From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History
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Greek Hellenistic Macedonian, Civilization

Greek Hellenistic Macedonian, Civilization | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it
Greek and Hellenistic Reproductions
Ancient Greece was a civilization lasting from the archaic period of the 8th century BC though the Classical age of 338 BC when the Macedonians conquered it with the Battle of Chaeronea.

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Keerah Caldwell's curator insight, October 7, 2013 2:10 PM

Ancient Greece is my all time favorite to study!

Kevin Connolly's curator insight, May 16, 2014 11:47 AM

Cool website with a lot of sculptures and artwork

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TimeMaps

TimeMaps | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it
The Hellenistic period saw Greek civilization spread right across the Middle East in the wake of Alexander the Great's conquests.
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ARCHAEOLOGY - Ancient woman statue revealed in Metropolis

ARCHAEOLOGY - Ancient woman statue revealed in Metropolis | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it
A 2,500-year-old statue of a woman from the late Hellenistic period has been unearthed...

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Greek&Roman ART: THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD AND HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE

Greek&Roman ART: THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD AND HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it

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Huai-Chung Tu's curator insight, May 16, 2014 11:49 PM

This article talk about the characters of Hellenistic sculpture which the author use the term "idealism" to describe it with brief history of the art in Hellenistic period.

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Alexandria - Egypt

Alexandria - Egypt | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it
The city of Alexandria founded by Alexander the Great in 332 BC, Alexandria is situated on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, 179 Km (111 miles) north of Cairo.

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Egypt Travel Experts's curator insight, April 22, 2013 1:54 AM

Among the fabulous monuments mentioned by ancient Greek books are the Enclosure Walls and the Gates of the City, the Lighthouse, the Great Library, the Royal Necropolis including the Tomb of Alexander and the Museums. 

Egypt Travel Experts's curator insight, April 22, 2013 1:55 AM

Among the fabulous monuments mentioned by ancient Greek books are the Enclosure Walls and the Gates of the City, the Lighthouse, the Great Library, the Royal Necropolis including the Tomb of Alexander and the Museums. 

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BBC - History - Alexander the Great

BBC - History - Alexander the Great | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it
Read a biography about Alexander the Great from his early life to becoming a military leader. How did he change the nature of the ancient world?

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Ethan Lam's curator insight, May 5, 2013 2:44 AM

BBC History has presented through a short extract on this web page how Alexander III successor to the throne carried on the legacy that his father before him Phillip the second had left for him. It is a vital part of ancient history as it presents that largest empire known to ancient time as a result of two powerful leaders and how Alexander became the benchmark to what all leaders would be measured upon for his skill at such a young age.

Ethan Lam's comment, May 5, 2013 7:26 AM
During his reign as king, Alexander the Great extended the Macedonian Empire. How far did this Empire extend and how many cities did he establish?
Ethan Lam's comment, May 5, 2013 7:27 AM
Alexander the Great led his army to many victories across the Persian territories. Name three of these territories?
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Who's Buried in Largest Tomb in Northern Greece? New Finds Raise Intrigue

Who's Buried in Largest Tomb in Northern Greece? New Finds Raise Intrigue | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it
The biggest known ancient Greek tomb may hold a relative of Alexander the Great, researchers say. (Who's buried in the largest ancient Greek tomb?

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Marble female figurines unearthed in vast Alexander the Great-era Greek tomb - Telegraph

Marble female figurines unearthed in vast Alexander the Great-era Greek tomb  - Telegraph | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it
Two-foot-tall statues, known as Caryatids, mark a significant new finding at the Amphipolis site, believed to be the burial site of one of Alexander the Great's relatives or generals

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Alexander the Great: a very competent expert in finances

Alexander the Great: a very competent expert in finances | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it

He may have gained world-wide fame as a victorious army commander, but Alexander the Great was also a very competent expert in finances.


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Sakis Koukouvis's curator insight, December 6, 2012 5:18 PM

Alexander, the... Greconomist!

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The Great Library at Alexandria was destroyed by budget cuts, not fire | io9.com

The Great Library at Alexandria was destroyed by budget cuts, not fire | io9.com | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it

One of the great tragedies of ancient history, memorialized in myths and Hollywood film, is the burning of the great library at Alexandria. But the reality of the Library's end was actually a lot less pyrotechnic than that. A major cause of the Library's ruin was government budget cuts.

 

Alexandria was a Hellenistic city founded in Egypt by Alexander the Great's invading forces. Ptolomy II Soter, who ruled after Alexander, wanted to found a museum in the Greek style, based on Aristotle's Lyceum in Athens. He imagined that this place — called Ptolemaic Mouseion Academy — would attract great scholars from all over the world. No longer would Alexandria be a colonial backwater or just a nice vacation spot for rich Greeks. Instead, it would become a great city of wealth and learning.

 

And so, in 283 BCE, the great library at Alexandria was born. Over decades, its librarians and scholars packed it with hundreds of thousands of scrolls. Academics from all over the Mediterranean and Middle East came to give lectures there, and to consult its texts. At one point, over 100 scholars lived there full time, supported by state stipends that helped them maintain the scrolls, translate and copy them, and conduct research. As time went on, the city opened another branch of the library at the Temple of Serapis — this was often called the "daughter library."

 

Unlike the many private libraries that existed in the palaces of the wealthy in the ancient world, the library at Alexandria was open to anyone who could prove themselves a worthy scholar. In principle, it was far more democratic than most other learning institutions. The royal Mouseion library and its Serapis branch were so famous for their bounty that it seemed impossible that they could last very long.

 

Indeed, within a couple hundred years of its founding, we hear that Julius Caesar burned the library down in an attack on the city and Egypt's ruler Cleopatra in 40 CE. But there is little evidence that either the library or its daughter branch were wrecked; some scholars believe that references to "40,000 lost scrolls" in the historical literature refer to warehouses full of scrolls for export that Caesar burned when he sacked the port.

 

Click headline to read more and view pix--


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History of Macedonia

The history of Macedonia - One of the oldest countries in the world, and the first republic in the Balkans.

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Tanagrea...

Tanagrea... | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it

Tanagra (Greek: Τανάγρα) is a community north of Athens in Boeotia, not far from Thebes, that was noted in antiquity for the figurines named after it.

The Tanagra figurines were a mass-produced, mold-cast and fired type of Greek terracotta figurines produced from the later fourth century BCE, primarily in Tanagra.Tanagra, at the time of the Median wars was already a sizeable town. Around 800 BC it was called a polis. Its influence extended and it absorbed the small villages that were on the periphery. It was one of the founding cities of the League and fought with Boeotian Thebes to expand the league. Tanagra became one of the Boeotian powers until the early fifth century BC when infighting League enabled cities like Sparta and Athens to acquire more power.

The walls of Tanagra were destroyed during a battle between the Peloponnesian League in Boeotia which was then under the control of Athens for ten years. Boeotia regained its independence in the late fifth century, but Thebes became the dominant city. Tanagra continued to support the Boeotian League in the Peloponnesian Wars (431 to -404 BC).

Corinne, from Tanagra, a contemporary of Pindar (classical period) was one of the greatest poets of Greece. The Boeotians were also excellent musicians. Tanagra was also known for its cockfights throughout the classical period and Hermes, the god of the city, was the patron of those fights. 
Besides these details, Tanagra was actually a commercial hub in the classical period, particularly between Athens and Thebes. When Rome extended its rule over the whole Mediterranean world, Tanagra retained its role as artistic center, however from the second century and mainly during the first Tanagra becasme poorer than Thebes. It nevertheless remained one of the most important cities of Boeotia.

Most of the Tanagra figurines were found during illegal excavations that destroyed the environment that could have provided information about the time when they were made. However archaeological excavations carried out in a scientific framework allowed some clarification on these works of art.

In the fifth century burials were becoming more common than cremation. The graves are usually two or three meters deep. Vases were deposited as offerings, and in Boeotia figures of nude youths and women draped were found, bearing offerings. New figures of veiled women dancers arrive from Athens and were immediately adopted by artisans Boeotians, announcing changes in the Hellenistic period: they are the visual expression of a transition from a world centered on the city of Athens to a world run by Macedonian kingdoms that establish other rules of life. 
The typical Tangréen style appeared in the fourth century BC.
It was manufactured in Athenian workshops until 330 BC, first as "vases figurines," inspired by the great sculptures. The pattern developed on the mud off it quickly and it goes from simple relief statuette. Subsequently, Corinth played a role in the evolution of Tanagra although the degree of influence remains to be determined.
Boeotia, especially Thebes and Tanagra, were initially importers before also becoming producers Attik coroplasthics. The strength of the Tanagrans was to capture a theme from elsewhere and reproduce, usually with talent.

Around 1870 AD, archaic tombs were discovered flush with the surface. Their statues generally represented veiled women, who were quickly called by the name of the city where they were discovered: Tanagra.
It is estimated that by 1873 half of 8-10000 open tombs had been robbed of their statuettes. The contextual records of these finds were very few, and it was not until the 1970s that the excavations in graves untouched by looters gave more precise information on the function of these statues and the funerary cults in general.

The Tanagra figurines were mold-cast terracotta figurines produced from the later fourth century BC. They were coated with a liquid white slip before firing and were sometimes painted in naturalistic tints with watercolors, such as the famous "Dame en Bleu" ("Lady in Blue") at the Louvre. Scholars have wondered why a rural place like Tanagra produced such fine and rather "urban" style terracotta figures.
Tanagra figures depict real women — and some men and boys — in everyday costume, with familiar accessories like hats, wreaths or fans. Some character pieces may have represented stock figures from the New Comedy of Menander and other writers. Others continued an earlier tradition of molded terracotta figures used as cult images or votive objects. Typically they are about 4 to 8 inches high.The coraplasters, or sculptors of the models that provided the molds, delighted in revealing the body under the folds of a himation thrown round the shoulders like a cloak and covering the head, over a chiton, and the movements of such drapery in action.
Text: Google translation of a French article in tanagra-art.com
Wikepedia
See also: A. Zink and E. Porto, a paper on dating the Tanagra figures in the Louvre

 

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2,300-Year-Old Village Discovered Outside Jerusalem

2,300-Year-Old Village Discovered Outside Jerusalem | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it
The site reached the peak of its development in the Hellenistic period (3rd century BCE).
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ART HISTORY: Ancient Greek Art (Geometric through Hellenistic) (5)

ART HISTORY: Ancient Greek Art (Geometric through Hellenistic) (5) | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it
63 terms · Geometric and Orientalizing Art, ca. 900-600 BCE, Dipylon Krater, Hero and Centaur, Mantiklos Apollo, Orientalizing Amphora, Archaic Art, ca. 600-480 BCE, Lady of Auxerre, Kouros, Calf bearer, Kroisos, Pep

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Huai-Chung Tu's curator insight, May 16, 2014 11:43 PM

This article give a list of art work from Geometric art to sculptures during Hellenistic with list of characteristics on each of them.

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Back to Arsinoe II


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Huai-Chung Tu's curator insight, May 16, 2014 11:50 PM

This article talks about the transfer of Greeks Geometric art to Hellenistic period art style.

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Learning Through History News - Alexander the Great

In this mini unit, you can: learn about the life of Alexander the Great, read what Plutarch wrote about him, see timelines of his life and maps of his vast empire, watch an online documentary, listen...

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John Hopper's curator insight, April 29, 2013 12:14 AM

Why do you think Alexander wanted to expand the Macedonian Empire?

How did the geography and resources of the lands Alexander conquered, benefit the empire? (use the map for help)

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Rare discovery ancient gemstone with portrait of Alexander the Great

Rare discovery ancient gemstone with portrait of Alexander the Great | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it
Gemstone at Tel Dor No'a Raban-Gerstel, University of Haifa
A press release today from the University of Haifa in Israel announced a rare archaeological discov
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Alexander the Great Biography - family, children, parents, death, history, wife, mother, young, son

Alexander the Great Biography - family, children, parents, death, history, wife, mother, young, son | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it
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Is this the tomb of Alexander's wife and son?

Is this the tomb of Alexander's wife and son? | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it

Αrchaeologists from the 28th Ephorate of Antiquities unearthed a tomb in the city of Amphipolis, near Serres, northern Greece, which they believe could belong to the wife and son of Alexander the Great, Roxane and Alexander IV.


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Toxic wine led to Greek tragedy: NZ scientist - National - NZ Herald News

Toxic wine led to Greek tragedy: NZ scientist - National - NZ Herald News | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it
An Otago University scientist may have unravelled a 2,000-year-old mystery of what killed Alexander the Great. - New Zealand Herald

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John Ward's curator insight, January 20, 2014 8:12 AM

An Otago University scientist may have unravelled a 2,000-year-old mystery of what killed Alexander the Great.

National Poisons Centre toxicologist Dr Leo Schep thinks the culprit could be poisonous wine made from an innocuous-looking plant.

Classical scholars have been deeply divided about what killed the Macedonian leader, who built a massive empire before his death, aged 32, in June of 323BC. Some accounts say he died of natural causes but others suggested members of his inner circle conspired to poison him at a celebratory banquet

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The Archaeology News Network: Toxic wine blamed for Alexander the Great's death

The Archaeology News Network: Toxic wine blamed for Alexander the Great's death | From Polis to Cosmopolis, Rise of Greek, Before History | Scoop.it

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John Ward's curator insight, January 15, 2014 2:23 AM

An Otago University scientist may have unravelled a 2,000-year-old mystery of what killed Alexander the Great.