Human Nature ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity
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neuroscience, biology..psychology...Anthropology...singularity..Artificial intelligence
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Christof Koch and Gary Marcus Explain the Codes Used by the Brain - Allen Institute

Christof Koch and Gary Marcus Explain the Codes Used by the Brain - Allen Institute | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
How does the brain speak to itself?

 

In What Is Life? (1944), one of the fundamental questions the physicist Erwin Schrödinger posed was whether there was some sort of “hereditary code-script” embedded in chromosomes. A decade later, Crick and Watson answered Schrödinger’s question in the affirmative. Genetic information was stored in the simple arrangement of nucleotides along long strings of DNA.

 

The question was what all those strings of DNA meant. As most schoolchildren now know, there was a code contained within: adjacent trios of nucleotides, so-called codons, are transcribed from DNA into transient sequences of RNA molecules, which are translated into the long chains of amino acids that we know as proteins. Cracking that code turned out to be a linchpin of virtually everything that followed in molecular biology. As it happens, the code for translating trios of nucleotides into amino acids (for example, the nucleotides AAG code for the amino acid lysine) turned out to be universal; cells in all organisms, large or small—bacteria, giant sequoias, dogs, and people—use the same code with minor variations. Will neuroscience ever discover something of similar beauty and power, a master code that allows us to interpret any pattern of neural activity at will?


Via Ashish Umre, Jocelyn Stoller
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Optogenetics and genomic tools make it possible to pinpoint the source of memory, consciousness, and emotions. | MIT Technology Review

Optogenetics and genomic tools make it possible to pinpoint the source of memory, consciousness, and emotions. | MIT Technology Review | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
With the invention of optogenetics and other technologies, researchers can investigate the source of emotions, memory, and consciousness for the first time.
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Family violence leaves genetic imprint on children

Family violence leaves genetic imprint on children | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
Children in homes affected by violence, suicide, or the incarceration of a family member have significantly shorter telomeres -— a cellular marker of aging -- than those in stable households. The study suggests that the home environment is an important intervention target to reduce the biological impacts of adversity in the lives of young children.
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TLX gene stimulates growth of new brain cells in adults, leading to faster learning in the animal model

TLX gene stimulates growth of new brain cells in adults, leading to faster learning in the animal model | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
Over-expressing a specific gene could prompt growth in adults of new neurons in the hippocampus, where learning and memory are regulated, City of Hope researchers have found.The study, which used an animal model, found that over-expression of the TLX gene resulted in smart, faster learners that retained information better and longer.Understanding the link between this gene and the growth of new neurons — or neurogenesis — is an important step in developing therapies to address impaired learning and memory associated with neurodegenerative diseases and aging.The new research was published June 9 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.“Memory loss is a major health problem, both in diseases like Alzheimer’s, but also just associated with aging,”said Yanhong Shi, Ph.D., lead author of the study and a neurosciences professor at City of Hope.“In our study, we manipulated the expression of this receptor by introducing an additional copy of the gene — which obviously we cannot do outside the laboratory setting. The next step is to find the drug that can target this same gene.”Researchers found that over-expression of the gene was actually associated with a physically larger brain, as well as the ability to learn a task quickly. Furthermore, over-expression of the gene was linked with the ability to remember, over a longer period of time, what had been learned.The discovery creates a new potential strategy for improving cognitive performance in elderly patients and those who have a neurological disease or brain injury.The bulk of the brain’s development happens before birth, and there are periods — largely in childhood and young adulthood — when the brain experiences bursts of new growth. In the past couple of decades, however, scientists have found evidence of neurogenesis in later adulthood — occurring mostly in the hippocampus, the region of the brain associated with learning and memory.
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, Jocelyn Stoller
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The Future of Computer Intelligence Is Everything but Artificial | Science | WIRED

The Future of Computer Intelligence Is Everything but Artificial | Science | WIRED | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
Computers are already smart, just in their own ways. They catalogue the breadth of human knowledge, find meaning in mushroom clouds of data, and fly spacecraft to other worlds. And they're getting better. Below are four domains of computing where the machines are rising.

Via sandra alvaro, Pierre Levy
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Synchronized Brain Waves Enable Rapid Learning

Synchronized Brain Waves Enable Rapid Learning | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
Brain wave synchronization between the striatum and prefrontal cortex appear to assist with category learning, a new study reports.
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Brain-mapping projects to join forces

Brain-mapping projects to join forces | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it

US and European research programmes will begin coordinating research.

 

It seems a natural pairing, almost like the hemispheres of a human brain: two controversial and ambitious projects that seek to decipher the body's control center are poised to join forces.

The European Union’s €1-billion (US$1.3-billion) Human Brain Project (HBP) and the United States’ $1-billion Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative will launch a collaboration later this year, according to government officials involved in both projects.(...) - by Sara Reardon, Nature, 18 March 2014


Via Julien Hering, PhD, Rhoda Floyd, Jocelyn Stoller
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What’s next for humans? A useful reading list | ideas.ted.com

What’s next for humans? A useful reading list | ideas.ted.com | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
Juan Enriquez has big ideas about how the human species is about to evolve. He compiled this list of research we should all be tracking.
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Comment apprenons-nous ?

Comment apprenons-nous ? | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
Le cerveau est l’objet le plus complexe de l’univers connu. Les sciences de l’esprit, science cognitives et neurosciences, ont fait des progrès ces dernières années et s’attaquent à des sujets de plus en plus difficiles. Ainsi, dans le domaine de la perception et du “machine learning”, on est passé d’une étude de la reconnaissance des formes à celle de l’interaction avec l’utilisateur.,
Via Vincent Datin
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Vincent Datin's curator insight, June 5, 2014 2:28 AM

Quelques fondamentaux concernant les mécanismes de notre mental

MARSAL GEOFFRIN's curator insight, June 5, 2014 3:20 AM

Toujours en lien avec la formation, pour mieux se connaitre

GETZEM's curator insight, June 16, 2014 8:25 AM

Après les automatismes et les traitements de données en masse, l'avancée des sciences cognitives est déterminante pour proposer de nouveaux modèles de traitements sélectifs des informations.

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L'origine du langage / France Inter

L'origine du langage / France Inter | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
“ Comment le langage est venu à l'homme? Cela reste en grande partie un mystère.”
Via Carlotta Saconney, carol s. (caravan café)
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The quest to understand consciousness

The quest to understand consciousness | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
Every morning we wake up and regain consciousness -- that is a marvelous fact -- but what exactly is it that we regain? Neuroscientist Antonio Damasio uses this simple question to give us a glimpse into how our brains create our sense of self.
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Where is Heaven?

Where is Heaven? | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it

 

Mike LaTorra writes and teaches in Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA. He is author of A Warrior Blends with Life: A Modern Tao. He serves as President of the Daibutsuji Zen Temple, and is on the Board of Directors of the IEET. In this video that was taken at the Transhuman Visions conference Mike talks about Buddhism, transhumanism, and enlightenment.

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Portable Brain Mapping Device Allows Researchers to See Where Memory Fails Student Veterans

Portable Brain Mapping Device Allows Researchers to See Where Memory Fails Student Veterans | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
Using a portable brain mapping device, researchers discover limited prefrontal cortex activity among student veterans with PTSD when asked to recall information from simple memory tasks.
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Modelling How Neurons Work Together

Modelling How Neurons Work Together | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
Researchers develop a highly accurate representation of how neurons behave when performing complex movements.
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This is My Brain on Social Cognition

This is My Brain on Social Cognition | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
Social cognitive neuroscientist Bob Spunt takes us on a step-by-step tour of his research on what attribution looks like in his brain.
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The Science of Laughter with Sophie Scott - YouTube

“Subscribe for the latest science videos: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=TheRoyalInstitution If you ask people what makes them laugh, the... (Why do we laugh?”
Via Emre Erdogan, Jocelyn Stoller
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Machines Teach Humans How to Feel Using Neurofeedback

Machines Teach Humans How to Feel Using Neurofeedback | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
“Humans are social animals, and feelings of attachment, connection and empathy are the glue that binds societies together. Before an infant’s”
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Your Digital Afterlives - Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies

Your Digital Afterlives - Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it

Most transhumanists are already familiar with digitalism, even if they haven’t heard the name. Digitalism uses ideas from computer science to develop new ways of thinking about old topics. Writers like Ed Fredkin, Hans Moravec, Frank Tipler, Nick Bostrom, and Ray Kurzweil are digitalists. Typically, digitalists are scientists, rationalists, naturalists, and atheists. Nevertheless, they have worked out novel and deeply meaningful ways of thinking about things like ghosts, souls, gods, resurrection, and reincarnation.

 

 


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Protecting Your Brain Waves From Hackers. Seriously. | IdeaFeed | Big Think

Protecting Your Brain Waves From Hackers. Seriously. | IdeaFeed | Big Think | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
At the 2014 Neuroimaging conference held this year in San Francisco, industry professionals exhibited the promises and risks of being able to track, download, and manipulate brain waves. 
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Cultural differences in human brain activity: A quantitative meta-analysis

Cultural differences in human brain activity: A quantitative meta-analysis | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it

Psychologists have been trying to understand differences in cognition and behavior between East Asian and Western cultures within a single cognitive framework such as holistic versus analytic or interdependent versus independent processes. However, it remains unclear whether cultural differences in multiple psychological processes correspond to the same or different neural networks. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of 35 functional MRI studies to examine cultural differences in brain activity engaged in social and non-social processes. We showed that social cognitive processes are characterized by stronger activity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, lateral frontal cortex and temporoparietal junction in East Asians but stronger activity in the anterior cingulate, ventral medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral insula in Westerners. Social affective processes are associated with stronger activity in the right dorsal lateral frontal cortex in East Asians but greater activity in the left insula and right temporal pole in Westerners. Non-social processes induce stronger activity in the left inferior parietal cortex, left middle occipital and left superior parietal cortex in East Asians but greater activations in the right lingual gyrus, right inferior parietal cortex and precuneus in Westerners. The results suggest that cultural differences in social and non-social processes are mediated by distinct neural networks. Moreover, East Asian cultures are associated with increased neural activity in the brain regions related to inference of others' mind and emotion regulation whereas Western cultures are associated with enhanced neural activity in the brain areas related to self-relevance encoding and emotional responses during social cognitive/affective processes.


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Writing In The 21st Century | Edge.org

Writing In The 21st Century | Edge.org | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it

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FastTFriend's curator insight, June 10, 2014 2:40 AM

The question I'm currently asking myself is how our scientific understanding of language can be put into practice to improve the way that we communicate anything, including science?

Ken Schneider's curator insight, June 11, 2014 10:33 PM

Attention fellow language geeks; if you haven't read any Stephen Pinker your geek-dom is in doubt.

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The fiction of memory

The fiction of memory | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
“ Psychologist Elizabeth Loftus studies memories. More precisely, she studies false memories, when people either remember things that didn't happen or remember them differently from the way they really were. It's more common than you might think, and Loftus shares some startling stories and statistics, and raises some important ethical questions we should all remember to consider.”
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Your Brain Is a Prediction Machine: It Predicts What Your Interlocutor Is Going to Say

Your Brain Is a Prediction Machine: It Predicts What Your Interlocutor Is Going to Say | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
The ability of the brain to 'predict' another person's words, according to a new study, plays a key role in the process of human communication.
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Brain Evolution Study Shows What We Gave Up To Get Smart

Brain Evolution Study Shows What We Gave Up To Get Smart | Human Nature  ,Brain and Cognitive Sciences &Singularity | Scoop.it
Humans may be smart because energy once devoted to brawn was given up for brains, researchers say. The most powerful computer known is the brain. The human brain possesses about 100 billion neurons with about 1 quadrillion — 1 million billion...
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