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Top 10 Questions for the Stem Cell Field for 2014

Top 10 Questions for the Stem Cell Field for 2014 | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

The World Stem Cell Summit in San Diego was a great meeting this past week. It was my 3rd straight Summit and the best of all. It’s a unique mix of science, medicine, and policy that links together key players from every corner of the field.

I talked stem cells one-on-one or in small groups with more than 100 people in our diverse field during the meeting. It was remarkable.

Some patterns emerged in terms of the topics on the most people’s minds.

Based on these interactions and the talk in the stem cell field the last few weeks that I’ve heard, below are the top 10 questions for the stem cell field looking to 2014. Stay tuned in the next week or so for my predictions for the stem cell field in 2014 and a look at how my predictions for this year turned out.

 

 

CYTOO 's insight:

Question 11: will every stem cells' researchers work with adhesive micropatterns in 2014?...

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Novel in vitro culture condition improves the stemness of human dermal stem/progenitor cells

Novel in vitro culture condition improves the stemness of human dermal stem/progenitor cells | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

Cell therapy using adult stem cells has emerged as a potentially new approach for the treatment of various diseases. Therefore, it is an essential procedure to maintain the stemness of adult stem cells for clinical treatment. We previously reported that human dermal stem/progenitor cells (hDSPCs) can be enriched using collagen type IV. However, hDSPCs gradually lose their stem cell properties as in vitro passages continue. In the present study, we developed optimized in vitro culture condition to improve the stemness of these hDSPCs. To evaluate whether the stemness of hDSPCs is well sustained in various culture conditions, we measured the expression levels of SOX2, NANOG, and S100B, which are well-known representative dermal progenitor markers. We observed that hDSPCs grown in three-dimensional (3D) culture condition had higher expression levels of those markers compared with hDSPCs grown in two-dimensional (2D) culture condition. Under the 3D culture condition, we further demonstrated that a high glucose (4.5 g/L) concentration enhanced the expression levels of the dermal progenitor markers, whereas O2 concentration did not affect. We also found that skin-derived precursor (SKP) culture medium was the most effective, among various culture media, in increasing the dermal progenitor marker expression. We finally demonstrated that this optimized culture condition enhanced the expression level of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the proliferation, and the multipotency of hDSPCs, an important characteristic of stem cells. Taken together, these results suggested that this novel in vitro culture condition improves the stemness of hDSPCs.

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Special Issue: Advancements in Biomedical Micro/Nano Tools and Technology (Part 1 of 2)

Although both microtechnology and nanotechnology deal with small-length scales, their methodologies and even governing physics often differ from one another. Microtechnology was originally derived from top-down approaches for manufacturing of microelectronics, whereas its nanoscale counterpart is closely related to bottom-up synthetic chemistry as well as high-resolution microscopy such as the scanning electron microscope and the scanning tunneling microscope. Nevertheless, they complement each other, offering a valuable set of tools for exploring small yet intriguing worlds, which our bare eyes cannot observe. The combination of micro- and nanoscience and engineering is extremely relevant to biomedical science and applications because key building blocks of the biological systems fall into micro- and nanoscales: from small tissues (>100 µm), to single cells (~10 μm), to organelles (100 nm–1 µm), and to proteins, nucleic acids, and other macromolecules (1–100 nm).

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Scientists Generate "Mini-kidney" Structures from Human Stem Cells

Scientists Generate "Mini-kidney" Structures from Human Stem Cells | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

Diseases affecting the kidneys represent a major and unsolved health issue worldwide. The kidneys rarely recover function once they are damaged by disease, highlighting the urgent need for better knowledge of kidney development and physiology. Now, a team of researchers led by scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies has developed a novel platform to study kidney diseases, opening new avenues for the future application of regenerative medicine strategies to help restore kidney function.

 

 

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Concise Review: Can the Intrinsic Power of Branching Morphogenesis Be Used for Engineering Epithelial Tissues and Organs?

Concise Review: Can the Intrinsic Power of Branching Morphogenesis Be Used for Engineering Epithelial Tissues and Organs? | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

Branching Morphogenesis Is Critical to the Development of Organs Such as Kidney, Lung, Mammary Gland, Prostate, Pancreas, and Salivary Gland. Essentially, an Epithelial Bud Becomes an Iterative Tip-Stalk Generator (itsg) Able to Form a Tree of Branching Ducts And/Or Tubules. in Different Organs, Branching Morphogenesis Is Governed by Similar Sets of Genes. Epithelial Branching Has Been Recapitulated in Vitro (or Ex VIVO) Using Three-Dimensional Cell Culture and Partial Organ Culture Systems, and Several Such Systems Relevant to Kidney Tissue Engineering Are Discussed Here. by Adapting Systems like These It May be Possible to Harness the Power Inherent in the Itsg Program to Propagate and Engineer Epithelial Tissues and Organs. It Is Also Possible to Conceive of a Universal Itsg Capable of Propagation that May, by Recombination with Organ-Specific Mesenchymal Cells, be Used for Engineering Many Organ-like Tissues Similar to the Organ from which the Mesenchyme Cells Were Derived, or Toward which They Are Differentiated (from Stem Cells). the Three-Dimensional (3D) Branched Epithelial Structure Could Act as a Dynamic Branching Cellular Scaffold to Establish the Architecture for the Rest of the Tissue. Another Strategy—that of recombining propagated organ-specific ITSGs in 3D culture with undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells—is also worth exploring. If feasible, such engineered tissues may be useful for the ex vivo study of drug toxicity, developmental biology, and physiology in the laboratory. Over the long term, they have potential clinical applications in the general fields of transplantation, regenerative medicine, and bioartificial medical devices to aid in the treatment of chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and other diseases.

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Liver in a dish

Liver in a dish | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

There exists a worldwide shortage of donor livers for transplant. This may not pose a problem in the future, as Takebe et al. have recently grown functional “liver buds” from stem cells in a dish.

 

 

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Houston we have a problem: Microgravity accelerates biological aging

Houston we have a problem: Microgravity accelerates biological aging | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

Oct. 31, 2013 — As nations strive to put humans farther into space for longer periods of time, the real loser in this new space race could be the astronauts themselves. That's because experiments conducted on the International Space Station involving cells that line the inner surfaces of blood vessels (endothelial cells) show that microgravity accelerates cardiovascular disease and the biological aging of these cells. These findings are presented in a new research report published in November 2013 issue of The FASEB Journal.

 

 

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Lanthanide near infrared imaging in living cells with Yb3+ nano metal organic frameworks

We have created unique near-infrared (NIR)–emitting nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (nano-MOFs) incorporating a high density of Yb3+ lanthanide cations and sensitizers derived from phenylene. We establish here that these nano-MOFs can be incorporated into living cells for NIR imaging. Specifically, we introduce bulk and nano-Yb-phenylenevinylenedicarboxylate-3 (nano-Yb-PVDC-3), a unique MOF based on a PVDC sensitizer-ligand and Yb3+ NIR-emitting lanthanide cations. This material has been structurally characterized, its stability in various media has been assessed, and its luminescent properties have been studied. We demonstrate that it is stable in certain specific biological media, does not photobleach, and has an IC50 of 100 μg/mL, which is sufficient to allow live cell imaging. Confocal microscopy and inductively coupled plasma measurements reveal that nano-Yb-PVDC-3 can be internalized by cells with a cytoplasmic localization. Despite its relatively low quantum yield, nano-Yb-PVDC-3 emits a sufficient number of photons per unit volume to serve as a NIR-emitting reporter for imaging living HeLa and NIH 3T3 cells. NIR microscopy allows for highly efficient discrimination between the nano-MOF emission signal and the cellular autofluorescence arising from biological material. This work represents a demonstration of the possibility of using NIR lanthanide emission for biological imaging applications in living cells with single-photon excitation.

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Antibiotics in Cell Culture - What types are available and when and how to utilize them.

Antibiotics in Cell Culture - What types are available and when and how to utilize them. | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

Antibiotics are often chemicals and sometimes polypeptides that affect the ability of bacteria to grow.  Antibiotics come in two categories, bacteriostatic and bactericidal.  Bacteriostatic antibiotics don’t kill but inhibit some vital cellular process such as cell-wall synthesis or protein expression.  If the baceriostatic antibiotic is removed bacterial growth can resume.  Bactericidal antibiotics kill bacterial cells and therefore they are useful at preventing contaminations and eliminating them.  There are many antibiotics available and it is important to know when and how to use them.  This session is a good opportunity to ask your questions and get answers.

 

 

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Gene activity and transcript patterns visualized for the first time in thousands of single cells

Biologists of the University of Zurich have developed a method to visualize the activity of genes in single cells. The method is so efficient that, for the first time, a thousand genes can be studied in parallel in ten thousand single human cells. Applications lie in fields of basic research and medical diagnostics. The new method shows that the activity of genes, and the spatial organization of the resulting transcript molecules, strongly vary between single cells.

 

Full text in Nature Methods: http://www.nature.com/nmeth/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nmeth.2657.html

 

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Scaffold biomaterials for nano-pathophysiology

Scaffold biomaterials for nano-pathophysiology | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

This review is intended to provide an overview of tissue engineering strategies using scaffold biomaterials to develop a vascularized tissue engineered construct for nano-pathophysiology. Two primary topics are discussed. The first is the biological or synthetic microenvironments that regulate cell behaviors in pathological conditions and tissue regeneration. Second is the use of scaffold biomaterials with angiogenic factors and/or cells to realize vascularized tissue engineered constructs for nano-pathophysiology. These topics are significantly overlapped in terms of three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of cells and blood vessels. Therefore, this review focuses on neovascularization of 3-D scaffold biomaterials induced by angiogenic factors and/or cells. The novel strategy of this approach in nano-pathophysiology is to utilize the vascularized tissue engineered construct as a tissue model to predict the distribution and subsequent therapeutic efficacy of a drug delivery system with different physicochemical and biological properties.

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Migration of glial cells differentiated from neurosphere-forming neural stem/progenitor cells depends on the stiffness of the chemically cross-linked collagen gel substrate

Migration of glial cells differentiated from neurosphere-forming neural stem/progenitor cells depends on the stiffness of the chemically cross-linked collagen gel substrate | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

Substrate stiffness affects cell migration and spreading. Our study revealed that the stiffness of the cell-adhesive substrate affected the migration pattern of neural cells. We observed the migration of neural cells differentiated from neurosphere-forming neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) on collagen gels with various degrees of stiffness achieved by chemical cross-linking. Both glial and neuronal cells broadly spread and migrated when stiff collagen gels (G’ = 5.5 kPa, G” = 0.2 kPa) were used as the substrate. In contrast, the migration of glial cells was suppressed within the limited area on the soft collagen gels (G’ = 0.8 kPa, G” = 0.2 kPa). Filopodia were rarely observed in glial cells on the soft collagen gels. Analysis of the intercellular distance between the closest neural cells after differentiation from NSPCs indicated that glial cells more broadly spread on the stiff collagen gels than on the soft gels. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that most of the migrated cells were glial cells, suggesting that migration of glial cells was dependent on the stiffness of substrate.

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Cells reprogrammed in living mice

Cells reprogrammed in living mice | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

Researchers have discovered a surprisingly effective way to "reprogram" mature mouse cells into an embryolike state, able to become any of the body's cell types. Their recipe: Let the transformation happen in a living animal instead of a petri dish. The finding could help scientists better understand how reprogramming works and it may one day help breed replacement tissues or organs in the lab-or in patients.

 

 

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A Review of Best Practices For Cell Culture Media Design And Processes

A Review of Best Practices For Cell Culture Media Design And Processes | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

This Ask the Expert Session was hosted by Paul J. Price, Ph.D., Media Design Consultant. Dr. Price has been a research scientist for over 50 years. Positions he has held include Branch Chief in the Center for Infectious Diseases at the CDC, and founder and Executive Vice-President of Hycor Biomedical. As a Research Fellow at Life Technologies, he helped design much of the specialized media used around the world for the culture (growth) of neurons, stem cells and other mammalian cells, including those used in Bio-Production. He is currently a consultant to several human health companies wanting to develop products in both the areas of Regenerative Medicine and Bio-Production. In June of this year he was awarded a Distinguished Lifetime Achievement Award by the Society for In Vitro Biology for his role in moving research forward in the production of products from cells (Biotechnology) and the use of cells as products (Regenerative Medicine).

 

 

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Biological Transistor that can Command Living Cells

Biological Transistor that can Command Living Cells | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

Bioengineers at Stanford University have created the first biological transistor made from genetic materials: DNA and RNA. Dubbed the “transcriptor,” this biological transistor is the final component required to build biological computers that operate inside living cells. We are now tantalizingly close to biological computers that can detect changes in a cell’s environment, store a record of that change in memory made of DNA, and then trigger some kind of response — say, commanding a cell to stop producing insulin, or to self-destruct if cancer is detected.

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The biology of boundary conditions: cellular reconstitution in one, two, and three dimensions

The biology of boundary conditions: cellular reconstitution in one, two, and three dimensions | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

Reconstituting cellular behavior outside the complex environment of the cell allows the study of biological processes in simplified and controlled settings. Making the leap from cells to test tubes, however, carries the inevitable risk of removing too much context and therefore sacrificing the important biochemical, mechanical, or geometrical constraints that guide the system's behavior. In response to this challenge, reconstitution experiments have recently begun to focus not only on including the right molecules but also on faithfully recapitulating the constraints that are present within a cell. By setting the appropriate biological boundary conditions, these experiments are uncovering how dimensional constraints within the cellular environment guide biological processes.

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Global Biochip Markets: Microarrays and Lab-on-a-Chip

BCC Research’s goal for this study was to determine the status of current and emerging biochip technologies and products and assess their worldwide growth potential over a five-year period from 2013 to 2018. We were particularly interested in characterizing the biochip markets by type (DNA microarray, protein microarray, emerging microarray, lab-on-a-chip); by function (gene expression, genotyping, micro-RNA, epigenetic, sequence capture); and by end user (R&D tools, drug discovery, and development, diagnostics, sequencing, applied).

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Human Stem Cell Research in Europe

Human Stem Cell Research in Europe | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it
New Report Calls for Sustained Public Endorsement and Funding for Human Stem Cell Research

 

 

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Cell-based assay may predict liver transplant rejection in children

Cell-based assay may predict liver transplant rejection in children | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

Rakesh Sindhi, MD, FACS, reports during The Liver Meeting that allospecific CD154+T-cytotoxic memory cells can successfully predict acute cellular rejection in children after liver or intestine transplant with high specificity and sensitivity.

 

 

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New Screening Method for Stem Cell Differentiation

New Screening Method for Stem Cell Differentiation | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it
University of Toronto researchers have developed a method that can rapidly screen human stem cells and better control what they will turn into. The technology could have potential use in regenerative medicine and drug development.
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Researchers grow large batches of neurons for drug screening

Researchers grow large batches of neurons for drug screening | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

Researchers have optimized the production from stem cells of large numbers of a subtype of neurons involved in cognitive function. The technique, published 20 August in Translational Psychiatry, could generate enough neurons for large-scale screening of drugs1.

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How To Fix Adherent Cells For Microscopy And Imaging

How To Fix Adherent Cells For Microscopy And Imaging | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

Before you can image your adherent cells you need to fix them to your microscope slides. Luckily for you- this is fairly easy to do. Thanks to the fact that adherent cells are, well, adherent, and like to grow on plastic or glass. The same stuff your microscope slides and covers are made off!

Below is a step-by-step guide to growing your adherent cells on your microscope cover slips and ‘fixing’ them for excellent imaging results.

 

 

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Dans l'intimité chromosomique d'une cellule

Dans l'intimité chromosomique d'une cellule | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it
Il est désormais possible d’étudier les conformations chromosomiques d’une cellule unique. Un outil déterminant pour une génomique haute résolution.
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Advancements in Biomedical Micro/Nano Tools and Technology

Although both microtechnology and nanotechnology deal with small-length scales, their methodologies and even governing physics often differ from one another. Microtechnology was originally derived from top-down approaches for manufacturing of microelectronics, whereas its nanoscale counterpart is closely related to bottom-up synthetic chemistry as well as high-resolution microscopy such as the scanning electron microscope and the scanning tunneling microscope. Nevertheless, they complement each other, offering a valuable set of tools for exploring small yet intriguing worlds, which our bare eyes cannot observe. The combination of micro- and nanoscience and engineering is extremely relevant to biomedical science and applications because key building blocks of the biological systems fall into micro- and nanoscales: from small tissues (>100 µm), to single cells (~10 μm), to organelles (100 nm–1 µm), and to proteins, nucleic acids, and other macromolecules (1–100 nm).

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Longitudinal, quantitative monitoring of therapeutic response in 3D in vitro tumor models with OCT for high-content therapeutic screening

Longitudinal, quantitative monitoring of therapeutic response in 3D in vitro tumor models with OCT for high-content therapeutic screening | Cell-Based Assays | Scoop.it

In vitro three-dimensional models of cancer have the ability to recapitulate many features of tumors found in vivo, including cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions, microenvironments that become hypoxic and acidic, and other barriers to effective therapy. These model tumors can be large, highly complex, heterogeneous, and undergo time-dependent growth and treatment response processes that are difficult to track and quantify using standard imaging tools. Optical coherence tomography is an optical ranging technique that is ideally suited for visualizing, monitoring, and quantifying the growth and treatment response dynamics occurring in these informative model systems. By optimizing both optical coherence tomography and 3D culture systems, it is possible to continuously and non-perturbatively monitor advanced in vitro models without the use of labels over the course of hours and days. In this chapter, we describe approaches and methods for creating and carrying out quantitative therapeutic screens with in vitro 3D cultures using optical coherence tomography to gain insights into therapeutic mechanisms and build more effective treatment regimens.

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