Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids
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Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids
Carotenoids, Folates, Flavonoids
Curated by Ashokkumar. K
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An orange a day keeps macular degeneration away: 15-year study

An orange a day keeps macular degeneration away: 15-year study | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it
A new study has shown that people who regularly eat oranges are less likely to develop macular degeneration than people who do not eat oranges.
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Genetic diversity of folate profiles in seeds of common bean, lentil, chickpea and pea

Folates are water-soluble B vitamins and act as cofactors in many metabolic functions in the human body. Pulses have traditionally been considered as a good dietary source of folates. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the concentration of folates in four cultivars each of common bean, lentil, chickpea and pea, and (2) to determine the effect of growing location on folate concentration. Six folate monoglutamates were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS). Total folate concentration ranged from 351 to 589 mg/100 g in chickpea, 165 to 232 mg/100 g in common bean, 136 to 182 mg/100 g in lentil, and 23 to 30 mg/100 g in pea. The 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) and 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-FTHF) folates were most abundant in common bean, lentil and chickpea, whereas 5-MTHF and tetrahydrofolate (THF) were
the predominant forms in pea. Significant differences were detected among cultivars for all folates across the pulses, except for 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-MTHF) in lentil, 5-MTHF in chickpea, and 5,10-MTHF and folic acid (FA) in pea. Significant effects for location and cultivar by location were also observed for the majority of the folates.

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Identification and determination of flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll concentration in Cynodon dactylon (L.) by HPLC analysis

Identification and determination of flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll concentration in Cynodon dactylon (L.) by HPLC analysis | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it
(2015). Identification and determination of flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll concentration in Cynodon dactylon (L.) by HPLC analysis. Natural Product Research: Vol. 29, No. 8, pp. 785-790. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2014.986125
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Cynodon dactylon (L.) is a potent medicinal plant in the traditional and current Indian medicinal systems. The objective of this research was to find out the levels of flavonoids,
carotenoids and chlorophyll b in C. dactylon leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a diode array detector. HPLC analysis revealed that total carotenoid and total flavonoid concentration were 62mg/100 g and 249.1mg/g, respectively. The mean chlorophyll b was 85.1mg/100 g in C. dactylon. Among the flavonoids, quercetin (164.7mg/g) was the major flavonoid followed by kaempferol
(48.2mg/g), rutin (18.4mg/g), catechin (12.1mg/g) and myricetin (5.7mg/g). Of the carotenoids, b-carotene (35.2 mg/100 g) was predominant followed by lutein (17.0mg/100 g), violaxanthin (5.8mg/100 g) and zeaxanthin (4.2mg/100 g). Chlorophyll
b concentration was 85.1mg/100 g in C. dactylon. The results of this investigation should be useful information for further pharmacological studies.

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Chlorella Found To Be Effective Lutein Source.

Chlorella Found To Be Effective Lutein Source. | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it

Behind all that chlorophyll, chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris) is a rich source of lutein, a healthful carotenoid that can colors plants yellow. But Japanese researchers acknowledge that little is known of how lutein from these green algae is concentrated in the blood.

 

A recent human trial showed that chlorella increased lutein in human blood plasma, but carotenoids are known to reside in both human blood plasma and erythrocytes (red blood cells). Studies indicate an importance of lutein when it’s found in erythrocytes, but little information is available on chlorella, or other food sources of lutein, for efficiently sending lutein to these specific blood compartments.

 

Writing in the Journal of Oleo Science, Japanese researchers believe they have the first evidence that chlorella lutein reaches erythrocytes. For two months, 12 healthy subjects were assigned to consume a large dose of chlorella daily (9 g), equaling 32 mg of lutein daily. Blood collections at the end of each supplementation month, and one month after, would reveal how chlorella affected concentrations of lutein and other carotenoids in erythrocytes.

 

Lutein concentrations in erythrocytes increased four-fold during supplementation and dropped back by the final blood reading, one month after supplementation. Zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene levels also increased. An absence in any other meaningful changes in other blood biochemistry left the researchers to conclude that even this large dose of chlorella is safe for human consumption.

Because of lutein’s ability to act as an antioxidant, and this new indication of its arrival at erythrocytes, there may be additional breakthroughs to uncover. The researchers explain:


Via Jonathan Middleton
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PLOS ONE: The Flavonoid Pathway in Tomato Seedlings: Transcript Abundance and the Modeling of Metabolite Dynamics

PLOS ONE: The Flavonoid Pathway in Tomato Seedlings: Transcript Abundance and the Modeling of Metabolite Dynamics | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it

Flavonoids are secondary metabolites present in all terrestrial plants. The flavonoid pathway has been extensively studied, and many of the involved genes and metabolites have been described in the literature. Despite this extensive knowledge, the functioning of the pathway in vivo is still poorly understood. Here, we study the flavonoid pathway using both experiments and mathematical models. We measured flavonoid metabolite dynamics in two tissues, hypocotyls and cotyledons, during tomato seedling development. Interestingly, the same backbone of interactions leads to very different accumulation patterns in the different tissues. Initially, we developed a mathematical model with constant enzyme concentrations that described the metabolic networks separately in both tissues. This model was unable to fit the measured flavonoid dynamics in the hypocotyls, even if we allowed unrealistic parameter values. This suggested us to investigate the effect of transcript abundance on flavonoid accumulation. We found that the expression of candidate flavonoid genes varies considerably with time. Variation in transcript abundance results in enzymatic variation, which could have a large effect on metabolite accumulation. Candidate transcript abundance was included in the mathematical model as representative for enzyme concentration. We fitted the resulting model to the flavonoid dynamics in the cotyledons, and tested it by applying it to the data from hypocotyls. When transcript abundance is included, we are indeed able to explain flavonoid dynamics in both tissues. Importantly, this is possible under the biologically relevant restriction that the enzymatic properties estimated by the model are conserved between the tissues.


Via Plant Breeding and Genomics News
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Polyphenols Isolated from Propolis Augment TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

Polyphenols Isolated from Propolis Augment TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it

Epidemiological data support the concept that phenols and polyphenols in diet are safe and nontoxic, and have long-lasting beneficial effects on human health. The potential target for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research has been on the discovery of natural compounds that can be used in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Propolis is one of the richest sources of plant phenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids). The ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and its polyphenols possess immunomodulatory, chemopreventive, and antitumor effects. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a naturally occurring anticancer agent that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and is not toxic to normal cells. Endogenous TRAIL plays a significant role in immunosurveillance and defense against cancer cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL-mediated death, it is important to develop new strategies to overcome this resistance. EEP and polyphenols isolated from propolis have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the crucial role of the main phenolics isolated from propolis in enhancing TRAIL-mediated death in tumor cells for cancer chemoprevention.


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High-Provitamin A Carotenoid (Orange) Maize Increases Hepatic Vitamin A Reserves of Offspring in a Vitamin A-Depleted Sow-Piglet Model during Lactation - Heying &al (2013) - J Nutr

The relationship of dietary vitamin A transfer from mother to fetus is not well understood. The difference in swine offspring liver reserves was investigated between single-dose vitamin A provided to the mother post-conception compared with continuous provitamin A carotenoid dietary intake from biofortified (enhanced provitamin A) orange maize (OM) fed during gestation and lactation.

 

Vitamin A-depleted sows were fed OM (n = 5) or white maize (WM) + 1.05 mmol retinyl palmitate administered at the beginning of gestation (n = 6). Piglets (n = 102) were killed at 0, 10, 20, and 28 d after birth... Consumption of daily provitamin A carotenoids by sows during gestation and lactation increased liver retinol status in weanling piglets, illustrating the potential for... biofortified staple foods to improve vitamin A reserves. Biofortified OM could have a measurable impact on vitamin A status in deficient populations if widely adopted...


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Flavonoids Induce the Synthesis and Secretion of Neurotrophic ...

Flavonoids Induce the Synthesis and Secretion of Neurotrophic ... | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it
Calycosin and other flavonoids were purchased from the National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical Biology Products (NICPBP; Beijing, China), Sigma (St. Louis, MO) Wakojunyaku (Osaka, Japan), or Kunming Institute of Botany, ...
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Bioaccessibility of carotenoids from trans... [J Agric Food Chem. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

PubMed comprises more than 22 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Enhanced Antioxidant and Protective Activities on Retinal Ganglion Cells of Carotenoids-Overexpressing Transgenic Carrot - Yoon &al (2013) - Curr Drug Targets

Carotenoids are considered to act as antioxidants and protect humans from serious disorders such as skin degeneration and ageing, cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and age-related diseases of the eye. In this study, these chemopreventive activities of a carotenoids-overexpressing transgenic carrot were evaluated.

 

The results of DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radical scavenging tests demonstrate that the acetone extract obtained from the taproots of the carrot plants exhibits significant antioxidant activity. A higher activity was detected in the transgenic carrot extract compared with the wild-type extract.

 

A chemopreventive activity test for degenerative diseases of the eye revealed that pretreatment with the carrot extract reduced cell death in a retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5 cells exposed to 1-buthionine-(R,S)-sulfoximine and L-glutamic acid.


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7 Foods that Contain Carotenoids | 3FC

7 Foods that Contain Carotenoids | 3FC | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it
Carotenoids are abundant in certain foods; there are many ways to include carotenoids in your diet and doing so is important. Carotenoids consist of dark
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Flavonoids in fruits, vegetables and nuts dramatically lower cancer rates

Flavonoids in fruits, vegetables and nuts dramatically lower cancer rates | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it
Flavonoids in fruits, vegetables and nuts dramatically lower cancer rates (Flavonoids in fruits, vegetables and nuts dramatically lower cancer rates: http://t.co/L7dMuo2bMK)...
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Identification and determination of naturally occurring folates in rice

The genetic potential and biofortification of India-grown rice with bioavailable folate has not been studied yet. The objectives of this study were to determine the folates concentration in four cultivars of rice through UPLC–MS/MS. Total folate concentration in rice cultivars ranged from 11.0 to 51 μg/100 g with a mean of 26.0 μg/100 g. Among the four rice cultivars, the pigmented grain cultivar Nootripathu possesses two-fold rich sources of total folates than the other three non-pigmented grain cultivars. The average value of 100 g serving of rice grains could provide the amount of recommended daily allowance (% RDA) of dietary folates (6.5%) for adults, which ranged from 2.7–12.7%. Among the 5 individual forms of folates, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate was most abundant in rice cultivars followed by 10-Formylfolic acid and folic acid. The result of this study has been useful for biofortification of folates in rice.
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Genetic diversity of nutritionally important carotenoids in 94 pea and 121 chickpea accessions

Biofortification of staple crops via breeding is an attractive strategy for reducing human micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this research was to examine the concentration of carotenoids in diverse pea and chickpea accessions grown in Saskatchewan (Canada) using high performance liquid chromatography. In pea accessions mean concentration of lutein was highest (11.2 mg g1) followed by b-carotene (0.5 mg g1), zeaxanthin (0.3 mg g1), and violaxanthin (0.3 mg g1). Green cotyledon pea accessions were richer in b-carotene and total carotenoids compared to yellow cotyledon accessions. In chickpea accessions mean concentration of lutein (8.2 mg g1) was highest followed by zeaxanthin (6.2 mg g1), b-carotene (0.5 mg g1), b-cryptoxanthin (0.1 mg g1), and violaxanthin (0.1 mg g1). Desi chickpea accessions had higher carotenoid concentration than kabuli accessions. This research identified pea and chickpea
accessions that can be utilized in breeding for the improvement of carotenoid concentration through biofortification.

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Effect of type of TAG fatty acids on lutein and zeaxanthin bioavailability

Effect of type of TAG fatty acids on lutein and zeaxanthin bioavailability | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it

The xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin probably play a role in visual function and may participate in the prevention of age-related eye diseases. Although a minimum amount of TAG is required for an optimal bioavailability of these carotenoids, the effect of the type of TAG fatty acids (FA) is less clear. The aim was to assess the effect of the type of TAG FA on bioavailability of these xanthophylls. A total of three complementary models were used: an in vitro digestion model to study bioaccessibility, Caco-2 cells to study uptake efficiency and orally administered rats to study in vivo bioavailability. Results showed that lutein and zeaxanthin bioaccessibility was greater (about 20–30 %, P< 0·05) with butter and palm oil than with olive and fish oils. Mixed micelle size, which was significantly lower (about 8 %, P< 0·05) with SFA than with unsaturated FA, was inversely related to lutein and zeaxanthin bioaccessibility. There was no significant effect of the type of TAG FA on xanthophyll uptake by Caco-2 cells, but some compounds present in natural oils significantly affected xanthophyll uptake. Oral administration of rats with spinach and butter over 3 d led to a higher fasting plasma lutein concentration than oral administration with olive or fish oils. In conclusion, dietary fats rich in SFA lead to a higher bioavailability of lutein and zeaxanthin, as compared with fats rich in MUFA and PUFA. This is due partly to the higher bioaccessibility of these xanthophylls in the smaller mixed micelles produced when SFA are incorporated into mixed micelles.


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Absorption of Vitamin A and Carotenoids

Abstract: Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in most developing countries, especially in children and pregnant women. It is thus a priority in health policy to improve preformed vitamin A and/or provitamin A ...
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Lentils (Lens culinaris L.), a Rich Source of Folates - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications)

Lentils (Lens culinaris L.), a Rich Source of Folates - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications) | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it

The potential for genetic biofortification of U.S.-grown lentils (Lens culinaris L.) with bioavailable folate has not been widely studied. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the folate concentration of 10 commercial lentil cultivars grown in Minot and McLean counties, North Dakota, USA, in 2010 and 2011, (2) to determine the genotype (G) × environmental (E) interactions for folate concentration in lentil cultivars, and (3) to compare the folate concentration of other pulses [field peas (Pisum sativum L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)] grown in the United States. Folate concentration in lentil cultivars ranged from 216 to 290 μg/100 g with a mean of 255 μg/100 g. In addition, lentil showed higher folate concentration compared to chickpea (42–125 μg/100 g), yellow field pea (41–55 μg/100 g), and green field pea (50–202 μg/100 g). A 100 g serving of lentils could provide a significant amount of the recommended daily allowance of dietary folates (54–73%) for adults. A significant year × location interaction on lentil folate concentration was observed; this indicates that possible location sourcing may be required for future lentil folate research.


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Breast Cancer Fighting Foods: Carotenoids

Carrots are not just essential for eye health, they are "breast cancer fighting foods" & contain carotenoids, now believed to help fight cancer. Read more here.


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Increase in β-ionone, a carotenoid-derived volatile in zeaxanthin-biofortified sweet-corn - Gallon &al (2013) - Ag Food Chem

Increase in β-ionone, a carotenoid-derived volatile in zeaxanthin-biofortified sweet-corn - Gallon &al (2013) - Ag Food Chem | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it

Carotenoids are responsible for the yellow color of sweet-corn... but are also potentially the source of flavor compounds from the cleavage of carotenoid molecules. The carotenoid-derived volatile, β-ionone was identified in both standard yellow sweet-corn ('Hybrix5') and a zeaxanthin-enhanced experimental variety ('HZ') designed for sufferers of macular degeneration.

 

As β-ionone is highly-perceivable at extremely low concentration by humans, it was important to confirm if alterations in carotenoid profile may also affect flavor volatiles...

 

Delaying harvest of cobs resulted in a significant increase of both carotenoid and β-ionone concentrations, producing a six-fold increase of β-ionone in 'HZ', and a two-fold increase in 'Hybrix5', reaching a maximum of 62 µg/kg FW and 24 µg/kg FW, respectively.


Via Alexander J. Stein
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Alexander J. Stein's curator insight, June 29, 2013 5:44 PM

Interesting that cultivation practices (delayed harvesting) can have such an impact. This means the impact of biofortification may be improved further through more extension work.

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ScienceDirect.com - Plant Science - Review: Metabolic engineering and in vitro biosynthesis of phytochemicals and non-natural analogues

ScienceDirect.com - Plant Science - Review: Metabolic engineering and in vitro biosynthesis of phytochemicals and non-natural analogues | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it

Over the years, natural products from plants and their non-natural derivatives have shown to be active against different types of chronic diseases. However, isolation of such natural products can be limited due to their low bioavailability, and environmental restrictions. To address these issues, in vivo and in vitroreconstruction of plant metabolic pathways and the metabolic engineering of microbes and plants have been used to generate libraries of compounds. Significant advances have been made through metabolic engineering of microbes and plant cells to generate a variety of compounds (e.g. isoprenoids, flavonoids, or stilbenes) using a diverse array of methods to optimize these processes (e.g. host selection, operational variables, precursor selection, gene modifications). These approaches have been used also to generate non-natural analogues with different bioactivity. In vitro biosynthesis allows the synthesis of intermediates as well as final products avoiding post-translational limitations. Moreover, this strategy allows the use of substrates and the production of metabolites that could be toxic for cells, or expand the biosynthesis into non-conventional media (e.g. organic solvents, supercritical fluids). A perspective is also provided on the challenges for generating novel chemical structures and the potential of combining metabolic engineering and in vitro biocatalysis to produce metabolites with more potent biological activities.


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Higher Lutein and Zeaxanthin Levels May Help Guard Against Cataract

Higher Lutein and Zeaxanthin Levels May Help Guard Against Cataract | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it
In the British Journal of Nutrition, Finnish researchers report that increased plasma levels of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are associated with a lower risk of cataract in older individua...

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Targeted transcriptomic and metabolic profiling reveals temporal bottlenecks in the maize carotenoid pathway that can be addressed by multigene engineering - The Plant Journal

Targeted transcriptomic and metabolic profiling reveals temporal bottlenecks in the maize carotenoid pathway that can be addressed by multigene engineering - The Plant Journal | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it

Carotenoids are a diverse group of tetraterpenoid pigments found in plants, fungi, bacteria and some animals. They play vital roles in plants and provide important health benefits to mammals including humans. We previously reported the creation of a diverse population of transgenic maize plants expressing different carotenogenic gene combinations and exhibiting distinct metabolic phenotypes. Here we carried out an in depth targeted mRNA and metabolomic analysis of the pathway to characterize the specific impact of five carotenogenic transgenes and their interactions with twelve endogenous genes in four different transgenic lines representing distinct genotypes and phenotypes. We reconstructed the temporal profile of the carotenoid pathway during endosperm development at the mRNA and metabolic levels (for total and individual carotenoids) and investigated the impact of transgene expression on the endogenous pathway. These studies enabled us to investigate the extent of any interactions between the introduced transgenic and native partial carotenoid pathways during maize endosperm development. Importantly, we developed a theoretical model which explains these interactions, and suggest functioning modes for the pathway that identify intervention points allowing the maize endosperm carotenoid pathway to be engineered in a more effective and predictable manner.

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Natural flavonoids from fruits and vegetables dramatically lower cancer risk

Natural flavonoids from fruits and vegetables dramatically lower cancer risk | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it
Natural flavonoids from fruits and vegetables dramatically lower cancer risk (Natural flavonoids from fruits and vegetables dramatically lower cancer risk: http://t.co/58z8lb3y1L)...
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Green tea and cocoa epicatechin flavonoids lower diabetes risk and extend lifespan

Green tea and cocoa epicatechin flavonoids lower diabetes risk and extend lifespan | Carotenoids, Folates & Flavonoids | Scoop.it
Green tea and cocoa epicatechin flavonoids lower diabetes risk and extend lifespan (Green tea and cocoa epicatechin flavonoids lower diabetes risk and extend lifespan: http://t.co/RE12cMJLcf)...
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