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How Mindfulness Meditation Works In The Brain

How Mindfulness Meditation Works In The Brain | Buddhism | Scoop.it

Mindfulness may be so successful in helping with a range of conditions, from depression to pain, by working as a sort of "volume knob" for sensations, according to a new review of studies from Brown University researchers.


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How Mindfulness Meditation Works In The Brain

How Mindfulness Meditation Works In The Brain | Buddhism | Scoop.it

Mindfulness may be so successful in helping with a range of conditions, from depression to pain, by working as a sort of "volume knob" for sensations, according to a new review of studies from Brown University researchers.


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The Many Benefits of Mindfulness | Psychalive

The Many Benefits of Mindfulness | Psychalive | Buddhism | Scoop.it

Among its many benefits, mindfulness meditation has proven to increase telomerase, which reduces cell damage and lengthens lives. Read more benefits here!


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Beginners | Buddhism now

Beginners | Buddhism now | Buddhism | Scoop.it
Posts about Beginners written by Buddhism Now (Buddhism for beginners, http://t.co/J3vTR13k3R and those with the beginners mind :-) Enjoy!)
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Consider the Source: Why is Mahayana Buddhism a "snow zone ...

Consider the Source: Why is Mahayana Buddhism a "snow zone tradition"? If you look on a map, you'll see that the spread of Mahayana Buddhism matches places where the winters are bad and it snows a lot.
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A Question of Wholeness

A Question of Wholeness | Buddhism | Scoop.it

From my own view, the problem is with the conceptual limitations of the dualistic categories of dialectical mind. For 2000 years, dialectical reasoning has grown in sophistication by creating synthetic (or transcendent or meta-) narratives to reconcile contraries. Postmodernism comes along and points out that meta-narratives aren’t really doing the work that we supposed them to do. They don’t really solve the dichotomies, they basically take one of three ways out 1) reduce them to conceptually more foundational dichotomies — such that, for example, you have the ultimate contrasts in Buddhism “emptiness” and “form” and two truths doctrine (relative and absolute) , Schopenhauer gives us “world” and “representation” for Derrida we have “sameness” and “difference” or the ultimate contrast in Hegel “matter” and “spirit” or in Bhaskar “absence” and “identity” …. or 2) hold paradoxes simultaneously– as “two sides of the same coin” — this is Wilber’s tetra-emergence, or Heidegger’s paradoxical thinking, and also Nishida Kitaro’s answer to Hegel, or 3) establish a meta-theoretical framework upon which the endless synthetic narratives can be adjudicated — hence Integral theory is a meta-theory which contextualizes ‘green’ narratives as “higher” than “blue” narratives — the problem is, a different meta-theoretical framework such as Critical Realism can, through explanatory critique, counter the Integral meta- framework, and so one is left with the frustrating position of having to formulate a meta-meta framework to contextualize the meta-theoretical frameworks. It is easy to show that this pushes the situation of “grand narratives” up a notch in terms of conceptual sophistication, but it does not solve the problem of grand narratives and as such is still subject to the post-modern critique (IMO).


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Can Prayer Lead to Enlightenment in Buddhism?

Can Prayer Lead to Enlightenment in Buddhism? | Buddhism | Scoop.it
The Theravada Buddhist tradition holds that the Buddha was not a deity but a human being who was fully enlightened by way of his own efforts. In the Mahayana tradition, the Buddha is often viewed as ...
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Beyond Happiness: Buddhism and Human Flourishing - Patheos

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This guy knows happiness! His Holiness the Dalai Lama poses with a wax figure of himself from Madam Tussauds on display at the Sydney Entertainment Center, venue for his three days of teachings in Sydney, Australia, on ...
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The Power of Mindfulness

http://conference.buddhistgeeks.com Can 8 weeks of practice change how the brain processes sadness? In this video clip taken from the Buddhist Geeks Conferen...


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Five Ways to Make Mindfulness More Manly | Mindful

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More women than men enroll in #mindfulness courses. How can we change that? http://t.co/ONDjujb7kC via @GreaterGoodSC #meditation


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Top 10 Things Most People Don't Know About Mindfulness ...

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Important observations and findings to boost your understanding By Ryan M. Niemiec, Psy.D....


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Mahayana Buddhism - Alan Watts (1960)

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Outlines of Mahayana Buddhism (Classic Reprint) read online - Blog ...

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Mindfulness - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Glossary of Buddhism

Mindfulness (Pali: sati,[1]Sanskrit: smṛti; also translated as awareness) is a spiritual or psychological faculty (indriya) that, according to the teaching of the Buddha, is considered to be of great importance in the path to enlightenment . It is one of the seven factors of enlightenment. "Correct" or "right" mindfulness (Pali: sammā-sati, Sanskrit samyak-smṛti) is the seventh element of the noble eightfold path. Mindfulness meditation can also be traced back to the earlier Upanishads, part of Hindu scripture.[2]

Enlightenment (bodhi) is a state of being in which greed, hatred and delusion (Pali: moha) have been overcome, abandoned and are absent from the mind. Mindfulness, which, among other things, is an attentive awareness of the reality of things (especially of the present moment) is an antidote to delusion and is considered as such a 'power' (Pali: bala). This faculty becomes a power in particular when it is coupled with clear comprehension of whatever is taking place.

Mindfulness From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   Jump to: navigation, search     This article is about mindfulness in Buddhism.  For information on the use of mindfulness in Western psychology, see Mindfulness (psychology).  For other uses, see Mindfulness (disambiguation). Translations of

Mindfulness

English: mindfulness, awareness, inspection, recollection, retention Pali: sati Sanskrit: smṛti (स्मृति) Chinese: nian, 念 Japanese: ネン (rōmaji: nen) Korean: 염 (RR: yeom or yŏm) Tibetan: དྲན་པ། (Wylie: dran pa; THL: trenpa/drenpa) Vietnamese: niệm Glossary of Buddhism view talk edit Part of a series on Buddhism History[show] Timeline Councils Gautama Buddha Later Buddhists Dharma or concepts[show] Four Noble Truths Five Aggregates Impermanence Suffering Non-self Dependent Origination Middle Way Emptiness Karma Rebirth Samsara Cosmology Practices[show] Three Jewels Buddhist Paths to liberation Morality Perfections Meditation Mindfulness Wisdom Compassion Aids to Enlightenment Monasticism Laity Nirvāṇa[show] Four Stages Arahant Buddha Bodhisattva Traditions ·Canons[show] Theravāda Pāli Mahāyāna Hinayana Chinese Vajrayāna Tibetan   Outline Buddhism portal v t e

Mindfulness (Pali: sati, Sanskrit: smṛti; also translated as awareness) is a spiritual or psychological faculty (indriya) that is considered to be of great importance in the path to enlightenment according to the teaching of the Buddha. It is one of the seven factors of enlightenment. "Correct" or "right" mindfulness (Pali: sammā-sati, Sanskrit samyak-smṛti) is the seventh element of the noble eightfold path. Mindfulness meditation can also be traced back to the earlier Upanishads, part of Hindu scripture.[1]

Enlightenment (bodhi) is a state of being in which greed, hatred and delusion (Pali: moha) have been overcome, abandoned and are absent from the mind. Mindfulness, which, among other things, is an attentive awareness of the reality of things (especially of the present moment) is an antidote to delusion and is considered as such a 'power' (Pali: bala). This faculty becomes a power in particular when it is coupled with clear comprehension of whatever is taking place.

The Buddha advocated that one should establish mindfulness (satipatthana) in one's day-to-day life maintaining as much as possible a calm awareness of one's bodily functions, sensations (feelings), objects of consciousness (thoughts and perceptions), and consciousness itself. The practice of mindfulness supports analysis resulting in the arising of wisdom (Pali: paññā, Sanskrit: prajñā).[2] A key innovative teaching of the Buddha was that meditative stabilisation must be combined with liberating discernment.[3]

The Satipatthana Sutta (Sanskrit: Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra) is an early text dealing with mindfulness.

Mindfulness practice, inherited from the Buddhist tradition, is being employed in Western psychology to alleviate a variety of mental and physical conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and in the prevention of relapse in depression and drug addiction.[4] See also Mindfulness (psychology).

Contents [hide] 1 Definitions 2 Terminology 2.1 Sanskrit 2.2 Chinese 2.3 Related terms and practices 3 Ten forms 4 Continuous practice 5 Zen criticism 6 Scientific research 7 Alternate translations 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links [edit] Definitions

The Abhidhammattha Sangaha, a key Abhidharma text from the Theravada tradition, defines sati as follows:

The word sati derives from a root meaning 'to remember,' but as a mental factor it signifies presence of mind, attentiveness to the present, rather than the faculty of memory regarding the past. It has the characteristic of not wobbling, i.e. not floating away from the object. Its function is absence of confusion or non-forgetfulness. It is manifested as guardianship, or as the state of confronting an objective field. Its proximate cause is strong perception (thirasanna) or the four foundations of mindfulness.[5]

The Abhidharma-samuccaya, a key Abhidharma text from the Mahayana tradition, defines smṛti as follows:

What is smṛti? It is not to let what one knows slip away from one's mind. Its function is not to be distracted.[6]

[edit] Terminology

The Buddhist term translated into English as "mindfulness" originates in the Pali term sati and in its Sanskrit counterpart smṛti. Translators rendered the Sanskrit word as trenpa in Tibetan (wylie: dran pa) and as nian 念 in Chinese.

The Pali-language scholar Thomas William Rhys Davids (1881) first translated sati as English mindfulness in sammā-sati "Right Mindfulness; the active, watchful mind".[7] Noting that Daniel John Gogerly (1845) initially rendered sammā-sati as "Correct meditation",[8] Davids explained, "sati is literally 'memory' but is used with reference to the constantly repeated phrase 'mindful and thoughtful' (sato sampagâno); and means that activity of mind and constant presence of mind which is one of the duties most frequently inculcated on the good Buddhist."[9]

When practicing mindfulness, for instance by watching the breath, one must remember to maintain attention on the chosen object of awareness, "faithfully returning back to refocus on that object whenever the mind wanders away from it."[10] Thus, mindfulness means not only, "moment to moment awareness of present events," but also, "remembering to be aware of something or to do something at a designated time in the future".[10] In fact, "the primary connotation of this Sanskrit term [smrti] (and its corresponding Pali term sati) is recollection".[10]

The English term mindfulness, in use for centuries, long predates its use in the Buddhist context. The OED defines it as "The state or quality of being mindful; attention; regard", with obsolete meanings of "memory" and "intention, purpose". This word was first recorded as myndfulness in 1530 (Palsgrave translates French pensee), as mindfulnesse in 1561, and mindfulness in 1817. Morphologically earlier terms include mindful (first recorded in 1340), mindfully (1382), and the obsolete mindiness (ca. 1200).[11]

John D. Dunne, an associate professor at Emory University whose current research focuses especially on the concept of "mindfulness" in both theoretical and practical contexts, asserts that the translation of sati and smṛti as mindfulness is confusing and that a number of Buddhist scholars have started trying to establish "retention" as the preferred alternative.[12]

Bikkhu Bodhi also points to the meaning of "sati" as "memory":

The word derives from a verb, sarati, meaning “to remember,” and occasionally in Pali sati is still explained in a way that connects it with the idea of memory. But when it is used in relation to meditation practice, we have no word in English that precisely captures what it refers to. An early translator cleverly drew upon the word mindfulness, which is not even in my dictionary. This has served its role admirably, but it does not preserve the connection with memory, sometimes needed to make sense of a passage.[13]

[edit] Sanskrit

The Sanskrit word smṛti स्मृति (also transliterated variously as smriti, smRti, or sm'Rti) literally means "that which is remembered", and refers both to "mindfulness" in Buddhism and "a category of metrical texts" in Hinduism, considered second in authority to the Śruti scriptures.

Monier Monier-Williams's Sanskrit-English Dictionary differentiates eight meanings of smṛti स्मृति, "remembrance, reminiscence, thinking of or upon, calling to mind, memory":

memory as one of the Vyabhicāri-bhāvas [transient feelings]; Memory (personified either as the daughter of Daksha and wife of Aṅgiras or as the daughter of Dharma and Medhā); the whole body of sacred tradition or what is remembered by human teachers (in contradistinction to Śruti or what is directly heard or revealed to the Rishis; in its widest acceptation this use of the term Smṛti includes the 6 Vedangas, the Sūtras both Śrauta and Grhya, the Manusmṛti, the Itihāsas (e.g., the Mahābhārata and Ramayana), the Puranas and the Nītiśāstras, "according to such and such a traditional precept or legal text"; the whole body of codes of law as handed down memoriter or by tradition (esp. the codes of Manusmṛti, Yājñavalkya Smṛti and the 16 succeeding inspired lawgivers) … all these lawgivers being held to be inspired and to have based their precepts on the Vedas; symbolical name for the number 18 (from the 18 lawgivers above); a kind of meter; name of the letter g- ग्; desire, wish[14] [edit] Chinese

Buddhist scholars translated smṛti with the Chinese word nian 念 "study; read aloud; think of; remember; remind". Nian is commonly used in Modern Standard Chinese words such as guannian 觀念 (观念) "concept; idea", huainian 懷念 (怀念) "cherish the memory of; think of", nianshu 念書 (念书) "read; study", and niantou 念頭 (念头) "thought; idea; intention". Two specialized Buddhist terms are nianfo 念佛 "chant the name of Buddha; pray to Buddha" and nianjing 念經 (念经) "chant/recite sutras".

This Chinese character nian 念 is composed of jin 今 "now; this" and xin 心 "heart; mind". Bernhard Karlgren graphically explains nian meaning "reflect, think; to study, learn by heart, remember; recite, read – to have 今 present to 心 the mind".[15] The Chinese character nian or nien 念 is pronounced as Korean yeom or yŏm 염, Japanese ネン or nen, and Vietnamese niệm.

A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms gives basic translations of nian: "Recollection, memory; to think on, reflect; repeat, intone; a thought; a moment."[16]

The Digital Dictionary of Buddhism gives more detailed translations of nian "mindfulness, memory":

Recollection (Skt. smṛti; Tib. dran pa). To recall, remember. That which is remembered. The function of remembering. The operation of the mind of not forgetting an object. Awareness, concentration. Mindfulness of the Buddha, as in Pure Land practice. In Abhidharma-kośa theory, one of the ten omnipresent factors 大地法. In Yogâcāra, one of the five 'object-dependent' mental factors 五別境; Settled recollection; (Skt. sthāpana; Tib. gnas pa). To ascertain one's thoughts; To think within one's mind (without expressing in speech). To contemplate; meditative wisdom; Mind, consciousness; A thought; a thought-moment; an instant of thought. (Skt. kṣana); Patience, forbearance.[17] [edit] Related terms and practices

Although sati/smrti is the primary term that is usually invoked by the word mindfulness in a Buddhist context, it has been asserted "in Buddhist discourse, there are three terms that together map the field of mindfulness . . . [in their Sanskrit variants] smṛti (Pali: sati), samprajaña (Pali: sampajañña) and apramāda (Pali: appamada)."[18] All three terms are sometimes (confusingly) translated as "mindfulness," but they all have specific shades of meaning and the latter two properly mean "clear comprehension" and "vigilance," respectively. In the Satipatthana Sutta, sati and sampajañña are combined with atappa (Pali; Sanskrit: ātapaḥ), or "ardency," and the three together comprise yoniso manisikara (Pali; Sanskrit: yoniśas manaskāraḥ), "appropriate attention" or "wise reflection."[19]

In a publicly available correspondence between Bhikkhu Bodhi and B. Alan Wallace, Bodhi has described Ven. Nyanaponika Thera's views on "right mindfulness" and sampajañña in the following fashion: "... He held that in the proper practice of right mindfulness, sati has to be integrated with sampajañña, clear comprehension, and it is only when these two work together that right mindfulness can fulfill its intended purpose."[20]

EnglishPaliSanskrit/NepaliChineseTibetan mindfulness/awareness sati smṛiti स्मृति 念 (niàn) trenpa (wylie: dran pa) clear comprehension sampajañña samprajñāna संप्रज्ञान 正知力 (zhèng zhī lì) sheshin (wylie: shes bzhin) vigilance/heedfulness appamada apramāda अप्रमाद 不放逸座 (bù fàng yì zuò) bakyö (wylie: bag yod) ardency atappa ātapaḥ आतप 勇猛 (yǒng měng) nyima (wylie: nyi ma) attention/engagement manasikara manaskāraḥ मनस्कारः 如理作意 (rú lǐ zuò yì) yila jeypa (wylie: yid la byed pa) foundation of mindfulness satipaṭṭhāna smṛtyupasthāna

स्मृत्युपस्थान

念住 (niànzhù) trenpa neybar zagpa (wylie: dran pa nye bar gzhag pa) [edit] Ten forms

In the Āgamas of early Buddhism, there are ten forms of mindfulness. According to the Ekottara Āgama, these ten are:[21]

Mindfulness of the Buddha; Mindfulness of the Dharma; Mindfulness of the Saṃgha; Mindfulness of giving; Mindfulness of the heavens; Mindfulness of stopping and resting; Mindfulness of discipline; Mindfulness of breathing; Mindfulness of the body; Mindfulness of death.

According to Nan Huaijin, the Ekottara Āgama emphasizes mindfulness of breathing more than any of the other methods, and teaches the most specifically on teaching this one form of mindfulness.[22]

[edit] Continuous practice

In addition to various forms of meditation based around specific sessions, there are mindfulness training exercises that develop awareness throughout the day using designated environmental cues. The aim is to make mindfulness essentially continuous. Examples of such cues are the hourly chimes of clocks, red lights at traffic junctions and crossing the threshold of doors. The mindfulness itself can take the form of nothing more than taking three successive breaths while remembering they are a conscious experience of body activity within mind.[23] This approach is particularly helpful when it is difficult to establish a regular meditation practice.

[edit] Zen criticism

Some Zen teachers emphasize the potential dangers of misunderstanding "mindfulness".

Gudo Wafu Nishijima criticizes the use of the term of mindfulness and idealistic interpretations of the practice from the Zen standpoint:

However recently many so-called Buddhist teachers insist the importance of 'mindfulness.' But such a kind of attitudes might be insistence that Buddhism might be a kind of idealistic philosophy. Therefore actually speaking I am much afraid that Buddhism is misunderstood as if it was a kind of idealistic philosophy. However we should never forget that Buddhism is not an idealistic philosophy, and so if someone in Buddhism reveres mindfulness, we should clearly recognize that he or she can never be a Buddhist at all.[24]

Muho Noelke, the abbot of Antaiji, explains the pitfalls of consciously seeking mindfulness.

We should always try to be active coming out of samadhi. For this, we have to forget things like "I should be mindful of this or that". If you are mindful, you are already creating a separation ("I - am - mindful - of - ...."). Don't be mindful, please! When you walk, just walk. Let the walk walk. Let the talk talk (Dogen Zenji says: "When we open our mouths, it is filled with Dharma"). Let the eating eat, the sitting sit, the work work. Let sleep sleep.[25]

[edit] Scientific research Main article: Mindfulness (psychology)

Mindfulness practice, inherited from the Buddhist tradition, is increasingly being employed in Western psychology to alleviate a variety of mental and physical conditions. Scientific research into mindfulness generally falls under the umbrella of positive psychology. Research has been ongoing over the last twenty or thirty years, with a surge of interest over the last decade in particular.[26][27] In 2011, NIH's National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) released finding of a study where in magnetic resonance images of the brains of 16 participants 2 weeks before and after mindfulness meditation practitioners, joined the meditation program were taken by researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital, Bender Institute of Neuroimaging in Germany, and the University of Massachusetts Medical School. It concluded that "..these findings may represent an underlying brain mechanism associated with mindfulness-based improvements in mental health."[28] A January 2011 study in the journal Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, based on anatomical magnetic resonance images (MRI) of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) participants, suggested that "participation in MBSR is associated with changes in gray matter concentration in brain regions involved in learning and memory processes, emotion regulation, self-referential processing, and perspective taking." [29]

[edit] Alternate translations

The terms sati/smriti have been translated as:

Attention (Jack Kornfield) Awareness Concentrated attention (Mahasi Sayadaw) Inspection (Herbert Guenther) Mindfulness Self-recollection (Jack Kornfield) Recollecting mindfulness (Alexander Berzin) Recollection (Erik Pema Kunsang, Buddhadasa Bhikkhu) Reflective awareness (Buddhadasa Bhikkhu) Retention [edit] See also Thinking  portal Buddhism and psychology Buddhist meditation Sampajanna Satipatthana Dennis Lewis Eternal Now (New Age) Henepola Gunaratana John Garrie Mahasati Meditation Mahasi Sayadaw Metacognition Mindfulness (journal) Nepsis S.N. Goenka Samu Shinzen Young Thich Nhat Hanh [edit] References ^ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016383439500025M ^ "In short, the contemplative training known as “shamatha” (meditative quiescence) deals with the development and refinement of attention; and this is the basis for “vipashyana” (contemplative insight), which entails methods for experientially exploring the nature of the mind and its relation to the world at large." from a description of the 18th Mind and Life Dialogues meeting, official webpage, http://www.mindandlife.org/dialogues/past-conferences/ml18/ ^ Alexander Wynne, The origin of Buddhist meditation. Routledge, 2007, page 73. ^ http://scan.oxfordjournals.org/content/2/4/259.full ^ What is Mindfulness? From the Buddha to Contemporary Western Teachers ^ Guenther (1975), Kindle Locations 444-445. ^ T. W. Rhys Davids, tr., 1881, Buddhist Suttas, Clarendon Press, p. 107. ^ D. J. Gogerly, "On Buddhism", Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1845, pp. 7-28 and 90-112. ^ Davids, 1881, p. 145. ^ a b c "The topics of Mind and Life XVIII are human attention, memory, and the mind considered from phenomenological (including contemplative), psychological, and neurobiological perspectives... Furthermore, sustained voluntary attention (samadhi) is closely related to memory, because in order to deliberately sustain one’s attention upon a chosen object, one must continue to remember to do so from moment to moment, faithfully returning back to refocus on that object whenever the mind wanders away from it. Likewise, in Buddhism, the faculty of “mindfulness” (smrti) refers not only to moment-to-moment awareness of present events. Instead, the primary connotation of this Sanskrit term (and its corresponding Pali term sati) is recollection. This includes long-term, short-term, and working memory, non-forgetful, present-centered awareness, and also prospective memory, i.e., remembering to be aware of something or to do something at a designated time in the future. In these ways, from a contemplative perspective, memory is critically linked to attention, and both of these mental faculties have important ramifications for the experiential and phenomenological study of the mind, its training, and potential optimization." - official website for the 18th Mind and Life Dialogues meeting ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., 2002 ^ Lecture, Stanford University Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education, c 18:03 [1] ^ TRANSLATOR FOR THE BUDDHA: AN INTERVIEW WITH BHIKKHU BODHI ^ Monier-Williams Online Dictionary. N.B.: these definitions are simplified and wikified. ^ Bernhard Karlgren, 1923, Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and Sino-Japanese, Paul Geunther, p. 207. Dover reprint. ^ William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous, 1937, A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms: with Sanskrit and English Equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali Index. ^ Digital Dictionary of Buddhism ^ "Mindfulness and the Mind," by Subhuti. Madhyamavani Online ^ "Mindfulness Defined," by Thanissaro Bhikku. pg 2 ^ Wallace & Bodhi (2006), p. 4. According to this correspondence, Ven. Nyanaponika spend his last ten years living with and being cared for by Bodhi. Bodhi refers to Nyanaponika as "my closest kalyāṇamitta in my life as a monk." ^ Nan Huaijin. Working Toward Enlightenment: The Cultivation of Practice. York Beach: Samuel Weiser. 1993. pp. 118-119, 138-140. ^ Nan Huaijin. Working Toward Enlightenment: The Cultivation of Practice. York Beach: Samuel Weiser. 1993. p. 146. ^ mindfulness in breathing ^ "On Mindfulness" ^ "Stop being mindful" ^ "Mindfulness Research Monthly, Volume 1, Number 5". http://www.mindfulexperience.org/resources/MRM_V1N5_june.pdf. ^ "Can Meditation Cure Disease?" by Maureen Seaberg. The Daily Beast ^ "Research Spotlight: Mindfulness Meditation Is Associated With Structural Changes in the Brain". NCCAM. January 30, 2011. http://nccam.nih.gov/research/results/spotlight/012311.htm. ^ "Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density.". Psychiatry Res.. 2011-01-30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21071182. [edit] Sources Boccio, Frank Jude (2004). Mindfulness Yoga: The Awakened Union of Breath, Body and Mind. ISBN 0-86171-335-4 Brahm, Ajahn (2005). Mindfulness, Bliss, and Beyond: A Meditator's Handbook. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-275-5 Guenther, Herbert V. & Leslie S. Kawamura (1975), Mind in Buddhist Psychology: A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan's "The Necklace of Clear Understanding" Dharma Publishing. Kindle Edition. Gunaratana, Bhante Henepola (2002). Mindfulness in Plain English. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-906-8 Hanh, Thich Nhat (1996). The Miracle of Mindfulness: A Manual on Meditation. Beacon Press. Weiss, Andrew (2004). Beginning Mindfulness: Learning the Way of Awareness. New World Library Siegel, Ronald D. (2010). The Mindfulness Solution: Everyday Practices for Everyday Problems. The Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-60623-294-1 Hoopes, Aaron (2007) "Zen Yoga: A Path to Enlightenment through Breathing, Movement and Meditation". Kodansha International. [edit] External links Look up 念 in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Look up Smrti in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. (December 2011) Oxford University Mindfulness Research Centre Mindfulness meditation downloads from Oxford University Professor Mindfulness Defined by Thanissaro Bhikkhu Mindfulness Research Guide How to Get What You Want is a guided demonstration of mindfulness.


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Who is Buddha Tonpa?

Who is Buddha Tonpa? | Buddhism | Scoop.it
According to the Bön religion, about 18,000 years ago Lord Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche (Teacher and Great Man of the Shen Clan/Tribe) was born in the land of Olmo Lungring, a part of a larger country called Tagzig in Central Asia.

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Yangchen Lhamo's curator insight, February 6, 2014 4:03 PM

Lord Buddha Tonpa Shenrab was born as a prince; however, at the age of thirty-one, it has been stated that “he renounced the world and lived in austerity, teaching the dharma.”