Arctic Tundra
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Ecological and evolutionary consequences of experimental warming in a high arctic tundra ecosystem

"This rapid increase in temperature is expected to have wide-ranging implications for Arctic ecosystems, including changes in biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and nutrient cycles."

Lei M's insight:

The case study article is about the effects of global warming and increasing temperatures on life in the arctic tundra, and it emphasizes plant life. The study aims to answer questions regarding the effect of global warming on plant species, adaptation to warming, and the survival of southern populations at northern latitudes. The study was conducted at an ITEX site, which was created to study experimental warming's effect on plants. The results demonstrated that snow melting has a larger effect on plant life than temperature change does. 

 

Currency - The article was published approximately a year ago in December 2013. The experiment is about the consequences of warming in a high arctic ecosystem, which is a prominent environmental issue right now, and it provides information on it, so it is not out of date. The findings from the experiment can still be applied to arctic plant species today.


Relevance - The article provides a lot of information about the current status of global warming and hiw arctic plant life is adjusting to it. The author ensures that the reader understands why she conducted the experiment and why it is relevant to the arctic tundra. The article is relevant to the topic of the arctic tundra because it demonstrates the effect of temperature changes on arctic plant life.

Accuracy - The author cites 21 sources in her report, most of which are used to provide background information to her experiment. Bjorkman states in her report that several studies have ended with results similar to the ones she got from her experiment. Her results confirm previous theories held about phenotypic plasticity, so they are justified by previous experiments and prior research. Bjorkman has an extensive bibliography to justify her experiment and prior knowledge about arctic plant life.

 

Purpose- Although the purpose is not given in the text, it is very easy to see that the purpose of this source is to inform readers of what the Tundra is and the characteristics that make up the Tundra. There is no bias toward the report because the subject is approached from an objective perspective. 


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Extreme weather in the Arctic problematic for people, wildlife

"The situation was particularly problematic out on the tundra. Rain falling on snow can percolate to the base of a snowpack where it can pool at the soil surface and subsequently freeze."

Lei M's insight:

This news article is about the effect of extreme weather conditions on the arctic tundra and its inhabitants. It also discusses the benefits of the event, one of which is the fact that scientists were able to learn from the event. Because it was such a unique and extreme happening, the scientists consider their report as one containing rare information. Their studies also show that climate will become warmer and more wet in the arctic as time goes on. The article also states that global warming has affected even the permafrost, which goes as deep as 5 meters below the surface. The extreme temperatures also affected human activity and infrastructure.

 

Currency - The article was posted on November 22, 2014, so it's an indication of events that are happening right now. This shows the current effects of global warming on arctic regions, such as its effects on the reindeer population and on climate.

 

Relevance - Readers can learn about what's happening in the arctic because of global warming. The article provides an in depth analysis of what is going on and why it's happening as well as the extent of global warming's impact on the region. It's relevant to the reader because it portrays issues facing the biome and because global warming is largely caused by humans.

 

Authority- Brage Bremset Hansen, Ysetin Varpe, and Ketil Iskasen are the authors of this article. Hansen is a biologist at the Norwegian University of Science and Technologys Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, and Varpe is an associate professor at the University Centre in Svalbard. Iskasen is a climatologist from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute.

 

Purpose - The article and the subject of global warming is approached from an objective standpoint and gives only information about its direct effects on the tundra which is supported by the authors observations and the scientists commentary. The purpose of the article is not to convince readers to reduce their contribution to global warming or to preach to readers about going green, although it very well could be. The article provides objective news regarding the tundra and its wildlife.

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World Book - Tundra

"Tundra is a term most often used for the cold, dry, treeless lands of the Arctic."

Lei M's insight:

This encyclopedia article is about the characteristics of tundras. It discusses the locations of tundras and their plant life, animal species, their diets, and permafrost. It also discusses the soil quality in tundras and humans that live in the biome. 

 

Currency - This encyclopedia article was last edited in 2014, which is very recent for an encyclopedia article. The information is up to date with current knowledge about arctic tundras because it was edited this year, so it includes all updated and newfound information from this year and before. The information is not out of the date for the topic because it takes into account recent findings such as global warming and human activity in the arctic tundra.

 

Relevance - The article provides sufficient information about arctic tundras because it covers many aspects of the biome. It includes a lot of characteristics that are necessary to know about a biome such as the climate, biodiversity, and its condition today. Although it doesn’t go into deep detail about every part of the biome, it goes over a lot of its characteristics and gives substantial basic information about it.

 

Authority - The article is written by Robert J. Rogerson, who is the Vice-President academic of University Canada West and former Dean of Arts and Science at the University of Lethbridge. The article comes from a prominent reference encyclopedia.

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Ecological and evolutionary consequences of experimental warming in a high arctic tundra ecosystem

"This rapid increase in temperature is expected to have wide-ranging implications for Arctic ecosystems, including changes in biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and nutrient cycles."

Lei M's insight:

The case study article is about the effects of global warming and increasing temperatures on life in the arctic tundra, and it emphasizes plant life. The study aims to answer questions regarding the effect of global warming on plant species, adaptation to warming, and the survival of southern populations at northern latitudes. The study was conducted at an ITEX site, which was created to study experimental warming's effect on plants. The results demonstrated that snow melting has a larger effect on plant life than temperature change does. 

 

Currency - The article was published approximately a year ago in December 2013. The experiment is about the consequences of warming in a high arctic ecosystem, which is a prominent environmental issue right now, and it provides information on it, so it is not out of date. The findings from the experiment can still be applied to arctic plant species today.


Relevance - The article provides a lot of information about the current status of global warming and hiw arctic plant life is adjusting to it. The author ensures that the reader understands why she conducted the experiment and why it is relevant to the arctic tundra. The article is relevant to the topic of the arctic tundra because it demonstrates the effect of temperature changes on arctic plant life.

Accuracy - The author cites 21 sources in her report, most of which are used to provide background information to her experiment. Bjorkman states in her report that several studies have ended with results similar to the ones she got from her experiment. Her results confirm previous theories held about phenotypic plasticity, so they are justified by previous experiments and prior research. Bjorkman has an extensive bibliography to justify her experiment and prior knowledge about arctic plant life.

 

Purpose- Although the purpose is not given in the text, it is very easy to see that the purpose of this source is to inform readers of what the Tundra is and the characteristics that make up the Tundra. There is no bias toward the report because the subject is approached from an objective perspective. 


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As Sea Ice Shrinks, Can Polar Bears Survive on Land?

As Sea Ice Shrinks, Can Polar Bears Survive on Land? | Arctic Tundra | Scoop.it

"An unanswered question is whether the energetic cost of chasing after a goose or a caribou is worth the calories the food supplies. If so, there are lots and lots of geese and, these days at least, plenty of caribou in the Hudson Bay area, Gormezano said."

Lei M's insight:

This news article gives insight on polar bears' diets. It talks about how, as ice melts and global warming becomes a bigger issue, polar bears are running out of food, such as seals, to sustain themselves. But, as one ecologist, Linda J. Gormezano, studied their behavior she discovered that polar bears can actually satisfy their diets with food on land such as snow geese and caribou.

 

Currency - The article was published on July 17, 2012. The problems described in the article are still a problem today so the article is still relevant. The issue of Sea Ice shrinking continues to be a problem today causing many polar bears to die.

 

Relevance - The information given in this source is not too simple nor too complex but it is just right for the learner to follow. The information is very relevant to the topic because it describes what a tundra is and the requirements or characteristics of a tundra.

 

Authority- The Author of this article is Emma Marris from National Geographic. She currently resides in Klamath Falls, Oregon. The fact that National Geographic even published this article would most certainly guarantee that the evidence and information given is accurate and reliable.  

 

Purpose - The purpose of the article is to discuss what is happening to polar bears in the arctic tundra who are having to deal with global warming. The news is presented from an objective point of view and only talks about how the polar bears can sustain themselves in the face of rising temperatures. A large portion of the article is composed of facts and commentary from scientists, which adds to the story provided in the article. 

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Science in Context - Tundra

"Tundra is a biome found at high elevations in mountains and in many landscapes of the Arctic characterizedby an absence of trees, low-growing vegetation, permafrost, and low precipitation . All ecosystems withtundra vegetation are grouped into the tundra biome." 

Lei M's insight:

The informational website discusses the locations of arctic tundras and their plant life. It also discusses the climate typical of arctic tundras and a significant characteristic of tundras, which is permafrost. It mentions the animal species that live in the biome. The article also talks about the soil quality.

 

Currency - The article was written in 2001 but was last updated on June 1 2012 so the provided information is up to date. It describes the characteristics of an arctic tundra and includes recent information that other recently updated encyclopedia articles provide so the information is still reliable and relevant. 

 

Relevance - The article is still very useful when searching for information about the characteristics of an arctic tundra biome. It provides deep and detailed information about arctic tundras. It's extremely relevant to the topic of arctic tundras because it establishes a basic knowledge about the biome. It includes detailed descriptions of conditions in arctic tundras and is appropriate for high school seniors who want or need to learn about the biome.

 

Accuracy - The information provided in the encyclopedia article can be found in other reputable encyclopedia articles about the arctic tundra. The information found in the article is also up to date so it contains new discoveries regarding arctic tundras. The article has a bibliography that contains 3 sources which were accessed in 2010 or 2011, which is right before when the article was revised. 

 

Purpose- The purpose of this article is to inform readers what an arctic tundra is. It gives balanced information that does not confuse the reader but also does not give information that the reader already knows. Revealed in the article are the basic, fundamental, and detailed characteristics of the arctic Tundra.

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GREENR - Inuit declaration on sovereignty in the Arctic

"Inuit are an indigenous people. Inuit are an indigenous people with the rights and responsibilities of all indigenous peoples. 1ese include the rights recognized in and by international legal and political instruments and bodies, such as the recommendations of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, the UN Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the 2007 UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), and others."

Lei M's insight:

The journal article provides background information about Inuit people. It discusses the rights of indigenous people because the Inuit people are an indigenous group living the Arctic. Inuit people reside in the Arctic and their sovereignty is in question. 

 

Currency - This article was posted on January 1 2014, and the article discusses issues that the Inuit people face that will not disappear in a year, so the article is still relevant. The information is not out of date because the Inuit people still face challenges regarding their sovereignty and citizenship.


Relevance - The article provides a considerable amount of information. It describes the background of the Inuit and the exact way in which their sovereignty is being questioned. The article is important because it justifies why the arctic tundra is an important biome to humans: humans live in it. It depicts the Inuit's battle for their rights, which is something that all humans should be able to relate to.


Authority - The authors of the article are the Inuit themselves, so it is a very personal document. They have the authority to talk about the issue and the Inuit opinion on it because they experience the challenges themselves. They are thoroughly educated on the matter at hand and on other topics such as citizenship in the arctic and indigenous rights.

 

Purpose- The purpose of this article is to inform and expand the thinking of readers of what the lnuit people are and the challenges that they face and currently still face today. Each point the author makes informs the reader who exactly the lnuit people are and the evolving sovereignty in the Arctic. 

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World Book - Animals of polar regions

"Many animals inhabit the vast Arctic tundra, the cold treeless plains of northern Asia, North America, and Europe. They include caribou, ermine, musk oxen, reindeer, lemmings, snowy owls, and wolves."

Lei M's insight:

The video specifically goes over the types of wildlife in arctic tundra regions.

 

Relevance - The video provides a detailed description of the wildlife that lives in the arctic tundra. It's relevant to the unit because it tells the viewer about the animal life. The video also discusses the animals diets.


Authority - The video was published by IBM Multimedia Studio and is on World Book encyclopedia. The video clips are from Second Line Search. The video is credible because it is published by world book encyclopedia, which is a source of encyclopedic information that is collected from several sources.

 

Purpose - The purpose of the video is to provide information about animals in arctic tundras. The video is created an objective point of view and only provides information about life in arctic tundras; it contains no opinions. It also briefly provides insight into the lifestyle of arctic tundra animals. 

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