Cyber Attacks Police Chases
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The PursuitSAFETY website for safer police chases

The PursuitSAFETY website for safer police chases | Cyber Attacks Police Chases | Scoop.it
PursuitSAFETY is the only national nonprofit organization of its kind. As Glenn Morshower says, we exist to save the lives of innocent bystanders and police officers. We reach out to families impacted by the tragedy of pursuit. We work with law enforcement to find safer ways to catch drivers who flee and to respond to calls.
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Mike Milburn's comment, March 27, 2014 9:58 AM
"On average...<br><br>• Crashes as a result of police chases and police response calls kill more than one person a day, and one-third of the people killed are innocent bystanders. <br><br>• On average, these crashes kill one officer every six weeks.<br><br>• According to a 2004 Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center analysis of nine years of national statistics [submitted on a voluntary basis], "One third of these pursuit fatalities occur to innocent bystanders.”<br><br>• The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) gathers pursuit fatalities on a voluntary basis. A 2002 FBI Bulletin notes, “The absence of mandatory reporting hampers the government’s ability to track the actual number of deaths.” Under-reporting of pursuit fatalities still exists today. According to NHTSA, crashes as a result of police pursuits kill at least one person a day. Sometimes, it is more than one person a day. Of those killed, at least a third are innocent bystanders."Pursuit Safety<br>
Mike Milburn's comment, March 27, 2014 10:07 AM
"police chase fatalities are underreported for a number of reasons, including the following:<br><br>·It's voluntary. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) uses a voluntary tracking system to collect information. It is not a report of the actual number of all deaths, especially the deaths of innocent bystanders as a result of vehicular police chases and response calls. Information to NHTSA is given—or not given—at the discretion of each individual law enforcement agency. <br><br>·No independent oversight at the state or national level of the information submitted to NHTSA. <br><br>·No independent investigations: Often, police officers or their agencies will make the determination that a crash occurred right after a pursuit was "terminated," hence the crash is not pursuit-related. (Source: FBI Journal Report)<br><br>·Inadequate reporting: Officials from law enforcement agencies often change their minds about whether it was or was not a chase when innocent bystanders are killed. Consequently, these deaths of innocent bystanders are not counted in any government reports.<br><br>·Inadequate reporting: Babies and young children in the car whose driver is fleeing the police are not counted as innocent victims in the government's report. They are recorded as "occupants of fleeing vehicle."<br><br>·Inadequate reporting: Chases for suspected DUI are sometimes reported solely as DUI fatalities, and<br><br>·Inadequate reporting: Individuals who die later (for example, not at the crash scene) are sometimes not reported as a pursuit fatality.<br><br> <br><br>Deaths<br>PursuitSAFETY’s professional advisory board members concur with the FBI report and affirm that the actual number of fatalities is “two or three times higher” than NHTSA’s figures. NHTSA uses a voluntary tracking system, with information given—or not given—at the discretion of each individual law enforcement agency. Consequently, there is no national database that uses a mandatory reporting system, and there is no independent state or federal oversight of the information submitted to NHTSA. The information from NHTSA does not reflect the actual number of deaths as a result of police chases and response calls.<br><br><br><br><br>Collision Factors <br>35-40 percent of all vehicular police pursuits end in a collision. The IACP Police Pursuit Database, 2008, page 17 (pdf)<br><br>From the FBI Report: "50 percent of all pursuit collisions occur in the first two minutes of the pursuit, and more than 70 percent of all collisions occur before the sixth minute of the pursuit.”<br><br><br><br> <br><br>Why police pursue?<br>· 42.3% Traffic violation <br><br>· 18.2% Vehicle was believed to be stolen <br><br>· 14.9% Driver believed to be intoxicated (DWI) <br><br>· 8.6% Violent felony <br><br>· 7.5% Non violent felony <br><br>· 5.9% Other misdemeanors <br><br>· 2.6% Assisting other departments<br><br>100.0% Total — The IACP Police Pursuit Database, 2008, page 56 (pdf)<br><br> <br><br>Siren Factors<br>Only 24% of drivers can hear and determine from which direction a police car and its siren are traveling. (ALERT International Conference, September 2008.)<br><br>In the case of excessive speeds, some drivers won’t hear the siren at all because they are just behind or catching up to the sound.<br><br>"Innocent third-party drivers who do hear the siren have no time to react." —Ret. Police Chief D.P. Van Blaricom, Bellevue, WA"Pursuit Safety<br>
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Cyber Terror

Cyber Terror | Cyber Attacks Police Chases | Scoop.it
Cyber Terror
By William L. Tafoya
Law enforcement agencies must understand this modern threat and guard vigilantly against it.
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Mike Milburn's comment, March 5, 2014 10:18 AM
"In 1991 during Operation Desert Storm, coalition forces used IW, EW, and IO through the clandestine introduction of viruses and logic bombs into Iraqi Republican Guard (IRG) command-and-control-center computers and peripherals, causing the disruption and alteration of the targeting and launching of Scud missiles.5 Military combatants engaging one another on the battlefield constitutes IW, EO, and IO. Attacking the largely civilian critical infrastructure is not warfare, but terrorism—cyber terror. But, how does cyber terror differ from IW, EW, and IO?"Denning
Mike Milburn's comment, March 5, 2014 10:20 AM
"The term was coined in the 1980s by Barry Collin who discussed this dynamic of terrorism as transcendence from the physical to the virtual realm and “the intersection, the convergence of these two worlds....”6 The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) has defined it as “the use of computer network tools to shut down critical national infrastructures (e.g., energy, transportation, government operations) or to coerce or intimidate a government or civilian population.”7 The author defines cyber terror as “the intimidation of civilian enterprise through the use of high technology to bring about political, religious, or ideological aims, actions that result in disabling or deleting critical infrastructure data or information.”<br><br>As an illustration in size, this article does not compare to the holdings of the Library of Congress. The loss of the former would be traumatic to the author, but would impact few other people." Collin
Mike Milburn's comment, March 5, 2014 10:21 AM
"Loss of the latter, likely irreplaceable, would prove devastating if a cyber attack deleted those files. Of course, neither could compare to the loss of one human life. But, if data or information from any of the nation’s critical infrastructure databases were attacked and destroyed, that certainly would impact quality of life.<br><br>One expert asserted that if people wanted to know how much to spend on information security, they should calculate the cost of replacing their hard drives and databases in the event they became intentionally wiped out—then, double that estimate.8 Recently, a graduate student observed that “Cyber terrorism is a critical threat to national security and public policy. The intelligence community (IC) is at a turning point because it is difficult to catch a criminal who establishes an identity in cyberspace. Further, [we are at] a critical point in [time] for public policy because the government will have to devise regulations of electronic data transfer for public, as well as private, information that can be identified and accessed via the Internet.” Collin
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PursuitSAFETY_fact_sheet_3_2013.pdf

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Mike Milburn's comment, March 26, 2014 10:29 AM
"Siren Factors<br>Only 24% of drivers can hear and determine from which direction a police car and its siren are traveling. In the case of excessive speeds, some drivers won’t hear the siren at all because they are just behind or catching up to the sound. (ALERT International)<br>“Drivers who do hear the siren have no time to react.” —Ret. Police Chief D.P. Van Blaricom, Bellevue, WA, PD
Mike Milburn's comment, March 26, 2014 10:30 AM
To Chase or Not to Chase, Officer Considerations<br>"Since pursuits last an average of only 2.5 minutes, officers save lives when they are trained to make decisions before attempting to stop any driver. The officer needs to ask:<br>• If this driver does not pull over, what will I do? • What does my pursuit policy allow me to do?<br>When the driver is suspected of driving a stolen vehicle, shoplifting, violating parole, or is a known flight risk, the officer needs to ask:<br>• What are the chances that this driver will pull over appropriately? • What other means are available to me to capture this suspect?<br>At 100 mph, the impact of a crash equals a 30-story drop of a 2,000-pound object."Pursuit Safety
Mike Milburn's comment, March 26, 2014 10:31 AM
"Terminating Pursuits<br>From the Orlando, Florida, Police Department policy and procedures: Any officer ordered to cease a pursuit by a superior officer shall do so immediately. The field supervisor or the watch commander shall get verbal confirma- tion that the officer has ceased the pursuit and will ensure the following: 1. The primary and backup officers shall turn off all emergency equipment.<br>2. The primary and backup officers shall turn their vehicles in another direction of travel away from where the suspect’s vehicle was last seen heading or pull to the side of the road if on a limited access roadway.<br>3. The primary officer shall inform Communications that the pursuit has terminated and give his or her location and last known direction of suspect’s vehicle."Pursuit Safety
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Police Chief Magazine - View Article

The official publication of the International Association of Chiefs of Police.
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Mike Milburn's comment, March 4, 2014 10:34 AM
"Include these tests in regional, mutual-aid training days. Include mock cyber attacks in the training matrix.<br>Preparation for such an attack is essential and training is important. Shut down all communications, power, and computer systems during the exercise. This exercise will assess how quickly first responders can flex to the change, if the backup systems are working, and if the jurisdiction is prepared to handle a cyber attack during an actual critical incident.<br><br>Law enforcement has the core responsibility to provide for the safety and security of communities. The police department must be knowledgeable about the rapidly changing environment and adapt to meet these challenges. One such challenge is the use of the Internet by terrorists to further their goals of creating chaos and terror in communities. This is a significant challenge to law enforcement now and will continue to grow more challenging in the years to come. Departments must also be clear about their vulnerabilities and prepare for worst-case scenarios, such as combined cyber/physical attacks.<br><br>Those police agencies and jurisdictions that assess the potential for harm from a cyber attack will be in the best position to safeguard against it. If they don’t, those who would see a disruption to the critical infrastructure as a good thing have a clear path to success. "Dewar<br>
Mike Milburn's comment, March 5, 2014 10:06 AM
"The U.S. government has issued a directive addressing the critical infrastructure sectors most likely to be targets of a terrorist attack.13 Included among the 13 sectors noted, is the technological/communications infrastructure. Given that almost all critical infrastructure sectors, including public health, energy, defense, shipping, and emergency services, rely on networked technologies, a cyber attack may be the most proficient means to destroy the most critical components of U.S. society.<br><br>Law enforcement executives must not assume that other city employees or departments are managing cybersecurity or have the ability to respond when under such an attack. Steps that can be taken by law enforcement executives effectively to mitigate such an attack and to respond and manage the incident follow:<br><br>Communicate that cybersecurity is a top priority in emergency planning.<br><br>Determine which infrastructure nodes in the jurisdiction are the most vulnerable. This will require a partnership with public works, information technology, and private sector businesses.<br><br>Prioritize the list. This will assist in the proper allocation of resources and funding to the most critical locations first."Dewar
Mike Milburn's comment, March 5, 2014 10:06 AM
"Develop a timeline for implementation to protect these key sites.<br><br>Establish a working group of police, information technology professionals, communications, and public works experts to determine which infrastructures support first responders. These infrastructures include radio frequencies, computer systems, wireless technology, and power systems.<br><br>Ensure that only trusted, key people have access to the critical infrastructure that supports emergency operations. Never assume employees are not vulnerable to influence or corruption. Passwords must be verified and changed often.<br><br>Ensure that redundant, backup communications systems are in place and can function in the field for first responders when all other systems fail. If there is no back-up system, create one. This may be something as simple as direct-talk walkie-talkies.<br><br>Test these redundant backup systems in real-time training scenarios." Dewar