Plant-microbe interaction
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Spatio-Temporal Cellular Dynamics of the Arabidopsis Flagellin Receptor Reveal Activation Status-Dependent Endosomal Sorting

Spatio-Temporal Cellular Dynamics of the Arabidopsis Flagellin Receptor Reveal Activation Status-Dependent Endosomal Sorting | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Abstract

The activity of surface receptors is location specific, dependent upon the dynamic membrane trafficking network and receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME). Therefore, the spatio-temporal dynamics of RME are critical to receptor function. The plasma membrane receptor FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2) confers immunity against bacterial infection through perception of flagellin (flg22). Following elicitation, FLS2 is internalized into vesicles. To resolve FLS2 trafficking, we exploited quantitative confocal imaging for colocalization studies and chemical interference. FLS2 localizes to bona fide endosomes via two distinct endocytic trafficking routes depending on its activation status. FLS2 receptors constitutively recycle in a Brefeldin A (BFA)–sensitive manner, while flg22-activated receptors traffic via ARA7/Rab F2b– and ARA6/Rab F1–positive endosomes insensitive to BFA. FLS2 endocytosis required a functional Rab5 GTPase pathway as revealed by dominant-negative ARA7/Rab F2b. Flg22-induced FLS2 endosomal numbers were increased by Concanamycin A treatment but reduced by Wortmannin, indicating that activated FLS2 receptors are targeted to late endosomes. RME inhibitors Tyrphostin A23 and Endosidin 1 altered but did not block induced FLS2 endocytosis. Additional inhibitor studies imply the involvement of the actin-myosin system in FLS2 internalization and trafficking. Altogether, we report a dynamic pattern of subcellular trafficking for FLS2 and reveal a defined framework for ligand-dependent endocytosis of this receptor.

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Plant-microbe interaction
Current research on plant immunity, effector proteins, the proteasome, autophagy and other inspiring articles
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Bacteria exploit autophagy for proteasome degradation and enhanced virulence in plants

Bacteria exploit autophagy for proteasome degradation and enhanced virulence in plants | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are two major protein degradation pathways implicated in the response to microbial infections in eukaryotes. In animals, the contribution of autophagy and the UPS to anti-bacterial immunity is well documented and several bacteria have evolved measures to target and exploit these systems to the benefit of infection. In plants, the UPS has been established as a hub for immune responses and is targeted by bacteria to enhance virulence. However, the role of autophagy during plant-bacterial interactions is less understood. Here, we have identified both pro- and anti-bacterial functions of autophagy mechanisms upon infection of Arabidopsis with virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst). We show that Pst activates autophagy in a type-III effector (T3E)-dependent manner, and stimulates the autophagic removal of proteasomes (proteaphagy) to support bacterial proliferation. We further identify the T3E Hrp outer protein M1 (HopM1) as a principle mediator of autophagy-inducing activities during infection. In contrast to the pro-bacterial effects of Pst-induced proteaphagy, NEIGHBOR OF BRCA1 (NBR1)-dependent selective autophagy counteracts disease progression and limits the formation of HopM1-mediated water-soaked lesions. Together, we demonstrate that distinct autophagy pathways contribute to host immunity and bacterial pathogenesis during Pst infection, and provide evidence for an intimate crosstalk between proteasome and autophagy in plant-bacterial interactions.
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Salicylic acid-independent role of NPR1 is required for protection from proteotoxic stress in the plant endoplasmic reticulum

Salicylic acid-independent role of NPR1 is required for protection from proteotoxic stress in the plant endoplasmic reticulum | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an ancient signaling pathway designed to protect cells from the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Because misregulation of the UPR is potentially lethal, a stringent surveillance signaling system must be in place to modulate the UPR. The major signaling arms of the plant UPR have been discovered and rely on the transcriptional activity of the transcription factors bZIP60 and bZIP28 and on the kinase and ribonuclease activity of IRE1, which splices mRNA to activate bZIP60. Both bZIP28 and bZIP60 modulate UPR gene expression to overcome ER stress. In this study, we demonstrate at a genetic level that the transcriptional role of bZIP28 and bZIP60 in ER-stress responses is antagonized by nonexpressor of PR1 genes 1 (NPR1), a critical redox-regulated master regulator of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses to pathogens, independently of its role in SA defense. We also establish that the function of NPR1 in the UPR is concomitant with ER stress-induced reduction of the cytosol and translocation of NPR1 to the nucleus where it interacts with bZIP28 and bZIP60. Our results support a cellular role for NPR1 as well as a model for plant UPR regulation whereby SA-independent ER stress-induced redox activation of NPR1 suppresses the transcriptional role of bZIP28 and bZIP60 in the UPR.

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Modular Study of the Type III Effector Repertoire in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Reveals a Matrix of Effector Interplay in Pathogenesis

Modular Study of the Type III Effector Repertoire in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Reveals a Matrix of Effector Interplay in Pathogenesis | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered innate immune system of Nicotiana benthamiana and other plants by injecting a complex repertoire of type III secretion effector (T3E) proteins. Effectorless polymutant DC3000D36E was used with a modularized system for native delivery of the 29 DC3000 T3Es singly and in pairs. Assays of the performance of this T3E library in N. benthamiana leaves revealed a matrix of T3E interplay, with six T3Es eliciting death and eight others variously suppressing the death activity of the six. The T3E library was also interrogated for effects on DC3000D36E elicitation of a reactive oxygen species burst, for growth in planta, and for T3Es that reversed these effects. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Agrobacterium tumefaciens heterologous delivery systems yielded notably different sets of death-T3Es. The DC3000D36E T3E library system highlights the importance of 13 T3Es and their interplay in interactions with N. benthamiana.
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The Receptor-like Cytoplasmic Kinase BIK1 Localizes to the Nucleus and Regulates Defense Hormone Expression during Plant Innate Immunity

The Receptor-like Cytoplasmic Kinase BIK1 Localizes to the Nucleus and Regulates Defense Hormone Expression during Plant Innate Immunity | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Plants employ cell-surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect pathogens. Although phytohormones produced during PRR signaling play an essential role in innate immunity, a direct link between PRR activation and hormone regulation is unknown. EFR is a PRR that recognizes bacterial EF-Tu and activates immune signaling. Here we report that EFR regulates the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) through direct phosphorylation of a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, BIK1. The BIK1 structure revealed that the EFR-phosphorylated sites reside on a uniquely extended loop away from the BIK1 kinase core domain. Phosphomimetic mutations of these sites resulted in increased phytohormones and enhanced resistance to bacterial infections. In addition to its documented plasma membrane localization, BIK1 also localizes to the nucleus and interacts directly with WRKY transcription factors involved in the JA and salicylic acid (SA) regulation. These findings demonstrate the mechanistic basis of signal transduction from PRR to phytohormones, mediated through a PRR-BIK1-WRKY axis.
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The bacterial type III-secreted protein AvrRps4 is a bipartite effector

The bacterial type III-secreted protein AvrRps4 is a bipartite effector | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it

Bacterial effector proteins secreted into host plant cells manipulate those cells to the benefit of the pathogen, but effector-triggered immunity (ETI) occurs when effectors are recognized by host resistance proteins. The RPS4/RRS1 pair recognizes the Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi effector AvrRps4. AvrRps4 is processed in planta into AvrRps4N (133 amino acids), homologous to the N-termini of other effectors including the native Psyringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 effector HopK1, and AvrRps4C (88 amino acids). Previous data suggested that AvrRps4C alone is necessary and sufficient for resistance when overexpressed in heterologous systems. We show that delivering AvrRps4C from DC3000, but not from a DC3000 hopK1-strain, triggers resistance in the Arabidopsis accession Col-0. Delivering AvrRps4C in tandem with AvrRps4N, or as a chimera with HopK1N, fully complements AvrRps4-triggered immunity. AvrRps4N in the absence of AvrRps4C enhances virulence in Col-0. In addition, AvrRps4Ntriggers a hypersensitive response in lettuce that is attenuated by coexpression of AvrRps4C, further supporting the role of AvrRps4N as a bona fide effector domain. Based on these results we propose that evolutionarily, fusion of AvrRps4C to AvrRps4N may have counteracted recognition of AvrRps4N, and that the plant RPS4/RRS1 resistance gene pair was selected as a countermeasure. We conclude that AvrRps4 represents an unusual chimeric effector, with recognition in Arabidopsis by RPS4/RRS1 requiring the presence of both processed effector moieties


Via Tatsuya Nobori, Jim Alfano
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CSI1, PATROL1, and exocyst complex cooperate in delivery of cellulose synthase complexes to the plasma membrane

CSI1, PATROL1, and exocyst complex cooperate in delivery of cellulose synthase complexes to the plasma membrane | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Cellulose is synthesized at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). The ability to deliver CSCs to discrete sites at the cell surface is critical for cellulose synthesis. We discovered that the de novo secretion of CSCs is mediated by cooperation among a recently identified cellulose synthase interacting protein, exocyst complex, and a plant-specific protein PATROL1 in Arabidopsis thaliana . We present a timeline of events for exocytosis of CSCs. CSCs represent unique cargo proteins that are not conserved in the mammalian or yeast system. Plants offer unique opportunities to characterize the function and regulation of exocytosis that may provide insight into the evolution of exocytosis in eukaryotes.

Cellulose synthesis occurs exclusively at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). Therefore, delivery of CSCs to discrete sites at the plasma membrane is critical for cellulose synthesis. Despite their significance, the delivery of CSCs is poorly understood. Here we used proteomics approaches, functional genetics, and live cell imaging to show that the de novo secretion of CSCs is mediated by cooperation among cellulose synthase interactive 1 (CSI1), the plant-specific protein PATROL1, and exocyst complex in Arabidopsis thaliana . We propose that CSI1 plays a role in marking the docking site, which allows CSCs-containing vesicles access to the plasma membrane through its interaction with microtubules. PATROL1 assists in exocytosis by its interaction with multiple components, including CSI1, CSCs, and exocyst subunits. Both PATROL1 and the exocyst complex determine the rate of delivery of CSCs to the plasma membrane. By monitoring the exocyst complex, PATROL1, CSI1, and CSCs dynamics in real time, we present a timeline of events for exocytosis of CSCs. Our findings provide unique insights into the evolution of exocytosis in eukaryotes.
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Arabidopsis thaliana SOBER1 (SUPPRESSOR OF AVRBST‐ELICITED RESISTANCE 1) suppresses plant immunity triggered by multiple bacterial acetyltransferase effectors - Choi - - New Phytologist - Wiley Onl...

Arabidopsis thaliana SOBER1 (SUPPRESSOR OF AVRBST‐ELICITED RESISTANCE 1) suppresses plant immunity triggered by multiple bacterial acetyltransferase effectors - Choi - - New Phytologist - Wiley Onl... | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Plants evolved disease resistance (R) proteins that recognize corresponding pathogen effectors and activate effector‐triggered immunity (ETI). However, it is largely unknown why, in some cases, a suppressor of ETI exists in plants.
Arabidopsis SOBER1 (Suppressor of AvrBsT‐elicited Resistance 1) was identified previously as a suppressor of Xanthomonas acetyltransferase effector AvrBsT‐triggered immunity. Nevertheless, the extent to which SOBER1 suppresses ETI is unclear.
Here, we identified SOBER1 as a suppressor of Pseudomonas acetyltransferase effector HopZ5‐triggered immunity in Arabidopsis using recombinant inbred lines. Further analysis showed that SOBER1 suppresses immunity triggered by multiple bacterial acetyltransferases.
Interestingly, SOBER1 interferes with the immunity signalling activated by some but not all tested acetyltransferase effectors, indicating that SOBER1 might target components that are shared between several ETI pathways.
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The Monocot-Specific Receptor-like Kinase SDS2 Controls Cell Death and Immunity in Rice

The Monocot-Specific Receptor-like Kinase SDS2 Controls Cell Death and Immunity in Rice | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Programmed cell death (PCD) plays critical roles in plant immunity but must be regulated to prevent excessive damage. The E3 ubiquitin ligase SPL11 negatively regulates PCD and immunity in plants. We show that SPL11 cell-death suppressor 2 (SDS2), an S-domain receptor-like kinase, positively regulates PCD and immunity in rice by engaging and regulating SPL11 and related kinases controlling defense responses. An sds2 mutant shows reduced immune responses and enhanced susceptibility to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Conversely, SDS2 over-expression induces constitutive PCD accompanied by elevated immune responses and enhanced resistance to M. oryzae. SDS2 interacts with and phosphorylates SPL11, which in turn ubiquitinates SDS2, leading to its degradation. In addition, SDS2 interacts with related receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases, OsRLCK118/176, that positively regulate immunity by phosphorylating the NADPH oxidase OsRbohB to stimulate ROS production. Thus, a plasma membrane-resident protein complex consisting of SDS2, SPL11, and OsRLCK118/176 controls PCD and immunity in rice.
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Pseudomonas syringae: what it takes to be a pathogen

Pseudomonas syringae: what it takes to be a pathogen | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it

Pseudomonas syringae is one of the best-studied plant pathogens and serves as a model for understanding host–microorganism interactions, bacterial virulence mechanisms and host adaptation of pathogens as well as microbial evolution, ecology and epidemiology. Comparative genomic studies have identified key genomic features that contribute to P. syringae virulence. P. syringae has evolved two main virulence strategies: suppression of host immunity and creation of an aqueous apoplast to form its niche in the phyllosphere. In addition, external environmental conditions such as humidity profoundly influence infection. P. syringae may serve as an excellent model to understand virulence and also of how pathogenic microorganisms integrate environmental conditions and plant microbiota to become ecologically robust and diverse pathogens of the plant kingdom.


Via Tatsuya Nobori, Giannis Stringlis
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Loss of alkaline ceramidase inhibits autophagy in Arabidopsis and plays an important role during environmental stress response

Loss of alkaline ceramidase inhibits autophagy in Arabidopsis and plays an important role during environmental stress response | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Sphingolipids, a class of bioactive lipids found in cell membranes, can modulate the biophysical properties of the membranes and play a critical role in signal transduction. Sphingolipids are involved in autophagy in humans and yeast, but their role in autophagy in plants is not well understood. In this study, we reported that the AtACER, an alkaline ceramidase that hydrolyses ceramide to long-chain base (LCB), functions in autophagy process in Arabidopsis. Our empirical data showed that the loss of AtACER inhibited autophagy, and its overexpression promoted autophagy under nutrient, salinity, and oxidative stresses. Interestingly, nitrogen deprivation significantly affected the sphingolipid's profile in Arabidopsis thaliana, especially the LCBs. Furthermore, the exogenous application of LCBs also induced autophagy. Our findings revealed a novel function of AtACER, where it was found to involve in the autophagy process, thus, playing a crucial role in the maintenance of a dynamic loop between sphingolipids and autophagy for cellular homeostasis under various environmental stresses.
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iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis of autophagy-mediated immune responses against the vascular fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae in Arabidopsis

iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis of autophagy-mediated immune responses against the vascular fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae in Arabidopsis | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
The mechanisms underlying the functional link between autophagy and plant innate immunity remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the autophagy-mediated plant defense responses against Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae) infection by comparative proteomics and cellular analyses. An assessment of the autophagy activity and disease development showed that autophagic processes were tightly related to the tolerance of Arabidopsis plant to Verticillium wilt. An isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomics analysis was performed, and we identified a total of 780 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) between wild-type and mutant atg10-1 Arabidopsis plants upon V. dahliae infection, of which, 193 ATG8-family-interacting proteins were identified in silico and their associations with autophagy were verified for several selected proteins. Three important aspects of autophagy-mediated defense against V. dahliae infection were revealed: 1) autophagy is required for the activation of upstream defense responses; 2) autophagy-mediated mitochondrial degradation (mitophagy) occurs and is an important player in the defense process; and 3) autophagy promotes the transdifferentiation of perivascular cells and the formation of xylem hyperplasia, which are crucial for protection against this vascular disease. Together, our results provide several novel insights for understanding the functional association between autophagy and plant immune responses.
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Molecular mechanism to target the endosomal Mon1-Ccz1 GEF complex to the pre-autophagosomal structure

Molecular mechanism to target the endosomal Mon1-Ccz1 GEF complex to the pre-autophagosomal structure | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
During autophagy, a newly formed double membrane surrounds its cargo to generate the so-called autophagosome, which then fuses with a lysosome after closure. Previous work implicated that endosomal Rab7/Ypt7 associates to autophagosomes prior to their fusion with lysosomes. Here, we unravel how the Mon1-Ccz1 guanosine exchange factor (GEF) acting upstream of Ypt7 is specifically recruited to the pre-autophagosomal structure under starvation conditions. We find that Mon1-Ccz1 directly binds to Atg8, the yeast homolog of the members of the mammalian LC3 protein family. This requires at least one LIR motif in the Ccz1 C-terminus, which is essential for autophagy but not for endosomal transport. In agreement, only wild-type, but not LIR-mutated Mon1-Ccz1 promotes Atg8-dependent activation of Ypt7. Our data reveal how GEF targeting can specify the fate of a newly formed organelle and provide new insights into the regulation of autophagosome-lysosome fusion.
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Ub-ProT reveals global length and composition of protein ubiquitylation in cells

Ub-ProT reveals global length and composition of protein ubiquitylation in cells | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Protein ubiquitylation regulates diverse cellular processes via distinct ubiquitin chains that differ by linkage type and length. However, a comprehensive method for measuring these properties has not been developed. Here we describe a method for assessing the length of substrate-attached polyubiquitin chains, “ubiquitin chain protection from trypsinization (Ub-ProT).” Using Ub-ProT, we found that most ubiquitylated substrates in yeast-soluble lysate are attached to chains of up to seven ubiquitin molecules. Inactivation of the ubiquitin-selective chaperone Cdc48 caused a dramatic increase in chain lengths on substrate proteins, suggesting that Cdc48 complex terminates chain elongation by substrate extraction. In mammalian cells, we found that ligand-activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is rapidly modified with K63-linked tetra- to hexa-ubiquitin chains following EGF treatment in human cells. Thus, the Ub-ProT method can contribute to our understanding of mechanisms regulating physiological ubiquitin chain lengths and composition.
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Plant–Pathogen Warfare under Changing Climate Conditions

Plant–Pathogen Warfare under Changing Climate Conditions | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Global environmental changes caused by natural and human activities have accelerated in the past 200 years. The increase in greenhouse gases is predicted to continue to raise global temperature and change water availability in the 21st century. In this Review, we explore the profound effect the environment has on plant diseases — a susceptible host will not be infected by a virulent pathogen if the environmental conditions are not conducive for disease. The change in CO2 concentrations, temperature, and water availability can have positive, neutral, or negative effects on disease development, as each disease may respond differently to these variations. However, the concept of disease optima could potentially apply to all pathosystems. Plant resistance pathways, including pattern-triggered immunity to effector-triggered immunity, RNA interference, and defense hormone networks, are all affected by environmental factors. On the pathogen side, virulence mechanisms, such as the production of toxins and virulence proteins, as well as pathogen reproduction and survival are influenced by temperature and humidity. For practical reasons, most laboratory investigations into plant–pathogen interactions at the molecular level focus on well-established pathosystems and use a few static environmental conditions that capture only a fraction of the dynamic plant–pathogen–environment interactions that occur in nature. There is great need for future research to increasingly use dynamic environmental conditions in order to fully understand the multidimensional nature of plant–pathogen interactions and produce disease-resistant crop plants that are resilient to climate change.
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Integration of two RAB5 groups during endosomal transport in plants

Integration of two RAB5 groups during endosomal transport in plants | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
RAB5 is a key regulator of endosomal functions in eukaryotic cells. Plants possess two different RAB5 groups, canonical and plant-unique types, which act via unknown counteracting mechanisms. Here, we identified an effector molecule of the plant-unique RAB5 in Arabidopsis thaliana, ARA6, which we designated PLANT-UNIQUE RAB5 EFFECTOR 2 (PUF2). Preferential colocalization with canonical RAB5 on endosomes and genetic interaction analysis indicated that PUF2 coordinates vacuolar transport with canonical RAB5, although PUF2 was identified as an effector of ARA6. Competitive binding of PUF2 with GTP-bound ARA6 and GDP-bound canonical RAB5, together interacting with the shared activating factor VPS9a, showed that ARA6 negatively regulates canonical RAB5-mediated vacuolar transport by titrating PUF2 and VPS9a. These results suggest a unique and unprecedented function for a RAB effector involving the integration of two RAB groups to orchestrate endosomal trafficking in plant cells.
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Opposite Roles of Salicylic Acid Receptors NPR1 and NPR3/NPR4 in Transcriptional Regulation of Plant Immunity

Opposite Roles of Salicylic Acid Receptors NPR1 and NPR3/NPR4 in Transcriptional Regulation of Plant Immunity | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it

Highlights


•SA receptors NPR3 and NPR4 function redundantly as transcriptional co-repressors
•SA inhibits the transcriptional repression activities of SA receptors NPR3/NPR4
•NPR1 and NPR4 have opposite roles in early defense gene expression in response to SA
•NPR4 and NPR1 function in parallel to regulate SA-induced defense gene expression


Summary


Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant defense hormone required for immunity. Arabidopsis NPR1 and NPR3/NPR4 were previously shown to bind SA and all three proteins were proposed as SA receptors. NPR1 functions as a transcriptional co-activator, whereas NPR3/NPR4 were suggested to function as E3 ligases that promote NPR1 degradation. Here we report that NPR3/NPR4 function as transcriptional co-repressors and SA inhibits their activities to promote the expression of downstream immune regulators. npr4-4D, a gain-of-function npr4 allele that renders NPR4 unable to bind SA, constitutively represses SA-induced immune responses. In contrast, the equivalent mutation in NPR1 abolishes its ability to bind SA and promote SA-induced defense gene expression. Further analysis revealed that NPR3/NPR4 and NPR1 function independently to regulate SA-induced immune responses. Our study indicates that both NPR1 and NPR3/NPR4 are bona fide SA receptors, but play opposite roles in transcriptional regulation of SA-induced defense gene expression.

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The ER Contact Proteins VAPA/B Interact with Multiple Autophagy Proteins to Modulate Autophagosome Biogenesis

The ER Contact Proteins VAPA/B Interact with Multiple Autophagy Proteins to Modulate Autophagosome Biogenesis | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of biogenesis of the isolation membrane (IM, autophagosome precursor) and forms extensive contacts with IMs during their expansion into double-membrane autophagosomes. Little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the formation and/or maintenance of the ER/IM contact. The integral ER proteins VAPA and VAPB (VAPs) participate in establishing ER contacts with multiple membranes by interacting with different tethers. Here, we demonstrate that VAPs also modulate ER/IM contact formation. Depletion of VAPs impairs progression of IMs into autophagosomes. Upon autophagy induction, VAPs are recruited to autophagosome formation sites on the ER, a process mediated by their interactions with FIP200 and PI(3)P. VAPs directly interact with FIP200 and ULK1 through their conserved FFAT motifs and stabilize the ULK1/FIP200 complex at the autophagosome formation sites on the ER. The formation of ULK1 puncta is significantly reduced by VAPA/B depletion. VAPs also interact with WIPI2 and enhance the formation of the WIPI2/FIP200 ER/IM tethering complex. Depletion of VMP1, which increases the ER/IM contact, greatly elevates the interaction of VAPs with these autophagy proteins. The VAPB P56S mutation, which is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, reduces the ULK1/FIP200 interaction and impairs autophagy at an early step, similar to the effect seen in VAPA/B-depleted cells. Our study reveals that VAPs directly interact with multiple ATG proteins, thereby contributing to ER/IM contact formation for autophagosome biogenesis.
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Beclin1 restricts RNA virus infection in plants through suppression and degradation of the viral polymerase

Beclin1 restricts RNA virus infection in plants through suppression and degradation of the viral polymerase | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Autophagy emerges as an essential immunity defense against intracellular pathogens. Here we report that turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) infection activates autophagy in plants and that Beclin1 (ATG6), a core component of autophagy, inhibits virus replication. Beclin1 interacts with NIb, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of TuMV, via the highly conserved GDD motif and the interaction complex is targeted for autophagic degradation likely through the adaptor protein ATG8a. Beclin1-mediated NIb degradation is inhibited by autophagy inhibitors. Deficiency of Beclin1 or ATG8a enhances NIb accumulation and promotes viral infection and vice versa. These data suggest that Beclin1 may be a selective autophagy receptor. Overexpression of a Beclin1 truncation mutant that binds to NIb but lacks the ability to mediate NIb degradation also inhibits virus replication. The Beclin1–RdRp interaction further extends to several RNA viruses. Thus Beclin1 restricts viral infection through suppression and also likely autophagic degradation of the viral RdRp.
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SUMOylome Profiling Reveals a Diverse Array of Nuclear Targets Modified by the SUMO Ligase SIZ1 During Heat Stress

SUMOylome Profiling Reveals a Diverse Array of Nuclear Targets Modified by the SUMO Ligase SIZ1 During Heat Stress | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
The post-translational addition of Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier (SUMO) is an essential protein modification in plants that provides protection against numerous environmental challenges. Ligation is accomplished by a small set of SUMO ligases, with the SAP-MIZ domain-containing SIZ1 and METHYL METHANESULFONATE-SENSITIVE 21 (MMS21) ligases having critical roles in stress protection and DNA endoreduplication/repair, respectively. To help identify their corresponding targets in Arabidopsis thaliana, we used siz1 and mms21 mutants for proteomic analyses of SUMOylated proteins enriched via an engineered SUMO1 isoform suitable for mass spectrometric studies. Through multiple datasets from seedlings grown at normal temperatures or exposed to heat stress, we identified over 1,000 SUMO targets, most of which are nuclear localized. Whereas no targets could be assigned to MMS21, suggesting that it modifies only a few low abundance proteins, numerous targets could be assigned to SIZ1, including major transcription factors, co-activators/repressors, and chromatin modifiers connected to abiotic and biotic stress defense, some of which associate into multi-subunit regulatory complexes. SIZ1 itself is also a target, but studies with mutants protected from SUMOylation failed to uncover a regulatory role. The catalog of SIZ1 substrates indicates that SUMOylation by this ligase provides stress protection by modifying a large array of key nuclear regulators.
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Flavin Monooxygenase-Generated N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid Is a Critical Element of Plant Systemic Immunity

Flavin Monooxygenase-Generated N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid Is a Critical Element of Plant Systemic Immunity | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Following a previous microbial inoculation, plants can induce broad-spectrum immunity to pathogen infection, a phenomenon known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). SAR establishment in Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by the Lys catabolite pipecolic acid (Pip) and flavin-dependent-monooxygenase1 (FMO1). Here, we show that elevated Pip is sufficient to induce an FMO1-dependent transcriptional reprogramming of leaves that is reminiscent of SAR. In planta and in vitro analyses demonstrate that FMO1 functions as a pipecolate N-hydroxylase, catalyzing the biochemical conversion of Pip to N-hydroxypipecolic acid (NHP). NHP systemically accumulates in plants after microbial attack. When exogenously applied, it overrides the defect of NHP-deficient fmo1 in acquired resistance and acts as a potent inducer of plant immunity to bacterial and oomycete infection. Our work has identified a pathogen-inducible L-Lys catabolic pathway in plants that generates the N-hydroxylated amino acid NHP as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance to pathogen infection.
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Autophagy: The Master of Bulk and Selective Recycling | Annual Review of Plant Biology

Autophagy: The Master of Bulk and Selective Recycling | Annual Review of Plant Biology | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to recycle intracellular constituents, which are essential for developmental and metabolic transitions; for efficient nutrient reuse; and for the proper disposal of proteins, protein complexes, and even entire organelles that become obsolete or dysfunctional. One major route is autophagy, which employs specialized vesicles to encapsulate and deliver cytoplasmic material to the vacuole for breakdown. In the past decade, the mechanics of autophagy and the scores of components involved in autophagic vesicle assembly have been documented. Now emerging is the importance of dedicated receptors that help recruit appropriate cargo, which in many cases exploit ubiquitylation as a signal. Although operating at a low constitutive level in all plant cells, autophagy is upregulated during senescence and various environmental challenges and is essential for proper nutrient allocation. Its importance to plant metabolism and energy balance in particular places autophagy at the nexus of robust crop performance, especially under suboptimal conditions.
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Dicot-specific ATG8-interacting ATI3 proteins interact with conserved UBAC2 proteins and play critical roles in plant stress responses

Dicot-specific ATG8-interacting ATI3 proteins interact with conserved UBAC2 proteins and play critical roles in plant stress responses | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Selective macroautophagy/autophagy targets specific cargo by autophagy receptors through interaction with ATG8 (autophagy-related protein 8)/MAP1LC3 (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3) for degradation in the vacuole. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 3 related ATG8-interacting proteins (AT1G17780/ATI3A, AT2G16575/ATI3B and AT1G73130/ATI3C) from Arabidopsis. ATI3 proteins contain a WxxL LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif at the C terminus required for interaction with ATG8. ATI3 homologs are found only in dicots but not in other organisms including monocots. Disruption of ATI3A does not alter plant growth or development but compromises both plant heat tolerance and resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. The critical role of ATI3A in plant stress tolerance and disease resistance is dependent on its interaction with ATG8. Disruption of ATI3B and ATI3C also significantly compromises plant heat tolerance. ATI3A interacts with AT3G56740/UBAC2A and AT2G41160/UBAC2B (Ubiquitin-associated [UBA] protein 2a/b), 2 conserved proteins implicated in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation. Disruption of UBAC2A and UBAC2B also compromised heat tolerance and resistance to B. cinerea. Overexpression of UBAC2 induces formation of ATG8- and ATI3-labeled punctate structures under normal conditions, likely reflecting increased formation of phagophores or autophagosomes. The ati3 and ubac2 mutants are significantly compromised in sensitivity to tunicamycin, an ER stress-inducing agent, but are fully competent in autophagy-dependent ER degradation under conditions of ER stress when using an ER lumenal marker for detection. We propose that ATI3 and UBAC2 play an important role in plant stress responses by mediating selective autophagy of specific unknown ER components.
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Autophagy contributes to sulfonylurea herbicide tolerance via GCN2-independent regulation of amino acid homeostasis

Autophagy contributes to sulfonylurea herbicide tolerance via GCN2-independent regulation of amino acid homeostasis | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides inhibit branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis by targeting acetolactate synthase. Plants have evolved target-site resistance and metabolic tolerance to SU herbicides; the GCN2 (general control non-repressible 2) pathway is also involved in SU tolerance. Here, we report a novel SU tolerance mechanism, autophagy, which we call ‘homeostatic tolerance,’ is involved in amino acid signaling in Arabidopsis. The activation and reversion of autophagy and GCN2 by the SU herbicide tribenuron-methyl (TM) and exogenous BCAA, respectively, confirmed that TM-induced BCAA starvation is responsible for the activation of autophagy and GCN2. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed a lower proportion of free BCAA and more sensitive phenotypes in atg5, atg7, and gcn2 single mutants than in wild-type seedlings after TM treatment; the lowest proportion of free BCAA and the most sensitive phenotypes were found in atg5 gcn2 and atg7 gcn2 double mutants. Immunoblotting and microscopy revealed that TM-induced activation of autophagy and GCN2 signaling do not depend on the presence of each other, and these 2 pathways may serve as mutually compensatory mechanisms against TM. TM inhibited the TOR (target of rapamycin), and activated autophagy in an estradiol-induced TOR RNAi line, suggesting that TM-induced BCAA starvation activates autophagy, probably via TOR inactivation. Autophagy and GCN2 were also activated, and independently contributed to TM tolerance in plants conferring metabolic tolerance. Together, these data suggest that autophagy is a proteolytic process for amino acid recycling and contributes to GCN2-independent SU tolerance, probably by its ability to replenish fresh BCAA.
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Phosphorylation of the exocyst subunit Exo70B2 contributes to the regulation of its function

Phosphorylation of the exocyst subunit Exo70B2 contributes to the regulation of its function | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
The exocyst is a conserved hetero-octameric complex mediating early tethering during exocytosis. Its Exo70 subunit plays a critical role as a spatiotemporal regulator by mediating numerous protein and lipid interactions. However, a molecular understanding of the exocyst function remains challenging. We show that Exo70B2 locates to dynamic foci at the plasma membrane and transits through a BFA-sensitive compartment, reflecting its canonical function in secretion. However, treatment with the salicylic acid (SA) defence hormone analogue Benzothiadiazole (BTH), or the immunogenic peptide flg22, induced Exo70B2 transport into the vacuole. We uncovered two ATG8-interacting motifs (AIMs) located in the C-terminal domain (C-domain) of Exo70B2 that mediate its recruitment into the vacuole. Moreover, we also show that Exo70B2 is phosphorylated near the AIMs and mimicking phosphorylation enhanced ATG8 interaction. Finally, Exo70B2 phosphonull lines were hypersensitive to BTH and more resistant to avirulent bacteria which induce SA production. Our results suggests a molecular mechanism in which phosphorylation of Exo70B2 by MPK3 functions in a feed-back system linking cellular signalling to the secretory pathway.
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very nice preprint from Trujillo Lab!
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The FERONIA Receptor Kinase Maintains Cell-Wall Integrity during Salt Stress through Ca2+ Signaling

The FERONIA Receptor Kinase Maintains Cell-Wall Integrity during Salt Stress through Ca2+ Signaling | Plant-microbe interaction | Scoop.it
Cells maintain integrity despite changes in their mechanical properties elicited during growth and environmental stress. How cells sense their physical state and compensate for cell-wall damage is poorly understood, particularly in plants. Here we report that FERONIA (FER), a plasma-membrane-localized receptor kinase from Arabidopsis, is necessary for the recovery of root growth after exposure to high salinity, a widespread soil stress. The extracellular domain of FER displays tandem regions of homology with malectin, an animal protein known to bind di-glucose in vitro and important for protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum. The presence of malectin-like domains in FER and related receptor kinases has led to widespread speculation that they interact with cell-wall polysaccharides and can potentially serve a wall-sensing function. Results reported here show that salinity causes softening of the cell wall and that FER is necessary to sense these defects. When this function is disrupted in the fer mutant, root cells explode dramatically during growth recovery. Similar defects are observed in the mur1 mutant, which disrupts pectin cross-linking. Furthermore, fer cell-wall integrity defects can be rescued by treatment with calcium and borate, which also facilitate pectin cross-linking. Sensing of these salinity-induced wall defects might therefore be a direct consequence of physical interaction between the extracellular domain of FER and pectin. FER-dependent signaling elicits cell-specific calcium transients that maintain cell-wall integrity during salt stress. These results reveal a novel extracellular toxicity of salinity, and identify FER as a sensor of damage to the pectin-associated wall.
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