Bystander Effect
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Bystander intervention: falling on deaf ears? - The Denisonian

Bystander intervention: falling on deaf ears? - The Denisonian | Bystander Effect | Scoop.it
Bystander intervention: falling on deaf ears?
The Denisonian
True or false: When something bad happens and there are more people around, people are more likely to help.
Shelby Hughes's insight:

I consider this article of utmost important because it regards all college students and the bystander effect that can happen on campus. There is special training for curbing the habit of being a bystander, but few students attend these events. However, it has been found that if there is a rounded education about our natural tendency to be a bystander it increases the chance that the trained individual will intervene on a negative situation (Myers, 2014). 

There is many situations that can occur on campus in which individuals need help from peers or even stingers. There is too often the notion that it is not your responsibility to act which can cause tragedy (Myers, 2014).We may also assume appointed aids (R.A, campus patrol, Hall monitors) will take the responsibility to intervene (Myers, 2014).

 It was found in a study that if the amount of perceive danger was higher the more likely it was that an individual in a group would intervene (Fischer, P., Krueger, J. I., Greitemeyer, T., Vogrincic, C., Kastenmüller, A., Frey, D., & ... Kainbacher, M. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 517-537. doi:10.1037/a0023304). However, if diffusion of responsibility, clarity of the situation, and perceived a non-dangerous situation occur then the bystander effect will be present. (Myers, 2014 & Fischer at el. 2011) If there are more members of the witness group the responsibility numerically disperses evenly throughout the group (Burkley, 2009). If we were all to assume we accrue 100% of responsibly of the safety of an individual we will be more likely to help (Burkley, 2009). 

 

We as college students can take a stand from breaking the bystander effect and become educated (Myers, 2014). 

 

                                                References 

 

Burkley, M., (2009). Why Don’t We Help? Less is More, At Least When it Comes to Bystanders: Psychology Today (http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-social-thinker/200911/why-don-t-we-help-less-is-more-least-when-it-comes-bystanders)

 

Fischer, P., Krueger, J. I., Greitemeyer, T., Vogrincic, C., Kastenmüller, A.,   Frey, D., & ... Kainbacher, M. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 517-537. doi:10.1037/a0023304Myers, D. G. (2014). Exploring psychology in modules: With updates on dsm-5. S.l.: Worth Pub.

 

Myers, D. G. (2014). Exploring psychology in modules: With updates on dsm-5. S.l.: Worth Pub.

 

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Half a Century Later, Psychology Researchers Remember Kitty Genovese - Association for Psychological Science

Half a Century Later, Psychology Researchers Remember Kitty Genovese - Association for Psychological Science | Bystander Effect | Scoop.it

Fifty years ago today, a young woman was killed walking home from work in a quiet neighborhood of Queens, New York. Over the span of an excruciating half hour, she cried out for help as her killer maimed and stabbed her. And though there were people around who heard her calls, no one came to her aid and the police weren’t notified until it was too late.

This is the story of Kitty Genovese’s death, perhaps the most well-known parable in psychology to emerge in the last century. Her tragic death in the early hours of March 13, 1964 marked the beginning of what would become one of the most studied of psychological phenomena – that is, the bystander effect, in which people tend not to help a victim if there are other people present. First demonstrated in 1968 by John Darley and Bibb Latané, the bystander effect has been the subject of countless studies, all of which stem from Kitty Genovese.

In commemoration of Genovese’s life and tragic death, a group of scholars, historians, journalists, and activists recently gathered at a Fordham University conference. Twenty-four speakers and many members of the public converged at the meeting to share their stories and insights, discussing Genovese’s life, the facts and phenomena behind her tragic death, and the ways in which she has changed society in the last half century.

Shelby Hughes's insight:

This is an infamous example of the phenomenon in which people reacted to a brutal rape and murder. Because of the reaction people had, or lack there of, to this terrible situation a questions was generated in regards to why people did not intervene to help Kitty Genovese (Myers, 2014). John Darley and Bibb Latane conducted a series of experiments trying to find the empirical validity of what they called "The Bystander Effect" (Fischer, P., Krueger, J. I., Greitemeyer, T., Vogrincic, C., Kastenmüller, A., Frey, D., & ... Kainbacher, M. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 517-537. doi:10.1037/a0023304). A recent study conducted a meta-analytic study to test the bystander effect in dangerous and non-dangerous situations (Fischer at el,. 2011). It concluded that the presence of the bystander effect was there but also it was higher in non-dangerous situations (Fischer at el, 2011). The suggestion as to why this occurs is the clarity of the situation effects whether or not a person will intervene (Fischer at el, 2011). Also known as the "Arousal- Cost reward model (Fischner at el, 2011). Although the bystander effect still occurs it may not be as concrete as we thought, there is still a chance of help in a dangerous situation (Fischner at el, 2011). If the people around you are aware or perceive you to be in serious danger the chance increases that they will come to your aid (Fischner at el, 2011). 

 

                                 References

 

Fischer, P., Krueger, J. I., Greitemeyer, T., Vogrincic, C., Kastenmüller, A., Frey, D., & ... Kainbacher, M. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 517-537. doi:10.1037/a0023304Myers, D. G. (2014). Exploring psychology in modules: With updates on dsm-5. S.l.: Worth Pub.

 

Myers, D. G. (2014). Exploring psychology in modules: With updates on dsm-5. S.l.: Worth Pub.

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When Good People Do Nothing: The Appalling Story of South Carolina's Prisons

When Good People Do Nothing: The Appalling Story of South Carolina's Prisons | Bystander Effect | Scoop.it
 A judge's order in an inmate abuse case highlights the role played, or not played, by the state's political and legal infrastructure.

Via Jocelyn Stoller
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The Time I Totally Failed to Stand Up to a Street Harasser - New York Magazine

The Time I Totally Failed to Stand Up to a Street Harasser - New York Magazine | Bystander Effect | Scoop.it
 An embarrassing lesson in bystander (non)intervention.
Shelby Hughes's insight:

This is a peculiar insight of an individual whom experienced the bystander effect themselves by not intervening to the harassment of another individual. This is a useful diagram that depicts what may go through an individuals head while making the decision to act. The diffusion of responsibility is an example reason as to why some individuals do not intervene, "Its not my problem" or "Nobody else is doing anything" are the two phrases that are generated by the thought process (Myers, 2014). 

We can also see that this was an example of a non-dangerous situation. When people perceive a situation as non-dangerous the likelihood of aid is decreased (Fischer, P., Krueger, J. I., Greitemeyer, T., Vogrincic, C., Kastenmüller, A., Frey, D., & ... Kainbacher, M. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 517-537. doi:10.1037/a0023304). If the situation was unclear to this individual their intervention is also, in theory, is to decrease (Fischer at el. 2011). The key to help people evade this behavior is to realize when you are being affected by bystander effect (Fischer at el. 2011). Know to intervene for actions of  both immoral abuse and dangerous situations (Fischer at el. 2011). 

A term that is called “Pluralistic Ignorance” is used to describe the occurrence when someone is slow to assess a situation as an emergency or not (Burkley, 2009). Here is the thing, you CAN make a difference. This essentially describes the decision making  process when a situation arises in need of aid. If we can realize this and quickly asses the situation we will be likely to aid (Burkley, 2009). 

We CAN make a difference. 

 

                                         References

 

Burkley, M., (2009). Why Don’t We Help? Less is More, At Least When it Comes to Bystanders: Psychology Today (http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-social-thinker/200911/why-don-t-we-help-less-is-more-least-when-it-comes-bystanders)

 

Fischer, P., Krueger, J. I., Greitemeyer, T., Vogrincic, C., Kastenmüller, A., Frey, D., & ... Kainbacher, M. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 517-537. doi:10.1037/a0023304Myers, D. G. (2014). Exploring psychology in modules: With updates on dsm-5. S.l.: Worth Pub.

 

Myers, D. G. (2014). Exploring psychology in modules: With updates on dsm-5. S.l.: Worth Pub.

 

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Hozier - Take Me To Church - YouTube

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Hozier/167555553297787 https://twitter.com/Hozier Directed, Shot and Edited by Brendan Canty and Conal Thomson of Feel Good Lo...


Via Homophobia news watch
Shelby Hughes's insight:

This music video depicts the harsh persecution that the LGBQ group in modern Russia face. This video struck me as a direct example of the bystander effect, the increased chance that a bystander to a negative situation will not intervene (Myers, 2014). The bystander effect can not only affect small situations but wrongful behavior on a larger scale. It was noted in a study that not only is the bystander effect present in real life situations but more recently the by way of the internet (Fischer, P., Krueger, J. I., Greitemeyer, T., Vogrincic, C., Kastenmüller, A., Frey, D., & ... Kainbacher, M. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 517-537. doi:10.1037/a0023304). 

This is important to keep in mind as individuals and groups are persecuted silently through means of a typed word and by word of mouth. This video is a striking message to the people around the world for the need to hold compassion and tolerance for others. We simply can not "stand by" and watch as injustice occurs before our eyes.

Would you stand up for this couple as the were being brutally beaten for expressing their love?  

                                         References

 

Fischer, P., Krueger, J. I., Greitemeyer, T., Vogrincic, C., Kastenmüller, A., Frey, D., & ... Kainbacher, M. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 517-537. doi:10.1037/a0023304Myers, D. G. (2014). Exploring psychology in modules: With updates on dsm-5. S.l.: Worth Pub.

 

Myers, D. G. (2014). Exploring psychology in modules: With updates on dsm-5. S.l.: Worth Pub.

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Man who saw Philadelphia abduction and alerted police is called a hero - CNN

Man who saw Philadelphia abduction and alerted police is called a hero - CNN | Bystander Effect | Scoop.it
Philadelphia police say that their case into a woman's abduction may not have turned out so well if not for the help of witness Dwayne Fletcher.
Shelby Hughes's insight:

This national headline is an example of when the bystander effect does not take place, however, could have. The abduction of this woman with others looking on has a theoretical indication that she would not be helped because of the decreased likelihood of others intervening with aid in a negative situation (Myers, 2014).

It is suggested that if this gentleman had not called the police this woman's outcome would not have been so good. 

There are limitation and details we must point out in this situation. This is a middle ground between the bystander effect. The man did not physically intervene which is apart of the description the bystander effect holds (Myers, 2014). However, the situation is supported to not be an execution of bystander effect because studies suggest that the higher level of danger the more likely someone will intervene, which occurred in this situation (Fischer, P., Krueger, J. I., Greitemeyer, T., Vogrincic, C., Kastenmüller, A., Frey, D., & ... Kainbacher, M. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 517-537. doi:10.1037/a0023304). It also has been found that if a bystander has a higher level of clarity of the situation the chances of intervention will also increase (Fischer at el. 2011). 

So my question is: What can we do to clearly recognize a dangerous situation and make the decision to intervene? 

 

                                              References

 

Fischer, P., Krueger, J. I., Greitemeyer, T., Vogrincic, C., Kastenmüller, A., Frey, D., & ... Kainbacher, M. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 517-537. doi:10.1037/a0023304Myers, D. G. (2014). Exploring psychology in modules: With updates on dsm-5. S.l.: Worth Pub.

 

Myers, D. G. (2014). Exploring psychology in modules: With updates on dsm-5. S.l.: Worth Pub.

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Online Bullying Just As Harmful for Children As Offline --Doctors Lounge

Online Bullying Just As Harmful for Children As Offline --Doctors Lounge | Bystander Effect | Scoop.it

Via Tom D'Amico (@TDOttawa)
Shelby Hughes's insight:

Either we have all experienced online bullying or have seen our peers being attacked by an online bully. Did you say anything when you saw a cruel injustice? Did anyone stand up for you? Each and everyday there is a post or tweet directed to hurt someone; a passive-aggressive killer. 

The bystanders in this situation are those who see the abuse and choose to scroll passed it and not give aid to the individual (Myers, 2014) Studies show that the chances of the bystander effect decrease in a dangerous situation (Fischer, P., Krueger, J. I., Greitemeyer, T., Vogrincic, C., Kastenmüller, A., Frey, D., & ... Kainbacher, M. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 517-537. doi:10.1037/a0023304). It is suggested that it may be explained with the "Arousal- Cost Reward Model" Fischer, at el. 2011). So in a situation that there is no direct danger the chances of aid are diminished (Fischer at el. 2011). 

Online bullying is not a clearly recognized as a dangerous situation and it can therefor be inferred that there is a higher chance that the bystander effect will take place (Myers, 2014). This is in fact a dangerous situation as there is a higher rate of suicide and absence from school from those affected by online bullying (Holt, 2014). 

Will we simply stand by as others are being attacked by online bullying? 

 

                                        References

 

Fischer, P., Krueger, J. I., Greitemeyer, T., Vogrincic, C., Kastenmüller, A., Frey, D., & ... Kainbacher, M. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 517-537. doi:10.1037/a0023304Myers, D. G. (2014). Exploring psychology in modules: With updates on dsm-5. S.l.: Worth Pub.

 

Myers, D. G. (2014). Exploring psychology in modules: With updates on dsm-5. S.l.: Worth Pub.

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Cecilia Balderas-Sanders's curator insight, June 24, 2013 10:50 PM

This article provides some statistical information.