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CIA - The World Factbook

CIA - The World Factbook | BDColumbianRevolution |

                                                               Colombia Info:

The SANTOS administration has highlighted five "locomotives" to stimulate economic growth: extractive industries; agriculture; infrastructure; housing; and innovation. Colombia is third largest exporter of oil to the United States. President SANTOS, inaugurated in August 2010, introduced unprecedented legislation to better distribute extractive industry royalties and compensate Colombians who lost their land due to decades of violence. He also seeks to build on improvements in domestic security and on President URIBE's promarket economic policies. Foreign direct investment reached a record $10 billion in 2008, but dropped to $7.2 billion in 2009, before beginning to recover in 2010, notably in the oil sector. Pro-business reforms in the oil and gas sectors and export-led growth, fueled mainly by the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act, have enhanced Colombia's investment climate. Inequality, underemployment, and narcotrafficking remain significant challenges, and Colombia's infrastructure requires major improvements to sustain economic expansion. Because of the global financial crisis and weakening demand for Colombia's exports, Colombia's economy grew only 2.7% in 2008, and 0.8% in 2009 but rebounded to around 4.4% in 2010. In late 2010, Colombia experienced its most severe flooding in decades, with damages estimated to exceed $6 billion. The government has encouraged exporters to diversify their customer base beyond the United States and Venezuela, traditionally Colombia's largest trading partners; the SANTOS administration continues to pursue free trade agreements with Asian and South American partners and a trade accord with Canada is expected to go into effect in 2011, while a negotiated trade agreement with the EU has yet to be approved by the EU parliament. Improved relations with Venezuela have eased worries about restrictions on bilateral trade, but the business sector remains concerned about the pending US Congressional approval of the US-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement.


Agriculture - products:

coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp

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Battle of Boyaca (Latin America [1819]) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia

Battle of Boyaca (Latin America [1819]), (Aug. 7, 1819), in the wars for Latin American independence, encounter near Bogotá that resulted in a victory by South American insurgents over Spanish forces. It freed New Granada (Colombia) from Spanish control.A rebel army of about 3,000 men under generals Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander first surprised and defeated the Spaniards in preliminary engagements at Gámeza (July 12) and Pantano de Vargas (July 25) and captured Tunja on August 5. In the final encounter at Boyacá, Santander cut off the Spanish advance force near a bridge over the Boyacá River, while Bolívar’s troops attacked the main force a half mile away, capturing about 1,800 prisoners and the Spanish commander. Bolívar then captured Bogotá on August 10 and was hailed as the liberator of New Granada. He set up a provisional government with Santander as vice president and acting head. Bolívar then went to Angostura in Venezuela, where he announced his scheme to establish the Republic of Gran Colombia.

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Colombia: Economy —

Agriculture has traditionally been the chief economic activity in Colombia. An extremely wide variety of crops is grown, depending on altitude, but coffee is by far the major crop and its price on the world market has affected Colombia's economic health. Among the commercial crops, coffee is grown between elevations of 3,000 and 6,000 ft (914 and 1,829 m); bananas, cotton, sugarcane, oil palm, and tobacco are grown at lower elevations. Between 6,000 and 10,000 ft (1,829 and 3,048 m) potatoes, beans, grains, and temperate-zone fruit and vegetables are grown.

Colombia is rich in minerals, including petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, and platinum. The saltworks at Zipaquirá, near Bogotá, are world famous. Hydroelectric potential was developed during the 1970s and 80s. The manufacturing sector of the economy has expanded greatly in recent decades, although it is heavily dependent on imported materials. Beverages and processed foods, textiles, clothing and footwear, and chemicals are the chief products. Tourism is also a sizable source of income.

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Colombia :: Revolution and independence -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia

Colombia :: Revolution and independence -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia | BDColumbianRevolution |

"The French invasion of Spain in 1808 caused an outburst of loyalty to the king and country which led to serious concern for the church. Granadine anxiety over the fate of the empire and conflicting courses of action by colonial subjects over control of the government during the capitivity of King Ferdinand VII gave way to strife in New Grananda."

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Colombia: History —

Prior to the Spanish conquest, The Chibcha, Sub-Andean, And Carribbean peoples inhabited Columbia. They lived in organized, agriculturally based communities. After the spanish conquest which started in 1525, formed present day New Granada which was a former Spanish colony in South America. The struggle for independence began in 1810. And by 1830, Venezuela and Ecuador had succeeded, and the remnant (Columbia and Panama) was renamed the Republic of New Granada. In 1886, this became the Republic of Columbia. The Revolution was foreshadowed By the rising of comuneros. Although Bolívar's authority prevailed by and large in the constitutional assembly (1828), Greater Colombia soon fell apart. In 1830, Venezuela and Ecuador became separate nations. The remaining territory emerged as the republic of New Granada. Through the 19th cent. and into the 20th cent. political unrest and civil strife reappeared constantly. Strong parties developed along conservative and liberal lines; the conservatives favored centralism and participation by the church in government and education, and the liberals supported federalism, anticlericalism, and some measure of social legislation and fiscal reforms. Civil war frequently erupted between the factions. During the 19th and early 20th cent. three statesmen stand out—Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera, Rafael Núñez, and Rafael Reyes. While Mosquera was president, a treaty was concluded (1846) granting the United States transit rights across the Isthmus of Panama.

Read more: Colombia: History —

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Juan de Sámano - Wikipedia

Juan de Sámano - Wikipedia | BDColumbianRevolution |

Juan Jose de Samano had a family with a long tradition in the military. He was a cadet in 1771, and lieutenant eight years later. He was the professor of mathematics at the Military Academy in Barcelona (Spain), where he went for 5 years.

In 1780, he was transferred to India, Puerto Rico, and Cuba as a lieutenant. In 1785, he returned to Europe in 1789 reached the military rank of captain, and was at war with revolutionary France under the rule of General Ventura Caro, and in one of the battles he was wounded in both thighs.

In 1794 he was agaisent to New Granada, at their request. He was commissioned as Riohacha ruling in 1806 rejecting a British attack. Riohacha went to Bogota, where he arrived with 30 soldiers brown horse in 1809, volunteering to Viceroy Amar y Borbón to fight the rebels.

Colonel Juan Samano commanded the auxiliary line in Bogota,where they had a proclamation of independence. His second in military command authority was José María Moledo, with other officers who not only sympathized with the revolution, but took part in it. On July 20, 1810, remained at his headquarters Samano all night, watched by Baraya Moledo and who had sworn to obey the Supreme Council of Santa Fe the morning of July 21, Colonel Samano was sworn in by President Board, José Miguel Pey. By order of the same, Samano was relievedof his duties and command of the battalion assistant and was replaced by Lieutenant Colonel José María Moledo.

Samano was issued a passport to leave the New Kingdom of Granada. He returned to Spain where he was commissioned to pacify the region of Quito and Guayaquil. From Quito, military operations were directed against the rebels in New Granada. In 1813, he was appointed by the governor Toribio Montes, as leader of the expedition to regain control over southern viceroyalty, reaching the city of Popayan on July 1, 1813. Promoted to brigadier, then and there proclaimed the Constitution of Cadiz and demanded the rebels to pay capital Cundinamarca and give their obedience to Spain again.

Defeated by Antonio Nariño in the battle of High Palace (December 30, 1814) and in the battle of Calibío (January 15, 1814), Samano fled with a small group of soldiers to Pasto, where he was replaced by Field Marshal Melchor Aymerich, because according to the governor Toribio Montes, although Samano was loyal to the Crown and had a lot of military practice, he lacked bold tactics for the triumph of his troops.

Retired to Quito, was charged again on another expedition realistic New Granada. He restored the lead in Pasto, and June 29, 1816 was the decisive victory at the Battle of the blade of the rebel Tambo Liborio Mejía. In the field of battle were 250 dead and held by Samano, 300 prisoners and all their weapons and ammunition. [2]

On July 1, 1816 Samano troops again occupied Popayan. Among the prisoners was the young patriot soldier José Hilario López, who was saved from death by unexpected circumstances and became president of Colombia between 1849 and 1853. He also ordered the execution of the rebel leader Charles de Quito aristocrat and sage Montúfar neogranadino Francisco José de Caldas.

Promoted to Marshal Morillo gave him the command of Santa Fe de Bogota as commanding general of New Granada. Samano reached the capital on October 23, 1816, from where he practiced without being subject to repression Viceroy Francisco José de Montalvo. Established three courts: the Permanent Council of War, which dictated the death sentences against the rebels, the Council of Purification, judging those insurgents that in his opinion were not deserving of capital punishment, and the Board of kidnappings aimed at seize the assets of those involved in the crime of rebellion.

Among the rebels were executed Camilo Torres, the Wise Caldas, Joaquin Camacho, Frutos Joaquin Gutierrez, Antonio Villavicencio, Antonio Baraya, José María Carbonell, Liborio Mejía, Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Policarpa Salavarrieta and Francisco Javier Garcia de Hevia.

Viceroyalty August 1817, Samano was appointed viceroy, governor, captain-general and chairman of the hearing of the reborn Viceroyalty of New Granada, by royal decree and was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of San Hermenegildo, for services to the Crown. On March 9, 1818, Samano took formal possession of the charges. He founded the Academy of Medicine in Bogota, but the hearing complaints against the viceroy were sent to Madrid.

On August 9, 1819 the news reached the capital of the defeat of the troops commanded by José Barreiro support in the battle of Boyaca, which Samano fled to Cartagena de Indias, where his authority was unknown. He then sailed to Jamaica, appearing later in Panama, with no administrative control or direct command of troops. In this situation, resigned, old and overwhelmed by disease, he stayed to live in a city in Panamauntil his death in July 1821, awaiting permission to return to Spain.

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The Battle of Boyaca

The Battle of Boyaca | BDColumbianRevolution |

1819: the War for South American Independence had stalled in Venezuela, where Liberator Simon Bolivar had fought Spanish forces to a stalemate. Crossing the frozen Andes Mountains, Bolivar made for the Viceregal seat at Bogota where Viceroy Juan José de Sámano (ruled from 1818-1819) was the ranking official in northern South America. New Granada was ruled by Viceroy Juan José de Sámano. He did not want New Granada to be liberated. The royalists and the Spanish in the Capital panicked and fled. Viceroy Juan José de Sámano was a cruel man who also feared the retribution of the Patriots, so he fled disguised as a Peasant. He left in such a haste (from Bogota) that he even left money in the treasury. 

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Colombian History: Past and Present

Colombia has wild jungles and majestic, snowcapped mountains. But the most prominent physical features are the three Andean chains that fan north from Ecuador. The Andean interior is the heart of the country. In pre-Columbian days, the highly advanced Chibcha lived on the land. Today, it has the largest concentration of population and is the area where large-scale coffee cultivation takes place, which is Colombia's major crop. Of the three principal Andean ranges, the Western Cordillera has the least economic importance. One of Colombia's major cities, Cali, lies just east of the range, in the upper Cauca valley. The Central Cordillera has a towering chain of volcanoes (e.g., Tolima) and divides the valleys of the Magdalena and the Cauca rivers. It wasn't until the 19th cent. an undeveloped region, but with improved transportation, the introduction of coffee culture, and the exploitation of high-grade coal reserves, that its cities of Medellín and Manizales have become the industrial economic core of the republic. Additionally, a third major city in the Central Cordillera is Armenia. The Eastern Cordillera is the longest chain. Its western slopes yield coffee, and in its basins, grains and cattle are raised. The area is rich in coal, iron, and emeralds. The leading cities of the highland basins are Tunja, Bucaramanga, and Cúcuta. In the eastern foothills of the Andes some hundred miles east of the capital lies a vast supply of light crude oil. Discovered in 1992, the oil fields constitute the second largest find in the Americas and have revitalized Colombia's petroleum industry. To the east of the Andes lies more than half of Colombia's territory, a vast largely undeveloped lowland. The plains are crossed by navigable rivers, tributaries of the Orinoco and Amazon systems. The northern section consists of savannas (the llanos), which are devoted to a large extent to cattle and sheep grazing. Villavicencio, at the region's western end, is its major urban center. The dense jungles of the extreme southeast are not of much economic importance. Leticia is the country's southernmost town, and its only port on the Amazon River. A fourth mountain chain, the Cordillera del Chocó, runs parallel to the Pacific N of Buenaventura. The range's slopes yield dyewoods and hardwoods, rubber, tagua nuts (vegetable ivory) and other forest products, and gold and platinum.

On the Pacific are the ports of Buenaventura and Tumaco, terminus of a pipeline from the oil-rich area of Putumayo across the mountains. Colombia's chief ocean ports, however, lie on the Caribbean coast to the north: Santa Marta, Cartagena, and Barranquilla. At Mamonal, adjacent to Cartagena, is the terminus of the pipeline from the Barrancabermeja oil fields. In the north, separating the La Guajira peninsula from the rest of the country, is the magnificent Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, which contains Colombia's highest peak, Pico Cristóbal (18,947 ft/5,775 m). And lastly, the difficult terrain in Colombia limits the availability of road and rail transportation and makes air and water travel even more important.


Read more: Colombia: Land —

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BBC News - Colombia timeline

A chronology of important events:

1525 - Spain begins their conquest of Colombia.
1536-38 - Spain establishes the settlement of Santa Fe de Bogota, which becomes known as Bogota, the current capital; becomes part of the Spanish vice-royalty of Peru.

1718 - Bogota becomes the capital of the Spanish vice-royalty of Nueva Granada, which also rules Ecuador and Venezuela.
1819 - Simon Bolivar defeats Spanish at Boyaca. Republic of Gran Colombia formed with Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela.
1829-30 - Gran Colombia dissolved when Venezuela and Ecuador split off, leaving present-day Colombia and Panama a separate state known as Nueva Granada.
1849 - Conservative and Liberal parties are founded.
1861-85 - Liberal Party rule sees the country divided into nine largely autonomous entities and the church separated from the state.

1885 - Start of 45 years of Conservative Party rule during which power is recentralised and church influence restored.
1899-1903 - "The War of the Thousand Days": around 120,000 people die in civil war between Liberals and Conservatives. Panama becomes an independent state.
1930 - Liberal President Olaya Herrera elected by coalition; social legislation is introduced and trade unions are encouraged.
1946 - Conservatives return to power.
1948 - Assassination of left-wing mayor of Bogota ignites riots.
1948-57 - 250,000-300,000 killed in civil war.
1958 - Conservatives and Liberals agree to form the National Front in an attempt to end the civil war; other parties banned.
Guerrilla war
1965 - Leftist National Liberation Army (ELN) and Maoist People's Liberation Army (EPL) founded.Guerrilla war
1965 - Leftist National Liberation Army (ELN) and Maoist People's Liberation Army (EPL) founded.

Colombia's main rebel group, the Farc, appears to be losing ground

Colombia's most powerful rebels
Obituary: Manuel Marulanda
Rescue deals Farc a blow
1966 - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Farc, the current largest guerrilla grouping) set up.
1970 - National People's Alliance formed as a left-wing counterweight to the National Front.
1971 - Left-wing M-19 guerrilla group emerges.
1978 - President Julio Turbay (Liberal) begins intensive fight against drug traffickers.
1982 - President Belisario Betancur (Conservative) grants guerrillas amnesty and frees political prisoners.
War against drug cartels stepped up
1984 - Campaign against drug traffickers stepped up following assassination of justice minister.
1985 - Eleven judges and 90 other people killed after M-19 guerrillas force their way into the Palace of Justice; Patriotic Union Party (UP) founded.
Nevado del Ruiz volcano erupts. An estimated 23,000 people are killed in four Andean towns.

2009 December - The Marxist rebel groups - the Farc and the smaller National Liberation Army (ELN) - announce that they intend to stop fighting each other and concentrate on attacking the armed forces.


President Alvaro Uribe had some success in his fight against rebels

Profile: Alvaro Uribe Velez
2010 July - Venezuela cuts diplomatic ties with Colombia after being accused of harbouring Farc rebels.
2010 August - Juan Manuel Santos takes over as president, having won easy victory in run-off election in June. He responds to a Farc offer of talks by insisting that the rebel group must first release all the hostages it still holds.
Colombia and Venezuela restore diplomatic ties.
2010 September - Farc steps up its campaign of violence. Colombian army kills senior Farc commander Mono Jojoy in air strike in Macarena region.
2011 February - Farc releases several hostages in what it describes as unilateral "gesture of peace" to government.
2011 May - Senate approves law to compensate victims of civil conflict and return land to millions of displaced people. President Santos describes the new law as "historic".
2011 August - President Santos outlines new tactics against rebels, who have increasingly been resorting to hit-and-run raids.
2011 September - Former intelligence chief Jorge Noguera - a close ally of former president Alvaro Uribe - is sentenced to 25 years in prison for collaborating with paramilitary death squads.
2011 October - US Congress passes long-delayed free trade agreement with Colombia, despite concerns over country's poor record of labour relations.


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