22.

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The INs and OUTs of pattern recognition receptors at the cell surface

The INs and OUTs of pattern recognition receptors at the cell surface | cell biology | Scoop.it

Martina Beck, William Heard, Malick Mbengue, Silke Robatzek
The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK
Available online 3 June 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2012.05.004

 

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) enable plants to sense non-self molecules displayed by microbes to mount proper defense responses or establish symbiosis. In recent years the importance of PRR subcellular trafficking to plant immunity has become apparent. PRRs traffic through the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane, where they recognize their cognate ligands. At the plasma membrane, PRRs can be recycled or internalized via endocytic pathways. By using genetic and biochemical tools in combination with bioimaging, the trafficking pathways and their role in PRR perception of microbial molecules are now being revealed.

Highlights
► PRRs are present at the plasma membrane and this enables MAMP recognition. ► Subcellular localization of several PRRs have been revealed in the recent years. ► Insights into PRR trafficking pathways and potential regulators together with the interception of the PRR outputs are being obtained.

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This page is in support of the EMBO Course "Plant-Microbe Interaction" held in Norwich, June 2012

This page is in support of the EMBO Course "Plant-Microbe Interaction" held in Norwich, June 2012 | cell biology | Scoop.it

The last 20 years have provided a sophisticated understanding of how plants recognize relatively conserved microbial patterns to activate defence. This workshop will cover broad aspects of the plant-microbe interaction and train methods to study and visualise intracellular interactions during pathogenesis and defence.

 

Organized by The Sainsbury Laboratory http://www.tsl.ac.uk/


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Meet the instructors: Peter Dodds, CSIRO, canberra, Australia

Meet the instructors: Peter Dodds, CSIRO, canberra, Australia | cell biology | Scoop.it

Dr Peter Dodds' research aims to elucidate how plants recognise and respond to pathogens with the ultimate aim of protecting important food crops from devastating diseases.

 

Current activities

Dr Dodds' focus is on fungal rust diseases, which constitute one of the most significant threats to cereal crops worldwide. The recent emergence of the highly virulent wheat stem rust strain Ug99 is of particular concern to world food security.

Dr Dodds' research uses the pathogenic interaction between flax and the flax rust fungus as a model for understanding the basis of rust disease as well as host resistance mechanisms.

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Patterns of plant subcellular responses to successful oomycete infections reveal differences in host cell reprogramming and endocytic trafficking

Patterns of plant subcellular responses to successful oomycete infections reveal differences in host cell reprogramming and endocytic trafficking | cell biology | Scoop.it

Yi-Ju Lu1,2,†, Sebastian Schornack2,†, Thomas Spallek1,2, Niko Geldner3, Joanne Chory4, Swen Schellmann5, Karin Schumacher6, Sophien Kamoun2, Silke Robatzek1,2,*
Article first published online: 15 FEB 2012

DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2012.01751.x

 

Adapted filamentous pathogens such as the oomycetes Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) and Phytophthora infestans (Pi) project specialized hyphae, the haustoria, inside living host cells for the suppression of host defence and acquisition of nutrients. Accommodation of haustoria requires reorganization of the host cell and the biogenesis of a novel host cell membrane, the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM), which envelops the haustorium separating the host cell from the pathogen. Here, we applied live-cell imaging of fluorescent-tagged proteins labelling a variety of membrane compartments and investigated the subcellular changes associated with accommodating oomycete haustoria in Arabidopsis and N. benthamiana. Plasma membrane-resident proteins differentially localized to the EHM. Likewise, secretory vesicles and endosomal compartments surrounded Hpa and Pi haustoria revealing differences between these two oomycetes, and suggesting a role for vesicle trafficking pathways for the pathogen-controlled biogenesis of the EHM. The latter is supported by enhanced susceptibility of mutants in endosome-mediated trafficking regulators. These observations point at host subcellular defences and specialization of the EHM in a pathogen-specific manner. Defence-associated haustorial encasements, a double-layered membrane that grows around mature haustoria, were frequently observed in Hpa interactions. Intriguingly, all tested plant proteins accumulated at Hpa haustorial encasements suggesting the general recruitment of default vesicle trafficking pathways to defend pathogen access. Altogether, our results show common requirements of subcellular changes associated with oomycete biotrophy, and highlight differences between two oomycete pathogens in reprogramming host cell vesicle trafficking for haustoria accommodation. This provides a framework for further dissection of the pathogen-triggered reprogramming of host subcellular changes.

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Meet the instructors: Silke Robatzek, The Sainsbury Laboratory

Meet the instructors: Silke Robatzek, The Sainsbury Laboratory | cell biology | Scoop.it

Plants are hosts to all major classes of pathogens (fungi, oomycetes, bacteria), which exhibit a range of life styles from biotrophs depending on living host cells, to necrotrophs triggering tissue maceration. Many plant cultivars used in agriculture are susceptible to biotrophic pathogens, and costly treatment with chemicals is necessary to prevent serious losses in yield.

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