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MBAs must focus on urban explosion - YouTube

In the next 35 years 2bn rural people will move to cities. Reuben Abraham of India’s IFDC Institute tells Della Bradshaw, FT business education editor, that MBAs must focus on the business opportunities of rapid urbanisation in developing countries.

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Homegrown Cities Project: common sense to the rescue of Mumbai slums

Homegrown Cities Project: common sense to the rescue of Mumbai slums | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it

Bhandup is called a slum by the municipality. We prefer to refer to this hillside settlement located in the northeastern suburbs of Mumbai, as a ‘homegrown neighborhood’. We have been active there for a few years, documenting local construction techniques and contributing to the construction of a Hindu temple. From above, Bhandup looks a lot like a Rio favela. Within it has the same vibrancy and similar infrastructural issues. The area is typically low-rise, high-density and pedestrian. It is also mixed-use, hosting a great variety of businesses within its residential fabric. Every time we visit the area we see new houses being built by local masons and residents. Each of them occupies a 150 to 200 square feet area, and has one or two floors. Bhandup residents have access to water and community toilets, and electricity is available everywhere. Most people have television and cell phones. No one there is dying of hunger. What this neighbourhood needs most is to be recognized as a viable form of urbanization – not as a slum. The efforts of its residents and local constructors should be supported.

 

Our contention is that only by working within the existing fabric and with local actors, can urbanists, architects, engineers and policy makers contribute meaningfully to ongoing user-lead improvement in homegrown neighbourhoods. This is why we have just launched the project Homegrown Cities that aims at demonstrating that common sensical alternatives to ‘redevelopment’ do exist.

 

http://www.indiegogo.com/projects/homegrown-cities

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kolkata

kolkata | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it

The slums of Kolkata can be divided into three groups: the older ones, up to 150 years’ old, in the heart of the city, are associated with early urbanization. The second group dates from the 1940s and 1950s and emerged as an outcome of industrialization-based rural–urban migration, locating themselves around industrial sites and near infra-structural arteries. The third group came into being after the independence of India and took vacant urban lands and areas along roads, canals and on marginal lands. In 2001, 1.5 million people, or one third of Kolkata’s population, lived in 2011 registered and 3500 unregistered slums.

 

Registered Slums (bustees): these slums are recognized by the Calcutta Municipal Corporation (CMC) on the basis of land title; since 1980, they have been taken over by the CMC for letting/lease to slum dwellers.

 

Unregistered slums: this comprises slums onthe land encroaching settlements.

 

The "bustee-type" generally has some form of secure tenure or ownership rights based on land rent or lease, with structures built by the slum dwellers, or house rental/lease of structures built by third parties.


Tenure security is, in principle, not available to the unregistered land encroaching settlements on road sides (jhupri), along canals (khaldhar) or on other vacant land (udbastu).


Over 40 per cent of Kolkata’s slum residents have been slum dwellers for two generations or longer, and more than half originate from the Kolkata hinterland. With the majority engaged in the informal sector, with average monthly earnings of between 500 and 1700 rupees and a household size of five to six persons, some three-quarters of the Kolkata slum population are below the poverty line.


This summary has been extracted from:

UN-Habitat (2003) Global Report on Human Settlements 2003, The Challenge of Slums, Earthscan, London; Part IV: 'Summary of City Case Studies', pp195-228.

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Kolkata_bw.pdf

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India's millennium city a 'slum for the rich'?

India's millennium city a 'slum for the rich'? | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it
The BBC's Shalu Yadav looks at why Gurgaon, India's Millennium City, has turned out to be a failure in planning.

 

Infrastructure is in a shambles: electricity is infrequent and erratic, groundwater is declining at an alarming rate, and the sewage system and roads are decrepit. There aren't enough policemen to secure the burgeoning population.

 

A whopping 70% of the residents are dependant on ground water, which is being indiscriminately extracted despite restrictions.

 

Things are so alarming that the federal ground water authorities have warned that the water table will be completely depleted by 2017.

The sewage situation also looks dire.

 

Delhi's Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) believes that by 2021, Gurgaon's estimated 3.5m people will produce so much waste that the city will be drowning in its own sewage.

 

"Unfortunately in India, infrastructure doesn't precede development. That is why one feels that Gurgaon and many upcoming Indian cities are a failure. India needs sustainable urbanisation, " Lalit Jain, chairman of the Confederation of Real Estate Developers' Association of India said.

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Indian man single-handedly plants a 1,360-acre forest

Indian man single-handedly plants a 1,360-acre forest | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it

A little more than 30 years ago, a teenager named Jadav "Molai" Payeng began burying seeds along a barren sandbar near his birthplace in northern India's Assam region to grow a refuge for wildlife. Not long after, he decided to dedicate his life to this endeavor, so he moved to the site where he could work full-time creating a lush new forest ecosystem. Incredibly, the spot today hosts a sprawling 1,360 acres of jungle that Payeng planted — single-handedly. The Times of India recently caught up with Payeng in his remote forest lodge to learn more about how he came to leave such an indelible mark on the landscape.

It all started way back in 1979, when floods washed a large number of snakes ashore on the sandbar. One day, after the waters had receded, Payeng, only 16 then, found the place dotted with the dead reptiles. That was the turning point of his life.

"The snakes died in the heat, without any tree cover. I sat down and wept over their lifeless forms. It was carnage. I alerted the forest department and asked them if they could grow trees there. They said nothing would grow there. Instead, they asked me to try growing bamboo. It was painful, but I did it. There was nobody to help me. Nobody was interested," says Payeng, now 47.

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Opening the Gates – Gurgaon, India

Opening the Gates – Gurgaon, India | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it

Gurgaon, India is one of the fastest-growing cities in one of the most rapidly urbanizing countries on the planet. Known as the Millennium City because it barely existed two decades ago, the Delhi satellite is a study in contrast. Multinational corporations do business from gleaming skyscrapers that overlook unpaved roads and slums with no running water or sewer system. Tech entrepreneurs employed by Fortune 500 companies live in gated communities that on the inside look like any ritzy suburb, except even fancier and the water has to be trucked in. Outside, feral pigs roam free. Since the city’s beginning, the disparity has been stark and unabated. Now that is beginning to change, with an emerging class of young leaders who say the city cannot continue this unsustainable growth. These individuals are moving outside their walled subdivisions to engage with India’s notoriously dysfunctional government and work for reform. The goal is to build a better city for all. If they succeed, this jarringly free-market city could become a model for repairing broken democracy.

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Vivek Bhide, a coal activist’s story from Maharashtra

Vivek Bhide, a coal activist’s story from Maharashtra | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it

Dr. Vivek Bhide is a mango and cashew grower and an amazing activist from the lush and beautiful coastal district of Ratnagiri in Maharashtra. Dr Bhide asks why, the Government wants to make the twin districts of Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg, a new power hub of the country. A dozen thermal power plants have been planned in these two districts – which would produce more than 30,000 MW in nearly a decade’s time,” says Dr. Bhide, who is spearheading a campaign against the power projects in the region. (...)


“I am an ordinary citizen. How do I resist decisions that are made at the top?” asked Bhide, 47. “The court is my only battleground.” In the past two decades, tens of thousands of public interest litigations have been filed against the Indian government and corporations on grounds that such mega-projects threaten livelihoods, land or the environment. These suits have led to landmark rulings on education, the environment and human rights in India. (...)


“They say that India needs these power projects to reach heaven,” he said. “But what about the hell it will bring upon our environment?”

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Embrace Your Constraints to Create New Markets

Embrace Your Constraints to Create New Markets | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it

One company did, and revolutionized eye care in India.


"Essilor realized that in order to problem solve, they would have to intentionally impose constraints on themselves. They threw out Western-style of care as a solution, recognizing and eliminating old constraints. And they forced their team to answer what seemed like impossible questions: How do you produce a $1 pair of glasses? How do you make a profit on it? Intentionally imposed constraints are mechanisms actively used to force inventiveness — "necessity is the mother of invention" turns out to be not just a great quote but a powerful tool. "

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How solar power can help the billion people without electricity

How solar power can help the billion people without electricity | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it

One of the major opportunities lies in providing energy access for the more than 1.2 billion people who don't have electricity, most of whom, in business-as-usual scenarios, still won't have it in 2030. These are the poorest people on the planet. Ironically, the world's poorest can best afford the most sophisticated lighting — off-grid combinations of solar panels, power electronics, and LED lights. And this creates an opportunity for which the economics are compelling, the moral urgency profound, the development benefits enormous, and the potential leverage game changing.

 

The cost of coal and copper — the ingredients of conventional grid power — are soaring. Meanwhile, the cost of solar panels and LEDs, the ingredients of distributed renewable power, are racing down even faster.

 

If we want the poor to benefit from electricity we cannot wait for the grid, and we cannot rely on fossil fuels. The International Energy Agency, historically a grid-centric, establishment voice, admits that half of those without electricity today will never be wired. The government of India estimates that two-thirds of its non-electrified households need distributed power.

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Cooperatives as Business Models of the Future

Cooperatives as Business Models of the Future | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it

Cooperatives as Business Models of the Future - When the International Year of Cooperatives (IYC) concluded last week, some of the overwhelming success stories highlighted at a two-day interactive session came both from developing and developed countries,...

Dame Pauline Green, president of the International Cooperative Alliance...

In Brazil, Green said, a clearly defined government policy aimed at helping rural people, through cooperative businesses, has seen a massive reduction in poverty in the rural areas of the sprawling South American nation.

In Kenya, cooperatives account for nearly half of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP), while in Rwanda the cooperative economy has gone from zero to eight percent of GDP over the last 10 years.

The world’s largest 300 cooperatives, primarily in the insurance and food and agriculture sectors, generated revenues of 1.6 trillion dollars and employed nearly 100 million people worldwide.

 

Asked if the cooperative model of enterprise may well be one of the answers to the global economic crisis, Green told IPS, “Without doubt the cooperative business model offers a proven solution to this global economic crisis we are mired in.”

In the UK, she said, schools have become one of the fastest-growing parts of the cooperative economy.


“Renewable energy cooperatives have been springing up all over the globe, and of course media is another area which benefits from the cooperative model because it ensures independent journalism remains viable,” she noted.

 

ddrrnt's insight:

https://twitter.com/toughLoveforx/status/356034145530556418

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Climate Change Promises Tough Times for Asia and Africa - Report

Climate Change Promises Tough Times for Asia and Africa - Report | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it

Urbanisation is increasing rapidly, especially in the developing world, with many more people living in slums and informal settlements, Kyte told IPS from London.

 

As climate change disrupts rainfall patterns and generates more extreme weather in the coming decades, leading to poor crop yields, rural populations will flood cities. Escalating numbers of urban poor will suffer, with temperatures magnified by the "heat island effect" of the constructed urban environments.

 

Safe drinking water will also be harder to find, especially after floods, contributing to greater water-borne diseases such as cholera and diarrhoea.

Coastal regions like Bangladesh and India's two largest coastal cities, Kolkata and Mumbai, will face extreme river floods, more intense tropical cyclones, rising sea levels and very high temperatures.

 

"Huge numbers of urban poor will be exposed in many coastal cities," Kyte said.

 

"We face a huge challenge over the next 20 years to... redesign our cities to protect them from climate change," Kyte predicted, even as cities already face a huge infrastructure investment gap.

 

One trillion dollars a year needed to be invested every year by 2020 by some estimates, Kyte said, adding that "to build climate resilience into cities will take another 300 to 500 million dollars a year".

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Dakshinpuri: The Ninth Delhi: The Beginning

Dakshinpuri: The Ninth Delhi: The Beginning | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it

Dakshinpuri is a working class neighborhood in South Delhi, created during the Emergency in 1975 as part of a mass resettlement campaign of inner-city slum-dwellers to the outskirts of the city. This blog is about the history of Dakshinpuri, as reflected in the stories of its residents--stories about carving a neighborhood out of the wilderness, about urban demolition, water pumps, TV-centers and first electricity bills, about plot cards, bricks and bulldozers.


Dakshinpuri was created as part of the Emergency’s mass resettlement campaign of inner-city slum dwellers to the outskirts of Delhi. The displacement of about 120,000 families and the creation of 27 resettlement colonies, mostly on the periphery of the city, were part of the Emergency’s sweeping urban development plan to beautify and organize the city. According to Emma Tarlo, who cites a DDA (Delhi Development Authority) publication of the time, the demolitions and planting of trees were directly proportional: half a million people were resettled and half a million trees were planted. While Delhi’s poor was relocated to the vast wilderness surrounding Delhi, their former homes were being leveled and converted to parks, stadiums and shopping centers. (While sterilization was often a prerequisite for getting a plot card later on in the Emergency, in Dakshinpuri, which was mostly settled in the summer/monsoon months of 1975, it does not seem to have played a role in the resettlement process.) Dakshinpuri's primarily Dalit residents were given leases for 99 years--and for most, it was the first time they had ever legally owned land.

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Out of India's Trash Heaps, More Than a Shred of Dignity

Out of India's Trash Heaps, More Than a Shred of Dignity | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it
Pune, India, has developed a a waste-management approach that is improving the environment, as well as the livelihoods and social standing of some of the city’s poorest inhabitants.

 

Waste-pickers are often uneducated, rural migrants who sift through trash heaps or landfills, looking for plastics and glass that they sell to middlemen by weight, who send them to be recycled.  This informal system results in recycling rates of almost 50 percent for plastics (as compared with 8.2 percent in the United States) — which is why activists call waste-pickers “invisible environmentalists.”

 

Waste-picking is full of occupational hazards. Waste-pickers sifting through trash with bare hands encounter rusty metal, cut glass, needles and menstrual blood; their life expectancy may be a decade or more below the average. With a daily income of 60 rupees (one dollar) in Pune, most cannot afford proper meals or medical care. Police and security guards harass them, particularly women. Governments offers little protection.

It took years for K.K.P.K.P. to mobilize the waste-pickers, who were scattered and reluctant to take time off work for meetings. As the group came together, however, they found a sympathetic ear in the Pune Municipal Corporation (P.M.C.), the city’s governing body.

 

That led to the innovation that changed Chandani’s life and has evolved into a waste-management approach that others can learn from. In 2007, the K.K.P.K.P. and Pune’s government got together to create a cooperative called Solid Waste Collection and Handling (Swach). The idea was to engage waste-pickers to handle almost all of the city’s waste, a remarkable departure from other cities, where private contractors haul waste to landfills with trucks. The question was: Could Swach save the Pune government lots of money, improve the environment and improve livelihoods for some of the city’s poorest inhabitants? The answer appears to be yes to all three.

ddrrnt's insight:

thanks to @toughLoveforx :

https://plus.google.com/u/0/114944409106623979163/posts/eH1KYEBHppg

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Indian cities must act now on city climate resilience plans

Indian cities must act now on city climate resilience plans | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it

Cities across the world, due to their rapid population growth and large-scale developmental and economic investments, are at high risk from the impacts of climate change.


Though facing serious issues, cities can offer solution by evolving climate resilience strategies which can go a long in reducing their vulnerability and ensuring sustainable development. In view of this, it is crucial to develop urban climate resilience plans that can prepare cities to face the consequences of extreme weather events like urban flooding, public health crisis and the like. Understanding the urgency, The Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network (ACCCRN), part of a $59 million, 7-year climate change resilience initiative supported by the Rockefeller Foundation, was launched in 2009 to create climate resilience strategies and action models in 10 cities across four countries in Asia (Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia and India).

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Organizer Prabhat Mishra on Climate Change in India

Organizer Prabhat Mishra on Climate Change in India | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it

Working with the Government, Mr. Mishra has taken special interest in environmental issues and has been instrumental in mobilizing hundreds of villagers across the district for climate action. People of Aasayi village in the district took part in Climate Impacts Day on May 5th earlier this year where locals gathered for a human art formation depicting the need to safeguard their fragile forests.


With rising carbon emissions across the planet, the need for a concerted effort to tackle climate change is only growing. Here are a few suggestions, which need urgent attention:


1. There should be a “WORLD COMMISSION FOR SCIENCE AND DEVELOPMENT” for promoting the researches and developmental works which have zero to low carbon emissions.
2. Our investment in R & D should be more on the development of “RENEWABLE ENERGY” like solar, tidal, wind and water energies, apart from developing “low carbon emission technologies”.
3. There should be a big role and support for civil society institutions in implementing environment friendly plans & projects of government.
4. There should be effective “AWARENESS programmes at grassroots level”, to save the environment from degradation. 350.org is doing an excellent job in this regard.
5. Carbon capping should not be the one way legislation programme against developing nations. DEVELOPED nations should provide financial help and green technology transfer to DEVELOPING nations, to phase-out the fossil fuels.





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Urban Villages of the Developed and Developing World | This Big City

Urban Villages of the Developed and Developing World | This Big City | Advancing Eco-cities | Scoop.it
In the developed world, an urban village is a planned neighbourhood where residents can walk, cycle, or use public transport to go about their essential activities. Urban villages of the developing world differ somewhat.
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Jugaad: A New Growth Formula for Corporate America

Frugal innovation is a hot topic today as post-downturn corporate America looks for ways to do more for less, while serving broader markets.


Jugaad-minded entrepreneurs turn adversity — such as widespread scarcity of natural and financial resources in India — into an opportunity to innovate and create more valuable products and services at less cost for more people.


How can Western organizations concretely put Jugaad in practice? 


Thrift not waste. This first rule — which promotes frugality — helps tackle scarcity of all forms of resources.


Inclusion, not exclusion. This second rule helps entrepreneurial organizations to put inclusiveness into practice — by tightly connecting with, and harnessing, the growing diversity that permeates their communities of customers, employees, and partners.


Bottom-up participation, not top-down command and control. This third rule drives collaboration. CEOs who tend to act as conductors must learn to facilitate collaborative improvisation just as players in jazz bands do.


Flexible thinking and action, not linear planning. This fourth rule facilitates flexibility in thinking and action. Jugaad-practicing firms are highly adaptable as they aren’t wedded to any single business model and pursue multiple options at any time.


Also see the 6 Principles of Jugaad innovation on our FB page.

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