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Cell-based Therapy For Type 1 Diabetes?

Cell-based Therapy For Type 1 Diabetes? | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
Type 1 diabetes has been successfully reveresed in a mouse model by infusing blood stem cells pre-treated to produce more of a protein called PD-L1, which is deficient in mice (and people) with type 1 diabetes. The cells curbed the autoimmune reaction in cells from both mice and humans and reversed hyperglycemia in diabetic mice.

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AUTOIMMUNITY
Pathology, Diagnosis and Therapies
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Autoimmunity

Pathology, Diagnosis and Therapy

Gilbert C FAURE's insight:

Autoimmunity is indeed one of the biggest challenge of Immunology!

Understanding the mechanisms of this physiological immune phenomenon inducing such a diverse array of diseases, joint and muscular, digestive, endocrinological, neurological, cutaneous..

 

Improving the molecular and cellular tools in use for a few decades for diagnosis and follow-up of patients, perhaps screening in the future

Mastering the molecular and cellular therapies to treat patients.

 

You can also find relevant informations on some other topics curated  here such as

Rheumatology http://www.scoop.it/t/rheumatology-rhumatologie

Immunology and biotherapies http://www.scoop.it/t/immunology-and-biotherapies

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Lupus nephritis: An update on treatments and pathogenesis. - PubMed - NCBI

Lupus nephritis: An update on treatments and pathogenesis. - PubMed - NCBI | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
Nephrology (Carlton). 2018 Oct;23 Suppl 4:80-83. doi: 10.1111/nep.13469. Review
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Distinct Effector B Cells Induced by Unregulated Toll-like Receptor 7 Contribute to Pathogenic Responses in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

The role of extrafollicular B cells in human systemic lupus is unknown. Jenks et al.
define the main components of this pathway and its prominence in severe disease. Its activation is mediated by hyper-responsiveness to Toll-like receptor-7 and leads to the generation of autoreactive...

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Role of Interleukin-37 in Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases. - PubMed - NCBI

Role of Interleukin-37 in Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases. - PubMed - NCBI | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
Iran J Immunol. 2018 Sep;15(3):165-174. doi: 10.22034/IJI.2018.39386.
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TNIP1 in Autoimmune Diseases: Regulation of Toll-like Receptor Signaling

TNIP1 in Autoimmune Diseases: Regulation of Toll-like Receptor Signaling | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
Journal of Immunology Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working in different areas of immunology and therapy. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, as well as clinical studies related to classical immunology,...
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A Closer Look at the Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Disease – Guardian Liberty Voice

A Closer Look at the Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Disease – Guardian Liberty Voice | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
The world of autoimmune disease is broad and complex, with many mysteries still lurking. With over 100 types of autoimmune diseases identified, medical researchers are constantly seeking to gain a better understanding of how, when and why these conditions are triggered. While many diseases, in general, are associated with genetics, the onset of symptoms associated with an autoimmune disease is much more complicated, making proactive prevention quite difficult. However, an awareness of common environmental triggers of autoimmune disease can help identify and treat many autoimmune conditions. Health issues associated with autoimmune disease are expanding quickly and are now known to affect tens of millions of people in the United States alone. As environmental factors are one of the primary triggers of autoimmune reaction, it is imperative we keep a close eye on any adverse reactions we may have to specific environmental elements. Environmental triggers of autoimmunity include the following: Dietary proteins – Each person has their own unique body chemistry and digestive function. Sensitivities to different foods can not only bother one’s digestive tract but can also trigger autoimmune-related response. While each of us may react differently to different foods, there are some proteins that are more likely than others to present symptoms of autoimmune response, such as gluten (a wheat protein). Chemicals – When thinking of the health risks associated with excessive chemical exposure, many of us are quick to think of cancer. However, the loss of immune tolerance associated with toxic-chemical exposure can also lead to autoimmune reactivity. Environmental toxins are believed by many health care professionals to be the leading cause of autoimmune disease. Over 80,000 chemicals have been introduced into our society since 1900, and only 550 have been tested for safety. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), about 2.5 billion pounds of toxic chemicals are released yearly by large industrial facilities. Heavy metals – Cadmium, lead, and mercury are known to have strong associations with autoimmune reactivity. However, studies have shown mercury to be the worst. The EPA also reports that six million pounds of mercury is poured into our air every year. Bacteria, viruses and other pathogens – Repeated exposure to bacteria and viruses wear on our immune system. For some, that hard-working immune system can turn on its own body and mistake its own healthy cells for harmful ones, thus attacking them and leading to autoimmunity. Stress and other factors – Levels of stress-related illness are higher than ever. Both physical and emotional stresses weaken our immune system, allowing the body to develop a variety of illnesses. Stress is also known to trigger and intensify autoimmune-related disorders. So, how can we tell if environmental elements have placed us at risk for autoimmune disease? Unfortunately, symptoms do not always present themselves until we are under a full autoimmune attack. However, symptoms such as brain fog, fatigue, abdominal pain, and nausea are common signs of early autoimmune response as a result of an environmental trigger. Identifying potential dietary, chemical or other environmental triggers to your individual immune reactivity is key. Cyrex Laboratories, a clinical laboratory specializing in advanced, innovative testing designed to detect food sensitivities and monitor autoimmune reactivities and their possible triggers, offers the Array 10 – Multiple Food Immune Reactivity Screen – to evaluate immune reactions to foods, raw and/or modified, food enzymes, lectins and artificial food additives, including meat glue, colorings and gums. This helps with early detection of dietary-related triggers of autoimmune reactivity. The Array 11 – Chemical Immune Reactivity Screen – identifies the loss of immune intolerance associated with toxic chemicals exposure, which may lead to autoimmune reactivity. We are exposed to environmental toxins and bacteria through the food we eat, the air we breathe and the water we drink. If you have symptoms that you believe could be related to autoimmune reactivity, speak with a healthcare professional to determine if testing might be an option for you. We learn more and more about the causes and impact of autoimmune disease every day, so determining any triggers you may have can set you on a path toward a much healthier, happier quality of life. By Dr. Chad Larson (Edited by Cherese Jackson) Dr. Chad Larson, NMD, DC, CCN, CSCS, Advisor, and Consultant on the Clinical Consulting Team for Cyrex Laboratories (www.joincyrex.com). Dr. Larson holds a Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine degree from Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine and a Doctor of Chiropractic degree from Southern California University of Health Sciences. He is a Certified Clinical Nutritionist and a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist. He particularly pursues advanced developments in the fields of endocrinology, orthopedics, sports medicine, and environmentally-induced chronic disease. Sources: Cyrex Laboratories: Chemical Immune Reactivity Screen Cyrex Laboratories: Total Serum IgG/IgA/IgM AARDA: There are more than 100 Autoimmune Diseases Image Credits: Top Image Courtesy of DR. Chad Larson Featured Image Courtesy of Tadmit MFA’s Flickr Page – Creative Commons License   autoimmune disease A Closer Look at the Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Disease added by on October 2, 2018 View all posts by Cherese Jackson →
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TLR4+CXCR4+ plasma cells drive nephritis development in systemic lupus erythematosus

TLR4+CXCR4+ plasma cells drive nephritis development in systemic lupus erythematosus | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
Objectives In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), immune tolerance breakdown leads to autoantibody production and immune-complex glomerulonephritis. This study aimed to identify pathogenic plasma cells (PC) in the development of lupus nephritis.
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Une nouvelle avancée majeure dans le diagnostic de la glomérulonéphrite extra-membraneuse idiopathique — Université Nice Sophia Antipolis

Une nouvelle avancée majeure dans le diagnostic de la glomérulonéphrite extra-membraneuse idiopathique — Université Nice Sophia Antipolis | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
Des chercheurs de l'Institut de pharmacologie moléculaire et cellulaire, du CHU de Nice, du centre médical universitaire de Hambourg et de l'Université de Boston viennent de découvrir un deuxième auto-antigène (THSD7A) impliqué dans la glomérulonéphrite extra-membraneuse idiopathique, une maladie auto-immune rénale rare mais grave. Ces chercheurs avaient déjà identifié en 2009 le premier antigène (PLA2R1) de cette maladie. Cette découverte permet de définir deux groupes de patients atteints, dont 70% associés à PLA2R1 et 5 à 10% associés à THSD7A. Les patients PLA2R1 sont déjà mieux pris en charge, et cette nouvelle avancée devrait rapidement déboucher sur un autre test diagnostique non invasif et un meilleur suivi thérapeutique des patients THSD7A. Ces travaux sont publiés dans la revue New England Journal of Medicine.
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Laboratory Role in Diagnosis of Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Presented At: Microbiology & Immunology 2018 Presented By: Vladimir Vidanovic, MD - Assistant Professor of Clinical Pathology, University of Illinois at Chic...
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Advances in the pathogenesis and management of SLE Anne Davidson MBBS Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset NY. - ppt download

Advances in the pathogenesis and management of SLE Anne Davidson MBBS Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset NY. - ppt download | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
Systemic autoimmunity...
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New discovery could improve diagnosis and treatment of lupus in black Africans

New discovery could improve diagnosis and treatment of lupus in black Africans | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
Two variants of an autoimmune disease that affects thousands but is hard to diagnose are relatively common among black Africans, research shows.
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Anti-Ganglioside | Anti-MAG | BUHLMANN | Gangliocombi MAG ELISA

GanglioCombi: The BUHLMANN GanglioCombi™ MAG ELISA detects anti-Ganglioside and anti-MAG antibodies - MAG, GM1, GM2, GD1a, GD1b, and GQ1b.
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Autoimmune encephalitis. New diagnosis for an old condition.

Autoimmune encephalitis. New diagnosis for an old condition. | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
Autoimmune encephalitis is a new group of diseases of great clinical and therapeutic importance due to the good response in most cases to the immunomodulatory t...
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Frontiers | γδ T Lymphocytes: An Effector Cell in Autoimmunity and Infection | Immunology

Frontiers | γδ T Lymphocytes: An Effector Cell in Autoimmunity and Infection | Immunology | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
γδ T cells are non-conventional lymphocytes which show several properties of innate immune cells. They present a limited TCR repertoire and circulate as cells with a pre-activated phenotype thus being able to generate rapid immune responses. γδ T cells do not recognize classical peptide antigens, their TCRs are non-MHC restricted and they can respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns and to cytokines in absence of TCR ligands. They also recognize self-molecules induced by stress, which indicate infection and cellular transformation. All these features let γδ T cells act as a first line of defense in sterile and non-sterile inflammation. γδ T cells represent 1-10% of circulating lymphocytes in the adult human peripheral blood, they are widely localized in non-lymphoid tissues and constitute the majority of immune cells in some epithelial surfaces, where they participate in the maintenance of the epithelial barriers. γδ T cells produce a wide range of cytokines that orchestrate the course of immune responses and also exert high cytotoxic activity against infected and transformed cells. In contrast to their beneficial role during infection, γδ T cells are also implicated in the development and progression of autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, several functions of γδ T cells are susceptible to modulation by interaction with other cells. In this review, we give an overview of the γδ T cell participation in infection and autoimmunity. We also revise the underlyin
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Lymphocyte-Derived Exosomal MicroRNAs Promote Pancreatic β Cell Death and May Contribute to Type 1 Diabetes Development - ScienceDirect

Lymphocyte-Derived Exosomal MicroRNAs Promote Pancreatic β Cell Death and May Contribute to Type 1 Diabetes Development - ScienceDirect | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease initiated by the invasion of pancreatic islets by immune cells that selectively kill the β cells. We found th…
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GDP-l-fucose synthase is a CD4+ T cell–specific autoantigen in DRB3*02:02 patients with multiple sclerosis

GDP-l-fucose synthase is a CD4+ T cell–specific autoantigen in DRB3*02:02 patients with multiple sclerosis | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
Although it is well established that autoreactive lymphocytes induce demyelination in multiple sclerosis, the exact antigenic targets that initiate disease are undefined. Planas et al . studied CD4+ T cells from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis. One CD4+ T cell clone was reactive to the human enzyme GDP-l-fucose synthase; T cells from other patients were then identified, as well as myelin-reactive cells. Intriguingly, some of the GDP-l-fucose synthase–reactive cells could also be stimulated by a bacterial version of the enzyme. These tantalizing results identify a new autoantigen and suggest that one possible trigger of disease could be cross-reactivity to microbiota-derived peptides.

Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that develops in genetically susceptible individuals and likely requires environmental triggers. The autoantigens and molecular mimics triggering the autoimmune response in multiple sclerosis remain incompletely understood. By using a brain-infiltrating CD4+ T cell clone that is clonally expanded in multiple sclerosis brain lesions and a systematic approach for the identification of its target antigens, positional scanning peptide libraries in combination with biometrical analysis, we have identified guanosine diphosphate (GDP)–l-fucose synthase as an autoantigen that is recognized by cerebrospinal fluid–infiltrating CD4+ T cells from HLA-DRB3*–positive patients. Significant associations were found between reactivity to GDP-l-fucose synthase peptides and DRB3*02:02 expression, along with reactivity against an immunodominant myelin basic protein peptide. These results, coupled with the cross-recognition of homologous peptides from gut microbiota, suggest a possible role of this antigen as an inducer or driver of pathogenic autoimmune responses in multiple sclerosis.
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The frequency of ANCA-associated vasculitis in a national database of hospitalized patients in China | Arthritis Research & Therapy | Full Text

The frequency of ANCA-associated vasculitis in a national database of hospitalized patients in China | Arthritis Research & Therapy | Full Text | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of life-threatening autoimmune diseases. The epidemiological data on AAV in China are limited. The aim of the present study is to investigate the frequency, geographical distribution, and ethnic distribution of...
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A Hypermorphic Nfkbid Allele Contributes to Impaired Thymic Deletion of Autoreactive Diabetogenic CD8+ T Cells in NOD Mice

A Hypermorphic Nfkbid Allele Contributes to Impaired Thymic Deletion of Autoreactive Diabetogenic CD8+ T Cells in NOD Mice | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
In both NOD mice and humans, the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is dependent in part on autoreactive CD8+ T cells recognizing pancreatic β cell peptides presented by often quite common MHC class I variants. Studies in NOD mice previously revealed that the common H2-Kd and/or H2-Db class I molecules expressed by this strain aberrantly lose the ability to mediate the thymic deletion of pathogenic CD8+ T cell responses through interactions with T1D susceptibility genes outside the MHC. A gene(s) mapping to proximal chromosome 7 was previously shown to be an important contributor to the failure of the common class I molecules expressed by NOD mice to mediate the normal thymic negative selection of diabetogenic CD8+ T cells. Using an inducible model of thymic negative selection and mRNA transcript analyses, we initially identified an elevated Nfkbid expression variant as a likely NOD-proximal chromosome 7 region gene contributing to impaired thymic deletion of diabetogenic CD8+ T cells. CRISPR/Cas9–mediated genetic attenuation of Nfkbid expression in NOD mice resulted in improved negative selection of autoreactive diabetogenic AI4 and NY8.3 CD8+ T cells. These results indicated that allelic variants of Nfkbid contribute to the efficiency of intrathymic deletion of diabetogenic CD8+ T cells. However, although enhancing thymic deletion of pathogenic CD8+ T cells, ablating Nfkbid expression surprisingly accelerated T1D onset that was associated with numeric decreases in both regulatory T and B lymphocytes in NOD mice.
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The potential role for infections in the pathogenesis of autoimmune Addison’s disease - Hellesen - - Clinical & Experimental Immunology - Wiley Online Library

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Innate and adaptive signals enhance differentiation and expansion of dual-antibody autoreactive B cells in lupus

Innate and adaptive signals enhance differentiation and expansion of dual-antibody autoreactive B cells in lupus | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
Conventional B cells express clonally specific antigen receptors, but a small subset of B cells from patients and mice with systematic lupus erythematosus simultaneously expresses two distinct antigen receptors.
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High Prevalence of Comorbid Autoimmune Diseases in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes from the HealthFacts Database - Bao - - Journal of Diabetes - Wiley Online Library

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Anti-RNPC3 (U11/U12) antibodies in systemic sclerosis are associated with moderate to severe gastrointestinal dysmotility.

Anti-RNPC3 (U11/U12) antibodies in systemic sclerosis are associated with moderate to severe gastrointestinal dysmotility. | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
We examined the association of anti-RNPC3 antibodies in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma or SSc) patients with selected gastrointestinal (GI) tract complications...
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T cells in patients with narcolepsy target self-antigens of hypocretin neurons

T cells in patients with narcolepsy target self-antigens of hypocretin neurons | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
The detection of hypocretin-specific autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in patients with narcolepsy reveals the autoimmune aetiology of this disorder.
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The clinical features, underlying immunology, and treatment of autoantibody-mediated movement disorders.

The clinical features, underlying immunology, and treatment of autoantibody-mediated movement disorders. | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
An increasing number of movement disorders are associated with autoantibodies. Many of these autoantibodies target the extracellular domain of neuronal surface ...
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Clinical features of Japanese patients with anti-α-enolase antibody-positive autoimmune retinopathy: Novel subtype of multiple drusen

Clinical features of Japanese patients with anti-α-enolase antibody-positive autoimmune retinopathy: Novel subtype of multiple drusen | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
To evaluate clinical features of Japanese patients with anti-α-enolase antibody-positive
autoimmune retinopathy (anti-enolase AIR).
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Liver Test Interpretation - Approach to the Patient with Liver Disease: A Guide to Commonly Used Liver Tests

Liver Test Interpretation - Approach to the Patient with Liver Disease: A Guide to Commonly Used Liver Tests | AUTOIMMUNITY | Scoop.it
Liver Test Interpretation - Approach to the Patient with Liver Disease: A Guide to Commonly Used Liver Tests Online Medical Reference - Authored by Murali and William D. Carey, MD of the Cleveland Clinic.
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