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Faultline: Earthquake Engineering | Exploratorium

Faultline: Earthquake Engineering | Exploratorium | Aspect 2 |
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Alex Heiman's comment, March 25, 2014 1:06 PM
8. The ground below a structure is important when determining safety. Bedrock absorbs more wave energy than sandy soils or landfill, so buildings on solid rock will be much less affected than those built on softer grounds. And if softer soils have water in them, they are almost like quicksand during a quake. When waves pass through saturated soil, they push it together. The soil loses its strength and acst like a liquid, a process called liquefaction. Buildings on top of liquefied soil sink, and often topple.
Alex Heiman's comment, March 25, 2014 1:17 PM
9. Older overpasses are supported by vertical steel rods and layered in pillars made of concrete. If these rods are bent by the pressure of the freeway on top, they lose their strength and continue to bend outward. This can cause the pillar to collapse. The steel girders prevent these rods from bending too far out and help the pillar retain enough strength to support the freeway above it.
Alex Heiman's comment, March 25, 2014 1:18 PM
10. Other than steel girders, engineers can add size and weight to a bridge’s footings. By anchoring the footings more securely into the ground this can help with structural support. Thick cables hold sections of the freeway together and secure it to the support pillars.
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Questions & Answers on Food from Genetically Engineered Plants

Questions & Answers on Food from Genetically Engineered Plants | Aspect 2 |
Answers to commonly asked consumer questions on food from genetically engineered plants.
Alex Heiman's comment, March 5, 2014 1:11 PM
8. Foods that are genetically engineered are generally as nutritious as foods that are not. Too make sure that the food is safe the developer includes what traits they are trying to change. A nutrition label is included in order to compare a genetically engineered crop to a regular crop.
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Genetic Engineering

Learn what genetic engineering is, how the technology can be harmful, and why GE foods should be labeled.
Alex Heiman's comment, March 4, 2014 1:22 PM
1. Genetic engineering is changing what something is made of. This involves taking certain genes from one organism and transferring them to another different organism. When this happens the finished product is referred to as a genetically modified organism or (gmo).
Alex Heiman's comment, March 4, 2014 1:27 PM
2. 400 million acres of land are used to grow GE crops. Most engineered crops in the US are made to with stand pesticides. That is these plants can be sprayed with weed killer and still live while other plants die.
Alex Heiman's comment, March 4, 2014 1:34 PM
3. Genetic is still an emerging field and the long term affects on humans have not been fully discovered. Some harmful affects are allergic reactions, gene mutations, antibiotic resistance, loss of nutrition, and environmental damage. Also once a genetic engineered species is released into the environment it is impossible to recall it because it will begin to reproduce and multiply.
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Genetically Modified Crops: The Growing Controversy

This is a project for sophomore Global History.
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Building Safer Structures

Building Safer Structures | Aspect 2 |
USGS Earthquake Hazards Program, responsible for monitoring, reporting, and researching earthquakes and earthquake hazards
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Alex Heiman's comment, March 24, 2014 1:15 PM
1. Designing and building large buildings is difficult. It is even a greater challenge to build these in earthquake prone areas. More than 60 deaths and about $ 6 billion in property damage resulted from the Loma Prieta earthquake in California. Earth scientists are learning more about ground motion during earthquakes and structural engineers are using this information to design stronger buildings. Loss of life and property can be reduced.
Alex Heiman's comment, March 24, 2014 1:17 PM
2. To design structures that can withstand earthquakes, engineers must understand the stresses caused by shaking. Engineers place instruments in buildings and nearby on the ground to measure how buildings react during an earthquake to the motion of the ground beneath. Every time a strong earthquake occurs, the new information gathered allows engineers to improve structural designs and building codes.
Alex Heiman's comment, March 24, 2014 1:22 PM
3. The majority of deaths and injuries from earthquakes are caused by the damage or collapse of buildings and other structures. These losses can be reduced through documenting and understanding how structures respond to earthquakes. Recording instruments must be in place and waiting before an earthquake happens. The new information from these instruments can then be used to better design earthquake-resistant structures. This helps engineers to design earthquake resistant buildings to save lives.
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Genetically modified crops: hope for developing countries?

Alex Heiman's comment, March 5, 2014 8:11 AM
6. Any discussion involving the long term future of GM crops have to keep in mind the poorer countries. The UN has predicted the world's population to increase to 9.3 billion by 2050. This means more food must be grown in order to feed everyone and prevent famine. To ensure that food is available to everybody, local food production in poor countries must increase. This will also benefit the economies of these countries and reduce their dependence on the industrialized world.
Alex Heiman's comment, March 5, 2014 8:17 AM
7. The only alternative to GM crops in 3rd world countries to increase food supple would be to increase the use of more fertilizers, insecticides and herbicides. Farmer's in these poor countries cannot afford the kind of pesticides and chemicals to help increase production. Also using these chemicals is definitely not safe for the environment. This would also go against the argument of the anti- GM crops movement.
Alex Heiman's comment, March 5, 2014 1:21 PM
10. Not doing anything to help feed the growing population also puts the environment at risk. 90% of plant and animal life live in the rainforest, but over 11million acres of land forests have been cleared for farmers in search of more productive land. By using a GM crop farmers would be able to continue to use the same field for longer, or grow more of a crop in the same area. This would in return help the environment and 3rd world countries.
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What are GM plants?

Ever wondered how or why a genetically modified organism is created? An EFSA expert goes back to basics with GM plants and also talks about the role EFSA pla...
Alex Heiman's comment, March 5, 2014 1:17 PM
9. A GEO is an organism in which the genetic material has been changed in the organism in a way that does not occur naturally. There have been plants made to survive droughts. This would be useful in countries such as the middle eastern and other lands that do not receive frequent rain fall. Another useful characteristic for crops would be insect resistant. This would be useful in humid climates where the insect population is high. There is always a risk of allergic reaction when using GM products.