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Scientists ID New Drug Targets for Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Scientists ID New Drug Targets for Triple Negative Breast Cancer | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"The suppression of two genes reduce breast cancer tumor formation and metastasis by interfering with blood vessel formation and recruitment, report scientists from Houston Methodist and five other institutions in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (now online). The findings may help medical researchers identify effective drug targets for triple negative breast cancer, or TNBC.

 The genes, MLF2 (myeloid leukemia factor 2) and RPL39 (a ribosomal protein), were found to most profoundly impact the production of nitric oxide synthase, which helps regulate blood vessel behavior and could be crucial to the recruitment of new blood vessels to growing tumors. These genes impact the spread of TNBC throughout the body, and have not so far been linked with breast cancer.  "We have found two unique genes that may affect the most lethal type of breast cancer" said principal investigator and Houston Methodist Cancer Center Director Jenny Chang, "Most importantly, by knowing how these genes function, we have drugs that can block nitric oxide signaling and will begin a clinical trial in the Cancer Center in the near future" 
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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, May 27, 2014 7:07 PM

To see the abstract about the study go to: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/05/01/1406655111.abstract


For more information about XPB1 go to: http://bms.ucsf.edu/sites/ucsf-bms.ixm.ca/files/20140501.adams_.christina.pdf


PJ's curator insight, May 28, 2014 9:40 AM
Susan Zager's insight (Breast Cancer News):
Maria Fowler's curator insight, June 1, 2014 3:08 PM

As always this may apply to some of us and not others.

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Breast cancer survivor keeps hair all the way through chemo

Breast cancer survivor keeps hair all the way through chemo | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"LEAVENWORTH, Kan. - A breast cancer survivor who lives in the Kansas City area is turning heads.

Darcy Romondo just finished six rounds of chemotherapy and kept her hair all the way through her treatment. She is the first patient in the metro area to wear the Kansas City-made chemo cold cap, even though it's been around for years.

Kansas City based Southwest Technologies said U.S. doctors either do not know it exists or often distance themselves from it because "it's more of a cosmetic to them," but the Food and Drug Administration is now taking notice and that means doctors and hospitals could soon jump on board. 

Every three weeks, Romondo, a teacher at Leavenworth High School, leaves her classroom for chemotherapy treatments at Olathe Cancer Care. She goes armed with dry ice, her husband and a chilly, 41-degree chemo cold cap."


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, May 13, 2014 5:05 PM

The technology for cold caps to protect patients from losing their hair from chemotherapy has been around for a while and is popular in Europe. In  the US, doctors are waiting for the FDA to approve them and according to the article the FDA is looking into it. There are various companies that have them and if a patient is starting chemo that will cause hair loss, it's nice to know there are options.


For rmore information about cold caps go to: http://www.breastcancer.org/tips/hair_skin_nails/cold-caps


For more information about "Chemo Cold Caps" go to: http://www.chemocoldcaps.com/

Tambre Leighn's curator insight, May 14, 2014 10:38 AM

While some clinicians who may believe that hair loss is just cosmetic, relatively low priority vs. their focus of treating cancer, if hair loss or fear of hair loss causes stress for a survivor then it is no longer a cosmetic issue. It has become, then, an issue of both quality of life and physical wellbeing from a standpoint of the impact of stress on the immune system.  If an existing solution can help even one survivor feel more empowered and they are helped by avoiding hair loss then time to get aligned with something that's been offered for a number of years with successful outcomes in the UK.  Let's allow the patient to decide whether hair loss is a cosmetic challenge or a quality of life issue and give them the choice.  THAT is patient-centered care.

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In lab tests, the antimicrobial ingredient triclosan spurs growth of breast cancer cells

In lab tests, the antimicrobial ingredient triclosan spurs growth of breast cancer cells | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"Some manufacturers are turning away from using triclosan as an antimicrobial ingredient in soaps, toothpastes and other products over health concerns. And now scientists are reporting new evidence that appears to support these worries. Their study, published in the ACS journal Chemical Research in Toxicology, found that triclosan, as well as another commercial substance called octylphenol, promoted the growth of human breast cancer cells in lab dishes and breast cancer tumors in mice.

Kyung-Chul Choi and colleagues note that hormonal imbalances seem to play a role in the development of breast cancer. Given that link, researchers are investigating whether endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are compounds that act like hormones, might spur cancer cell growth. EDCs have become ubiquitous in products, in the environment and even in our bodies. Research has found that two EDCs — triclosan, an antimicrobial ingredient in many products, including soaps, cosmetics and cutting boards; and octylphenol, which is in some paints, pesticides and plastics — have accumulated in the environment. Additionally, triclosan is reportedly in the urine of an estimated 75 percent of Americans. Choi’s team wanted to see what effect the two compounds have on breast cancer cells.

 


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, April 24, 2014 3:03 PM

This study of EDCs  (triclosan,and octylphenol) was done in human breast cancer cells and mice. These EDC's are found in soaps, cosmetics, paints, pesticides and plastics and reported to be in the urine of 75% of Americans. 


To see the study go to: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/tx5000156


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Cancer patients require anxiety and depression screening

Cancer patients require anxiety and depression screening | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"HealthDay News) -- It is important to recognize and treat anxiety or depression among cancer patients, according to a clinical guideline published online April 14 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Barbara L. Andersen, Ph.D., from The Ohio State University in Columbus, and colleagues evaluated and adapted the pan-Canadian guideline clinical practice guidelines. Overall, the American Society of Clinical Oncology panel deemed the recommendations clear, thorough, based on the most relevant scientific evidence, and presented with options that will be acceptable to patients. However, the panel adapted some of the recommendations based on local context and practice beliefs.

The panel recommends that all patients with cancer be evaluated for symptoms of depression and anxiety periodically throughout care. Validated, published measures and procedures should be used for assessments. Different treatment pathways are recommended depending on symptom level. The risk for poor quality of life and potential disease-related morbidity and mortality is increased by the failure to identify and treat anxiety and depression."


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, April 25, 2014 2:49 PM

The study showed that clinicians need to make sure they are evaluating anxiety and depression throughout cancer care, while lessening the negative emotional and behavioral aspects that affect the quality of life of cancer patients.


To see the study go to: http://jco.ascopubs.org/content/early/2014/04/09/JCO.2013.52.4611.full.pdf+html


Tambre Leighn's curator insight, April 26, 2014 5:16 PM
Yes...and... Some guiidelines are recommending once a year screenings for distress and anxiety. This is not enough. Stress has major implications and needs to be part of treating the whole patient right from the start - not once a year in survivorship. It's good to be grateful for small steps....but more is needed.
Carolina Mesa Rios's curator insight, November 27, 2014 12:35 PM

añada su visión ...

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Blood test detects recurrent breast cancer and monitors treatment response

Blood test detects recurrent breast cancer and monitors treatment response | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"A blood test has been designed that can accurately detect the presence of advanced breast cancer and also may precisely monitor response to cancer treatment. The test, known as the cMethDNA assay, accurately detected the presence of cancer DNA in the blood of patients with metastatic breast cancers up to 95% of the time in laboratory studies.

Currently, no useful laboratory test exists to monitor patients with early stage breast cancer who are doing well, but could have an asymptomatic recurrence, said Saraswati Sukumar, PhD, of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center in Baltimore, Maryland. Generally, radiologic scans and standard blood tests are indicated only if a woman complains of symptoms, such as bone aches, shortness of breath, pain, or worrisome clinical examination findings. Otherwise, routine blood tests or scans in asymptomatic patients often produce false positives, leading to additional unnecessary tests and biopsies, and have not been shown to improve survival outcomes in patients with early stage breast cancer who develop a recurrence.

Sukumar said that the current approach to monitoring for recurrence is not ideal, and that "the goal is to develop a test that could be administered routinely to alert the physician and patient as soon as possible of a return of the original cancer in a distant spot. With the development of cMethDNA, we've taken a first big step toward achieving this goal."


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, May 1, 2014 3:43 PM

This test, "the cMethDNA assay, accurately detected the presence of cancer DNA in the blood of patients with metastatic breast cancers up to 95% of the time in laboratory studies".


To see the abstract go to: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/74/8/2160.abstract


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Test for cancer outcomes improved

Test for cancer outcomes improved | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"Scientists have developed an improved test to predict how long women with breast cancer may live and which treatments may work.

 

Some doctors in the UK use a formula called the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) to give them an idea of a patient's outlook, based on the size of the cancer, whether it has spread to the lymph nodes and how advanced the disease is.

While experts stress it is not possible to predict exactly what will happen in each individual case, the index can give a general prognosis.

The NPI was developed more than 30 years ago and so experts have now developed an updated test based on the latest evidence.

They said the new Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus (NPI+) includes even more biomarkers of the disease and could be available to patients within two years.

Professor Ian Ellis, from the University of Nottingham's division of cancer and stem cells, who worked on the test, said: "Using a panel of 10 biomarkers and other clinical information, we are able to categorise women with breast cancer into one of seven treatment-specific classes based on their personal cancer biology.

"We believe the categorisation of women with breast cancer into more specific risk classes will deliver better targeting of relevant therapies, which will result in improved outcomes with reduced costs and less anxiety for the patient.

"NPI+ will reduce uncertainty for clinicians and patients by removing a large number of patients with indeterminate prognosis and allow better-informed treatment decisions. 


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, March 12, 2014 2:26 PM

The new Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus (NPI+) is a test that will be available in the UK in about two years using a panel of 10 biomarkers and other clinical information to help predict outcomes in women with breast cancer and better targeted therapies. 

To see the study published in the British Journal of Cancer go to: http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/bjc2014120a.html


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Eli Lilly’s Osteoporosis Drug Raloxifene May Also Treat Cancers

Eli Lilly’s Osteoporosis Drug Raloxifene May Also Treat Cancers | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"Researchers from the Oregon State University (OSU) found that Raloxifene, used in the treatment of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, may also be effective against some types of liver and breast cancers. Raloxifene is currently marketed under the brand name Evista by Eli Lilly and Co. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved the drug for bone loss prevention in post-menopausal women in 1997. Two years later, the drug was approved for treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. In 2007, raloxifene was approved for reducing risk of invasive breast cancer in post-menopausal women with osteoporosis as well as in post-menopausal women at high risk for invasive breast cancer. Raloxifene is known to block estrogen from binding to its receptors and therefore inhibits breast cancer cell multiplication.

OSU researchers found that the drug targeted and killed human “triple-negative” breast cancer cells and liver cancer cells. Triple-negative breast cancer accounts for about 15-20% of all breast cancer cases in the U.S. and occurs more frequently in younger and African-American women. Triple-negative breast cancer does not respond to typical treatments such as tamoxifen or trastuzumab due to lack of estrogen receptors.

The drug was observed to bind with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) protein and kill cancer cells which lack receptors for estrogen. Ed O’Donnell, a postdoctoral scholar at OSU who conducted the research, found an increased survival rate in women with breast cancer who had higher levels of the AhR protein.

Siva Kolluri, OSU cancer researcher who led the research, said, “Our findings are exciting for two reasons. No. 1, our research revealed that we can target a specific protein, the AhR, to potentially develop new drugs for liver cancer and a subset of stubborn breast cancers. That's a major goal of our lab. No. 2, we discovered that raloxifene, a known drug, could potentially be repurposed to treat two distinct types of cancers.”

No clinical trials have yet been conducted to evaluate raloxifene’s safety and efficacy in treatment of breast and/or liver cancer.


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, February 27, 2014 8:55 PM

As the article states, "no clinical trials have evaluated raloxifene's safety in the treatment of breast and/or liver cancer."  The study found that "raloxifene directly bound the AhR and induced apoptosis in ER-negative mouse and human hepatoma cells in an AhR-dependent manner, indicating that the AhR is a molecular target of raloxifene and mediates raloxifene-induced apoptosis in the absence of ER." According to Siva Koluri i they might be angle to develop new drugs to target triple negative breast cancers that if they are AhR-dependent. Because this was in mouse and human hepatoma cells there's still a long way to go for human trials.

 To read the abstract and full study go to: http://www.nature.com/cddis/journal/v5/n1/full/cddis2013549a.html



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University of Chicago Cancer Specialists make strides in Curing Metastatic Cancers

University of Chicago Cancer Specialists make strides in Curing Metastatic Cancers | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

University of Chicago cancer specialists are making strides in curing metastatic cancers. Certain metastatic tumors spread differently. Some tumors have limited spread and may be cured with anatomic therapy. In clinical trials in 2011they looked at tumors that spread to less than five areas and researchers called these oligometastases. Rachel Anderson, a metastatic breast cancer patient was a good candidate for the trial. They used radiation to her sacrum. She continues to have other treatments too and is currently she is cancer free. 


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, February 18, 2014 7:08 PM

This video is worth watching to learn about new approaches to curing metastatic cancer. Rachel Anderson had 10 radiation treatments to her fractured sacrum from the metastasis and felt better from the pain almost immediately. Of the 62 clinical patients of the trial 18 of them are still alive. The researchers, led by Dr. Ralph R. Weichselbaum,  are trying to find out how to identify oligometasteses. As a result of this research, they see hope in producing a cure for metastatic cancer.

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Yoga Provides Health Benefits for Breast Cancer Survivors - Medical News - Pri-Med Online

Yoga Provides Health Benefits for Breast Cancer Survivors - Medical News - Pri-Med Online | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"TUESDAY, Jan. 28, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- For breast cancer survivors, a 12-week yoga intervention improves fatigue and vitality and is associated with reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines, according to a study published online Jan. 27 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser, Ph.D., from The Ohio State University in Columbus, and colleagues examined the impact of yoga on inflammation, mood, and fatigue in a randomized three-month controlled trial involving 200 breast cancer survivors. Participants were randomized to 12-week, twice-weekly, 90-minute hatha yoga classes or wait-list control."


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Mechanism behind breast cancer's spread revealed

Mechanism behind breast cancer's spread revealed | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"Scientists have discovered that low oxygen conditions, which often persist inside tumours, are sufficient to initiate a molecular chain of events that transforms breast cancer cells from being rigid and stationery to mobile and invasive.

Gregg Semenza, M.D., Ph.D., the C. Michael Armstrong Professor of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, said that high levels of RhoA and ROCK1 were known to worsen outcomes for breast cancer patients by endowing cancer cells with the ability to move, but the trigger for their production was a mystery.

He said that they now know that the production of these proteins increases dramatically when breast cancer cells are exposed to low oxygen conditions.

To move, cancer cells must make many changes to their internal structures, Semenza said.

Thin, parallel filaments form throughout the cells, allowing them to contract and cellular "hands" arise, allowing cells to "grab" external surfaces to pull themselves along. The proteins RhoA and ROCK1 are known to be central to the formation of these structures.

Moreover, the genes that code for RhoA and ROCK1 were known to be turned on at high levels in human cells from metastatic breast cancers.

In a few cases, those increased levels could be traced back to a genetic error in a protein that controls them, but not in most. This activity, said Semenza, led him and his team to search for another cause for their high levels."


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Cancer pain: Relief is possible

Cancer pain: Relief is possible | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"Not everyone with cancer experiences cancer pain, but 1 out of 3 people undergoing cancer treatment does. If you have advanced cancer — cancer that has spread or recurred — your chance of experiencing cancer pain is even higher.

Cancer pain occurs in many ways. Your pain may be dull, achy or sharp. It could be constant, intermittent, mild, moderate or severe. Timothy Moynihan, M.D., a cancer specialist at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., offers some insight into cancer pain, reasons why people might not get the pain treatment they need and what they can do about it.

What causes cancer pain?

Cancer pain can result from the cancer itself. Cancer can cause pain by growing into or destroying tissue near the cancer. Cancer pain can come from the primary cancer itself — where the cancer started — or from other areas in the body where the cancer has spread (metastases). As a tumor grows, it may put pressure on nerves, bones or organs, causing pain.

Cancer pain may not just be from the physical effect of the cancer on a region of the body, but also due to chemicals that the cancer may secrete in the region of the tumor. Treatment of the cancer can help the pain in these situations.

Cancer treatments — such as chemotherapy, radiation and surgery — are another potential source of cancer pain. Surgery can be painful, and it may take time to recover. Radiation may leave behind a burning sensation or painful scars. And chemotherapy can cause many potentially painful side effects, including mouth sores, diarrhea and nerve damage."  


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, December 19, 2013 3:05 PM

This article looks at cancer pain and explains why some people are afraid to use medication to relieve pain. It also explains the many options that are available including medications and how proper dosing can help manage pain fron cancer.

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What type of exercise is most beneficial to breast cancer patients?

What type of exercise is most beneficial to breast cancer patients? | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"EDMONTON – While researchers have been studying the link between exercise and breast cancer survival rates for years, a new study out of the University of Alberta has been taking a closer look at the specific type and intensity of exercise that is most beneficial for patients.

Tracy Carroll, who was diagnosed with breast cancer in January 2011, was one of 300 women who took part in the study, working out three times a week while going through chemotherapy and radiation.

“It was a good workout,” Carroll said. “They understood everything we were going through, but they really pushed us and moved us… no wimps in here.”

The recent study was a follow up to a previous U of A study, which focused on the long-term effects exercise had on women going through breast cancer treatment. That study, which was conducted between 2003 and 2005, followed up with participants eight years after their treatment.


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Metastatic disease demanding more attention

Metastatic disease demanding more attention | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"A number of the presentations at this year's San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium addressed metastatic breast cancer – when the disease has left the breast and moved to other parts of the body.

What used to be an immediate death sentence has been redefined in the past decade as a potentially chronic disease – depending on a number of factors, the estrogen status, the HER2 status, where the cancer traveled and how treatable it is.

Today an estimated 30 percent of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer will have recurrence – anywhere from a few months to years. And those who are fighting for more research dollars and more respect for this community quickly point out that, while some like to encourage women to see themselves as long-term survivors, the majority still die within a few years of their cancer becoming metastatic.

Breast cancer most often spreads to the liver, lung, bones or in some instances, to the brain. Of the women diagnosed each year, around 6 percent are already metastatic at diagnosis, and 40,000 are expected to die each year. Susan Axler is a long-term metastatic survivor who is attending the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium as an advocate through the Alamo Breast Cancer Foundation in San Antonio. Her goal, she says, is to learn as much as possible about advanced disease for the women she helps and herself. Diagnosed with DCIS in 1988 when she was 41, Axler says she researched for weeks and finally decided on a lumpectomy and radiation and no chemotherapy. She healed well and went back to her job as an elementary school reading teacher. Four years later she noticed her breast had hardened and her radiologist found localized recurrence. She had a mastectomy and chemotherapy and once again moved on. "You can't second guess yourself," Susan says. "There is no right or wrong, and you will make yourself crazy."

In 2000 Susan felt a knot under her arm and, once again, learned the cancer was back, this time in the bone of her sternum and her vertebra. Again she underwent chemo with different drugs, and she decided to go to another New York City cancer center for a second opinion. "


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, December 14, 2013 1:22 PM

This article points out how important it is that metastaic breast cancer (MBC) gains more attention. The interview with Susan Axler, a long time survivor of MBC, in this article is well worth reading.

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Mayo Clinic trial: Massive blast of measles vaccine wipes out cancer

Mayo Clinic trial: Massive blast of measles vaccine wipes out cancer | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"Stacy Erholtz was out of conventional treatment options for blood cancer

last June when she underwent an experimental trial at the Mayo Clinic that injected her with enough measles vaccine to inoculate 10 million people.

The 50-year-old Pequot Lakes mother is now part of medical history.

The cancer, which had spread widely through her body, went into complete remission and was undetectable in Erholtz’s body after just one dose of the measles vaccine, which has an uncanny affinity for certain kinds of tumors.

Erholtz was one of just two subjects in the experiment and the only one to achieve complete remission. But the experiment provides the “proof of concept” that a single, massive dose of intravenous viral therapy can kill cancer by overwhelming its natural defenses, according to Dr. Stephen Russell, a professor of molecular medicine who spearheaded the research at Mayo.

“It’s a landmark,” Russell said in an interview last week. “We’ve known for a long time that we can give a virus intravenously and destroy metastatic cancer in mice. Nobody’s shown that you can do that in people before.”


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, May 15, 2014 2:12 PM

This is very exciting that one dose of a measles vaccine could put  certain kinds of cancer tumor's in two people who achieved total remission from metastatic cancer. 


The Mayo is moving immediately into a phase two clinical trial involving more patients with a goal of FDA approval within four years.


Patients interested in the upcoming clinic trial using measles vaccines to treat cancer can inquire here: http://www.mayo.edu/research/clinical-trials/contact


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ASCO issues guidelines for advanced HER-2–positive breast cancer

ASCO issues guidelines for advanced HER-2–positive breast cancer | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"ASCO recently issued two clinical practice guidelines on treating women with advanced, HER-2–positive breast cancer, published online in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

The first guideline reviews the appropriate systemic therapies for patients with newly-diagnosed with advanced disease and those whose early-stage disease progressed to advanced cancer. The second guideline offers recommendations for treating brain metastases in patients with HER-2–positive advanced breast cancer.

The first guideline, Systemic Therapy for Patients with Advanced HER-2–Positive Breast Cancer:  American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline, provides evidence-based recommendations for using systemic targeted therapies in treating inoperable locally advanced and metastatic HER-2–positive breast cancer. These recommendations are intended to aid in standardizing care and maximizing the potential benefit from HER-2–targeted therapies.


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USU-HJF Effort to License Promising Breast Cancer Vaccine Wins Award

USU-HJF Effort to License Promising Breast Cancer Vaccine Wins Award | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"BETHESDA, Md. -- (BUSINESS WIRE) -- A joint effort by The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc. (HJF) and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) to license a promising breast cancer vaccine to reduce breast cancer recurrence rates has received the 2014 Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer. This marks the second consecutive award for the University, which is aided in its technology transfer efforts by HJF through the USU-HJF Joint Office of Technology Transfer.

The award is for work by Army Colonel George Peoples, M.D., chief of surgical oncology at the San Antonio Military Medical Center, and his colleagues on a breast cancer vaccine to reduce recurrence rates. The vaccine, called E75, is a peptide of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu). The vaccine, commercially known as NeuVax™ (nelipepimut-S), stimulates a patient’s cytotoxic T-cells, or “killer T-cells,” to target and eradicate cells that express any level of HER2. Researchers at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston discovered the E75 peptide.

USU supported successful Phase I and Phase II clinical trials of the E75 vaccine, showing breast cancer recurrence rates that were reduced by half after five years of follow-up. Based on the Phase II clinical trial results, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted NeuVax™ a special protocol assessment for the Phase III clinical trial, which is being conducted by the technology transfer recipient and commercial partner, Galena Biopharma of Portland, Ore. The Phase III clinical trial began in 2012. "   


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The Octava Tests to Detect the Presence of Breast Cancer

The Octava Tests to Detect the Presence of Breast Cancer | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"EventusDx researchers have developed the Octava™ tests as the first in a new class of rapid, accurate and cost-effective blood tests that measure breast cancer-specific autoantibodies to detect the presence or absence of breast cancer. The Octava tests are designed to be used in conjunction with annual screening mammograms. They have been validated by clinical studies conducted at cancer centers in the U.S., Israel and Italy that analyzed blood samples from over 800 women. These women all had positive mammograms and their breast cancer pathologies were verified by biopsy.

An article reporting the results of a large clinical study of the Octava Blue test conducted in collaboration with researchers at the MD Anderson Cancer Center and other leading breast cancer specialists was recently published in the peer reviewed journal, Biomarkers in Cancer. The study assessed blood samples from more than 500 women who had positive mammograms followed by breast biopsy to definitively ascertain whether or not they had breast cancer. It showed that the Octava Blue test was accurate, correctly identifying the presence or absence of breast cancer with very high sensitivity and good specificity.

The Octava Blue test is designed for use in conjunction with screening mammograms to provide additional diagnostic information to help physicians confirm true abnormal mammography results with high accuracy, while also helping to reduce the large number of unnecessary biopsies caused by false positive results. False positive mammograms are common. Studies show that 80% of the biopsies performed after an abnormal mammography result are negative, indicating that no cancer is actually present. Octava Blue has the potential to help confirm true positive results and reduce the number of unneeded biopsies by up to 50%, saving many women the anxiety and invasiveness of the biopsy procedure while also reducing unnecessary medical costs."


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, May 1, 2014 4:40 PM

"The Octava Pink test is designed to provide additional diagnostic information to help physicians confirm true negative mammography findings with high accuracy, while helping to identify the presence of cancer in more than half of the cases where mammography produces a false negative result and cancer is actually present.

The Octava Pink and Octava Blue tests have been approved for marketing in the European Union, and marketing approval in Israel and several countries in Asia is expected soon. The Octava Pink test is currently available as part of a pilot program being conducted with selected physicians in Italy and Israel. Information on participating in the pilot program is included in the section below.

EventusDx is conducting additional Octava clinical studies for its planned 2014 submission to the FDA for approval to market the Octava tests in the U.S.

Broader availability of the Octava Pink and Octava Blue tests in Europe is expected during 2014."


To see the abstract related to this test go to: http://www.la-press.com/an-antibody-based-blood-test-utilizing-a-panel-of-biomarkers-as-a-new--article-a3962


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Experimental Breast Cancer Drug Seems Safe, Effective for Advanced Disease

Experimental Breast Cancer Drug Seems Safe, Effective  for Advanced Disease | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"SUNDAY, April 6, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- In an early trial, an experimental breast cancer drug stopped disease growth and shrank tumors by more than 30 percent in some patients.

The pill, bemaciclib, was safe and well-tolerated by women with breast cancer that had spread, or metastasized, to other parts of the body, according to the results of this phase 1 trial.

"This is a novel oral treatment for patients with metastatic breast cancer," said lead researcher Dr. Amita Patnaik, the associate director of clinical research at South Texas Accelerated Research Therapeutics in San Antonio.

If these results are replicated in future trials, it's conceivable that the pill might extend survival for women with terminal breast cancer, experts suggested.

The drug was particularly effective for the most common type of breast cancer, called hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. In this type of cancer, cancer cells grow in response to signals from the hormones estrogen and/or progesterone.

The study included more than 130 women. Overall, Patnaik said half of them had cancer growth controlled and 25 percent had shrinkage of their tumors.

Unlike standard cancer drugs, this is a twice-daily pill that allows women to go on with their daily lives. In contrast, other cancer drugs are given intravenously at a hospital or doctor's office. Another difference, Patnaik said, is that bemaciclib is a targeted therapy, a newer type of drug that is better able to identify and attack specific cells."


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Patentholder on Breast Cancer Tests Denied Injunction in Lawsuit

Patentholder on Breast Cancer Tests Denied Injunction in Lawsuit | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"Myriad Genetics, which lost a closely watched Supreme Court case last year involving the patenting of genes, has suffered another setback in its efforts to protect its main genetic test from competition.

A federal judge on Monday denied Myriad’s request for a preliminary injunction that would have immediately stopped a rival company, Ambry Genetics, from offering a similar test.

Myriad’s lucrative monopoly on testing for mutations in two genes linked to breast cancer risk was shattered last June by the Supreme Court’s ruling that genes were not eligible for patents because they were products of nature.

Several laboratory companies, including Ambry, quickly began offering tests, in most cases undercutting the $4,000 Myriad charged for a full analysis of the two genes, which are known as BRCA1 and BRCA2. Ambry announced a price of $2,200.

Myriad sued most of these companies, contending their tests infringed other patent claims that were not invalidated by the Supreme Court.

 

But Judge Robert J. Shelby of the United States District Court in Salt Lake City said in an opinion on Monday that Ambry had raised “substantial questions” concerning whether those remaining claims were eligible for patents. He said therefore that Myriad had not established that it was likely to succeed in the case on the merits of its arguments, which is a legal requirement to win a preliminary injunction.

The upshot is that Ambry can continue to offer its test pending the outcome of a trial or a settlement, said Dr. Robert M. Cook-Deegan, a research professor at Duke University who has closely followed the case and the issue of gene patents.

Charles Dunlop, chief executive of Ambry, called the ruling “a victory for the entire genetics community.” He said in a statement that Myriad’s lawsuit, after last year’s Supreme Court decision, “was a blatant attempt to maintain a monopoly state. We idealistically stood by our convictions throughout this process and are exhilarated by today’s ruling.”

Ronald Rogers, a spokesman for Myriad, said Myriad looked forward to presenting its case in court. Monday’s ruling, he said in an email, “is a denial of the preliminary injunction only” and “isn’t a ruling on the underlying merits of the case.” 


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, March 13, 2014 4:09 PM

Myriad Genetics was denied an injunction against Ambry Genetics from offering the BRCA gene test for less money. Myriad has also tried to stop other companies but for now the other companies are winning and offering the test for less. Ambry announced a price of $2,200, for a full analysis of the two genes, which are known as BRCA1 and BRCA2, undercutting the $4,000 Myriad charged.

Heather Swift's curator insight, March 16, 2014 8:29 PM

[BRCA]

 

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PARP Inhibitor BMN 673 Advances in Breast Cancer Study

PARP Inhibitor BMN 673 Advances in Breast Cancer Study | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"As PARP inhibitors continue to emerge as a novel class of anticancer agents, BMN 673 has entered late-stage clinical development as a treatment for patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer whose tumors test positive for germline BRCA1/2 mutations.1


The agent is being compared with treatment of physician’s choice in a phase III trial launched in October with a projected enrollment of 429 participants (Figure). Men and women are eligible. As a class, PARP inhibitors have received renewed attention recently, with several agents advancing in development in both breast and ovarian cancers. One of the first agents to “graduate” from the groundbreaking I-SPY 2 breast cancer clinical trial is veliparib (ABT-888), which also has entered a phase III study.

BMN 673 inhibits PARP 1/2, which are members of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase family that helps repair single-strand breaks in damaged DNA.2 The compound is an oral small molecule that selectively targets tumor cells with BRCA1, BRCA2, or PTEN gene mutations and is believed to be the most potent PARP inhibitor in development.2 Although the agent has been studied in ovarian cancer and other malignancies, the program is furthest along in breast cancer.

In updated phase I results presented at the 2013 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium in December, Mina LA et al3 reported that 13 of 18 patients (72%) with BRCA1/2-mutated breast cancer experienced a clinical benefit response from BMN 673 monotherapy, defined as complete response (CR), partial response (PR) or stable disease ≥24 weeks. The responders included 1 patient with a CR and 7 with a PR. The drug was generally well tolerated, with myelosuppression, fatigue, nausea, and alopecia among the most common adverse events, each occurring among less than onethird of patients."


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, February 19, 2014 3:56 PM

According to the article "PARP mediates single-strand break repair through the base excision repair pathway, and BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins are crucial for homologous recombination for accurate DNA double-strand break repair,” said Blum. “In BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, they have lost some of the ability to do this homologous recombination, and in their tumor, which we assume has lost a second copy, they really don’t have any functioning double-stranded, homologous recombination repair. If you knock out this single-strand base repair mechanism that PARP facilitates, by using the PARP inhibitor, then you are making it impossible for that cancer cell to repair DNA damage.”


For more information about participation in the clinical trial in the US go to the NBCC web site at: http://www.breastcancerdeadline2020.org/get-involved/take-action/MetsClinicalTrials.html


Maria Fowler's curator insight, February 22, 2014 11:20 AM

A PTEN mutation has been linked to Metaplastic breast cancer.

 

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We Are Giving Ourselves Cancer

We Are Giving Ourselves Cancer | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"DESPITE great strides in prevention and treatment, cancer rates remain stubbornly high and may soon surpass heart disease as the leading cause of death in the United States. Increasingly, we and many other experts believe that an important culprit may be our own medical practices: We are silently irradiating ourselves to death.

The use of medical imaging with high-dose radiation — CT scans in particular — has soared in the last 20 years. Our resulting exposure to medical radiation has increased more than sixfold between the 1980s and 2006, according to the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements. The radiation doses of CT scans (a series of X-ray images from multiple angles) are 100 to 1,000 times higher than conventional X-rays.

Of course, early diagnosis thanks to medical imaging can be lifesaving. But there is distressingly little evidence of better health outcomes associated with the current high rate of scans. There is, however, evidence of its harms.

The relationship between radiation and the development of cancer is well understood: A single CT scan exposes a patient to the amount of radiation that epidemiologic evidence shows can be cancer-causing. The risks have been demonstrated directly in two large clinical studies in Britain and Australia. In the British study, children exposed to multiple CT scans were found to be three times more likely to develop leukemia and brain cancer. In a 2011 report sponsored by Susan G. Komen, the Institute of Medicine concluded that radiation from medical imaging, and hormone therapy, the use of which has substantially declined in the last decade, were the leading environmental causes of breast cancer, and advised that women reduce their exposure to unnecessary CT scans."


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, February 3, 2014 7:08 PM

According to the article:

"Patients have a part to play as well. Consumers can go to the Choosing Wisely website to learn about the most commonly overused tests. Before agreeing to a CT scan, they should ask: Will it lead to a better treatment and outcome? Would they get that therapy without the test? Are there alternatives that don’t involve radiation, like ultrasound or M.R.I.? When a CT scan is necessary, how can radiation exposure be minimized?

Neither doctors nor patients want to return to the days before CT scans. But we need to find ways to use them without killing people in the process."

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A Call for Clarity on Mammography's Benefits and the Value of Early Detection

A Call for Clarity on Mammography's Benefits and the Value of Early Detection | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"It's a holiday week. But when the New York Times published another op-ed by Dr. H. Gilbert Welch of the Dartmouth Institute on yet another, misleading two-author analysis of breast cancer screening by him and one other scientist, I thought it worth noting some concerns.

The issue is that educated, middle-aged women are being nudged, and frightened, and even charmed into not going for mammography. Nudged, by papers like the current Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA paper, which acknowledges controversy about statistics and then goes on to report a low range for how many lives are saved by screening. Frightened, by headlines that highlight the risks of overdiagnosis, a statistical concept. If a woman finds out she has an early-stage breast tumor, she and her doctor can decide how much therapy she should have based on the molecular subtype of her tumor, stage and other factors. And charmed, yes -- by the false notion that breast cancer is often nothing to worry about, that in many cases it can be let alone. That it might just disappear.

For now, let's examine the JAMA paper's hype about harms from false positives. The authors state that among 1,000 U.S. women age 50 years who are screened annually for a decade, "490 to 670 will have 1 false alarm." But as detailed in Table 2, it turns out the range for women who undergo false-positive biopsies is far lower: between approximately 50 and 100 per thousand women, depending on the age group and study from which the authors draw the data. What this means, according to the numbers they've culled, is that fewer than 1 in 10 women would undergo a breast biopsy, and not have cancer, per decade of screening."


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Acupuncture, Real or Sham, Eases Chemo Hot Flashes

Acupuncture, Real or Sham, Eases Chemo Hot Flashes | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"Both real and sham weekly acupuncture treatments eased hot flashes and other side effects of anticancer drug treatment in a small, preliminary study of breast cancer patients, according to researchers at Johns Hopkins and the University of Maryland

A release from Johns Hopkins notes that previous reports have suggested that even the sensation of skin pricks used to simulate genuine acupuncture needle sticks might be enough to generate natural chemicals that improve symptoms.

The investigators wanted to find out whether or not acupuncture could reduce the severity of side effects linked to aromatase inhibitors (AI), drugs used to treat breast cancer or prevent it from recurring after surgery. Because AIs block estrogen synthesis in postmenopausal patients, they can cause moderate to severe hot flashes similar to those experienced during menopause as well as  joint and muscle pain. this study both real and fake accupuncture


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, December 27, 2013 4:14 PM

The study suggested that the sensation of skin pricks as well as accupiunture helped relieve side effects from AI's. 

To see the study go to: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cncr.28352/abstract

Louie Helm's curator insight, December 30, 2013 8:26 AM

It says... something... about modern medicine that,


(1) the default treatment for cancer patients is poisoning them, and


(2) the most promising hypothesis that an actual researcher could locate for dulling the pain of being poisoned was stabbing people, and


(3) stabbing people totally works,


(4) except, it works 2x *better* when you do sham acupuncture... where you don't stab them (and instead use fake needles that retract) on pressure points that totally shouldn't work according to the theory of acupuncture,


(5) [SO IN MY FANTASY WORLD] the researchers concluded that since their sham group performed better than their experimental treatment group, acupuncture must be a pretty terrible therapy that no one should use. In fact, the researchers realized that maybe their study just proves that people in severe pain due to intentional poisoning get better at dealing with pain after 8 weeks, no matter what you do to them. But mostly, they get *more* better when you *don't* stab them.


(6) (BUT BACK IN THE REAL WORLD) hahaha... nah... j/k. These researchers instead conclude their peer-reviewed study by saying that real and sham acupuncture both worked with p < .05. So they are both great! So you should get real acupuncture... even though sham acupuncture works better. Whatever. People who are being intentionally poisoned should also be intentionally stabbed too. QED.


#sham_science #lets_go_back_to_leeches

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Role of Sugar Uptake in Breast Cancer Revealed

Role of Sugar Uptake in Breast Cancer Revealed | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"Metabolism was lost in the shadows of cancer research for decades but has recently been reclaiming some of the spotlight. Now, Mina Bissell, Distinguished Scientist with Berkeley Lab’s Life Sciences Division and a leading authority on breast cancer, has shown that aerobic glycolysis– glucose metabolism in the presence of oxygen– is not the consequence of the cancerous activity of malignant cells but is itself a cancerous event.

 “A dramatic increase in sugar uptake could be a cause of oncogenesis,” Bissell said. “Furthermore, through a series of painstaking analysis, we have discovered two new pathways through which increased uptake of glucose could itself activate other oncogenic pathways. This discovery provides possible new targets for diagnosis and therapeutics.” Working with Bissell, Yasuhito Onodera, a Japanese postdoctoral fellow in her research group who is now an assistant professor in Japan, examined the expression of glucose transporter proteins in human breast cells. The focus was on the glucose transporter known as GLUT3, the concentrations of which Onodera and Bissell showed are 400 times greater in malignant than in non-malignant breast cells. The study was carried out using a 3-D culture assay developed earlier by Bissell and her group for mouse mammary cells and later with her collaborator, Ole Petersen, for human breast cells. The assay enables actual reproduction of breast cells to form structural units and for malignant cells to form tumor-like colonies. “We found that overexpression of GLUT3 in the non-malignant human breast cells activated known oncogenic signaling pathways and led to the loss of tissue polarity and the onset of cancerous growth,” Bissell said. “Conversely, the reduction of GLUT3 in the malignant cells led to a phenotypic reversion, in which the oncogenic signaling pathways were suppressed and the cells behaved as if they were non-malignant even though they still contained the malignant genome.”
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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, December 19, 2013 2:49 PM

According to the article, "Bissell and her Japanese collaborators believe their findings help explain why hyperglycemia in diseases such as obesity and diabetes can raise the risk of breast and other cancers. In addition, these results may also help explain why anti-diabetic drugs, such as metformin, which lower blood glucose levels, have been linked to lower cancer risks and mortality."

Heather Swift's curator insight, January 2, 2014 8:19 PM

According to the article, "Bissell and her Japanese collaborators believe their findings help explain why hyperglycemia in diseases such as obesity and diabetes can raise the risk of breast and other cancers. In addition, these results may also help explain why anti-diabetic drugs, such as metformin, which lower blood glucose levels, have been linked to lower cancer risks and mortality."

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NeoALTTO Analysis Finds Significant Link Between pCR and Survival

NeoALTTO Analysis Finds Significant Link Between pCR and Survival | Breast Cancer & Physical Activity | Scoop.it

"Pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a significant correlation with survival in early HER2-positive breast cancer after 4 years of follow-up, according to a new analysis of the NeoALTTO trial presented at the 36th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS). The hazard for event-free survival (EFS) was 65%-70% lower for patients who achieved pCR than for those who did not. The follow-up analysis also confirmed the primary outcome of NeoALTTO: dual HER2 blockade with trastuzumab and lapatinib led to a significantly higher pCR rate than did either drug by itself, Martine Piccart-Gebhart, MD, PhD, lead author of the study reported. “Patients who achieved pCR had significantly better event-free survival and overall survival compared with no pCR, irrespective of the treatment arm,” said Piccart-Gebhart, section head in breast diseases at the Free University of Brussels in Belgium and chair of the Breast International Group. “I believe that our results will be vital for the process of drug development in the field of early HER2-positive breast cancer.” Her presentation provided an update of the multicenter NeoALTTO trial (Neoadjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization), involving 455 patients with HER2-positive breast tumors >2 cm in diameter. Patients were randomly assigned to preoperative therapy with paclitaxel and lapatinib, paclitaxel and trastuzumab, or paclitaxel plus both anti-HER2 drugs. Neoadjuvant therapy with dual HER2 inhibition significantly improved the odds of pCR in patients with early HER2-positive breast cancer. Patients who received a single anti-HER2 agent had similar rates of pCR. "


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Curated by A4BC.ORG's curator insight, December 12, 2013 5:06 PM
Piccart-Gebhart M, Holmes AP, de Azambuja E, et al. The association between event-free survival and pathological complete response to neoadjuvant lapatinib, trastuzumab, or their combination in HER2-positive breast cancer. Survival follow-up analysis of the NeoALTTO study.  Presented at: the 36th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; December 10-14, 2013; San Antonio, TX. Abstract S1-01.