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Carbon Dioxide Levels Climb Into Uncharted Territory for Humans - Highest since 800,000 Years

Carbon Dioxide Levels Climb Into Uncharted Territory for Humans - Highest since 800,000 Years | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it

The amount of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere has exceeded 402 parts per million (ppm) during the past two days of observations, which is higher than at any time in at least the past 800,000 years, according to readings from monitoring equipment on a mountaintop in Hawaii. Carbon dioxide, or CO2, is the most important long-lived greenhouse gas responsible for manmade global warming, and it is building up in the atmosphere due to the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas.

 

Once emitted, a single molecule of carbon dioxide can remain aloft for hundreds of years, which means that the effects of today's industrial activities will be felt for the next several centuries, if not thousands of years. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, such as methane, warm the planet by absorbing and redirecting outgoing solar radiation that would otherwise escape back into space.

 

In 2013, atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide briefly hit 400 ppm for the first time in mid-May, but this year that symbolic threshold has been crossed even earlier. This means it is more likely that the annual peak, which typically occurs in mid-to-late May, will climb further above 400 ppm for the first time.

 

Although crossing above 400 ppm is largely a symbolic milestone, scientific research indicates that the higher that carbon dioxide concentrations get, the more global temperatures will increase, resulting in a wide range of damaging effects. These impacts will range from global sea level rise to a heightened risk of heat waves, severe droughts and floods, according to a recently released comprehensive assessment of climate science produced by the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

 

Modern carbon dioxide monitoring began in 1958 on the peak of Hawaii's Mauna Loa volcano, which is more than two miles high. At that time, carbon dioxide concentrations were at just 313 ppm. They have risen rapidly and steadily since then, both at Mauna Loa and at other observatories around the world. The chart documenting this rise is perhaps the most iconic in all of climate science, known as the "Keeling Curve" for Charles David Keeling, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography scientist who began and maintained the monitoring program.


According to the Keeling Curve website, carbon dioxide concentrations spiked to 402.20 parts per million on April 7, whereas data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) showed a slightly lower level of 402.11 parts per million on the same day. Both data sets indicate that daily carbon dioxide measurements have been at or above 400 ppm since March 29, and the graph appears on course to stay above 400 ppm throughout the rest of the month and into the next.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Cathryn Wellner's curator insight, April 11, 2014 2:46 PM

For such an intelligent species, we are certainly slow learners. Thanks for this articulation of the issue.

Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food
Commercial aquaculture has now integrated with hydroponics to create a budding new commercial industry.I,m seeking to curate fish species suitable that get along well with this vegetable/fruit growing systems.Aeroponics is yet another branch of this new farming technology.Clean green obviously ramifications for future feeding of the planets communities~
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Fishermen’s Direct Marketing Manual Update – Commercial Fishing

Fishermen’s Direct Marketing Manual Update – Commercial Fishing | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
The Sea Grant programs in Alaska and Washington have released an updated edition of the popular “Fishermen’s Direct Marketing Manual.”

Via northamerica
Charlie Dare's insight:
Direct Marketing Manual ~
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northamerica's curator insight, March 15, 7:19 AM
The Fishermen’s Direct Marketing Manual is a how-to guide and reference book for commercial fishermen who wish to bypass processors and wholesalers and sell their catch directly to brokers, restaurants, and other buyers.
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Bush school embraces solar power as students build own panels

Bush school embraces solar power as students build own panels | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
A tiny bush school in South Australia hopes to become a model for sustainable living as students construct solar panels that attach to battery storage to power the school's fish farm.
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Worms are a good replacement for commercial pellets if you,ve got enough growing or black soldier fly lavae ..
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Industry Insiders Bullish on Future of Legal Marijuana

Industry Insiders Bullish on Future of Legal Marijuana | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
To help make sense of this unprecedented moment, L.A. Weekly spoke to industry insiders to get their thoughts on the end of pot prohibition.
Charlie Dare's insight:
Legal pot in LA~
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For SA exporters, direct Adelaide-US flights would be 'fantastic'

For SA exporters, direct Adelaide-US flights would be 'fantastic' | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
South Australian producers and manufacturers are increasingly reliant on air cargo to transport their goods to international markets, including Asia and the Middle East. But there's still no direct flight from Adelaide to the US.
Charlie Dare's insight:
Export of local aquaculture produce depends on air cargo something missing for South Australian producers ~
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New feed system in the pipeline

New feed system in the pipeline | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
A new system that claims to make the “feeding process in fish farms simpler, faster and easier to follow”, has been developed by AKVA.
Charlie Dare's insight:
In trial stage easier connection to various fish feed silo`s and pellet sizes for multiple stages of stock size~
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INVE seals new artemia deal

INVE seals new artemia deal | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
INVE Aquaculture has successfully renewed its sales and marketing agreement with the Great Salt Lake Brine Shrimp Cooperative (GSL COOP).
Charlie Dare's insight:
Brime Shrimp a much sort after product for hatcheries to feed tiny fingerlings with.
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More locals join push to stop oil drilling in Great Australian Bight

More locals join push to stop oil drilling in Great Australian Bight | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
Holdfast Bay council wants moratorium on oil and gas exploration in bight over fears of ‘devastating impacts’ of oil spill
Charlie Dare's insight:
The state with the most long black outs doesn`t have a viable reliable mix of power sources.With out all kinds of solenoids and back up oxygen no pumps would regularly be stopping in this state for several hours to several days each year~
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Phages are an effective alternative to the use of antibiotics in aquaculture

Phages are an effective alternative to the use of antibiotics in aquaculture | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
Therapy with phages, instead of antibiotics, is a highly promising option in aquaculture to control the transfer of bacteria that cause important losses or which may be harmful to consumers. Use of these organisms, which infect and destroy bacteria, would significantly reduce the environmental impact of fish farms, whilst increasing their profitability by lowering mortality in the early stages of the breeding process.
Charlie Dare's insight:
An alternatives to use of antibiotics is always good as the build up of resistant strains is dangerous to humans as well as animals and fish~
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Future of tiny fish found in outback puddles hangs in balance

Future of tiny fish found in outback puddles hangs in balance | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
Deep in Queensland's arid outback, small pockets of rainforest in miniature flourish, thanks to underground springs — but the future is looking bleak for a tiny fish that lives there.
Charlie Dare's insight:
The red-finned blue-eye was probably never an abundant species — it may have appeared in just a small collection of springs before its discovery. But it's in even fewer now, and the main reason for its decline is the introduced gambusia, a small fish from the southern area of North America.Another strategy used to buy time on conservation projects is a captive breeding population. It's a tactic that has proved very challenging with the red-finned blue-eyes, but after an experimental process over the last decade, there are early signs of success at a Queensland aquaculture facility.I would like to know which one too~
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Tasmanian 'super oyster' gives hopes for disease resistance

Tasmanian 'super oyster' gives hopes for disease resistance | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
Tasmania's $26 million oyster industry has new hope, with scientists testing a super oyster in waters hit by the deadly Pacific oyster mortality syndrome.
Charlie Dare's insight:
Abundant surviving brood stock that we can breed from after the out break resistant ones.
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Collapsible Fiberglass Aquaculture RAS Fish Farming Tank(ID5.4M)

ID5.4MeterXH1.4Meter collapsible fish tank onsite assembly 1)6pcs bottom panels and 6 vertical panels 2)EPDM strip,bolt and nuts joining3)Silicone sealan
Charlie Dare's insight:
Too short not much in way of before after .I,m still looking for a supplier of those RAS bags ~China no doubt ?
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The malleable gut microbiome of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Diet-dependent shifts of bacterial community structures

The malleable gut microbiome of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Diet-dependent shifts of bacterial community structures | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
Plant-derived protein sources are the most relevant substitutes for fishmeal in aquafeeds. Nevertheless, the effects of plant based diets on the intestinal microbiome especially of juvenile Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are yet to be fully investigated. The present study demonstrates, based on 16S rDNA bacterial community profiling, that the intestinal microbiome of juvenile Rainbow trout is strongly affected by dietary plant protein inclusion levels. After first feeding of juveniles with either 0%, 50% or 97% of total dietary protein content derived from plants, statistically significant differences of the bacterial gut community for the three diet-types were detected, both at phylum and order level. The microbiome of juvenile fish consisted mainly of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria, and thus fits the salmonid core microbiome suggested in previous studies. Dietary plant proteins significantly enhanced the relative abundance of the orders Lactobacillales, Bacillales and Pseudomonadales. Animal proteins in contrast significantly promoted Bacteroidales, Clostridiales, Vibrionales, Fusobacteriales and Alteromonadales. The overall alpha diversity significantly decreased with increasing plant protein inclusion levels and with age of experimental animals. In order to investigate permanent effects of the first feeding diet-type on the early development of the microbiome, a diet change was included in the study after 54 days, but no such effects could be detected. Instead, the microbiome of juvenile trout fry was highly dependent on the actual diet fed at the time of sampling.
Charlie Dare's insight:
Skettering is a major fish feed manufacturer.I,m a regular buyer of smoked Rainbow Trout and I know Brook Trout a cousin has been successfully reared on grain based pellets in Tasmania. An earlier post here about it about Pg 24? Dr Louise Adams (nee Ward) National Centre for Marine Conservation and Resource Sustainability Australian Maritime College University of Tasmania~
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Pilot scale aquaponic research initiated at ICAR-CIFA | Odisha Samachar

Pilot scale aquaponic research initiated at ICAR-CIFA | Odisha Samachar | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
Bhubaneswar, 23/05/2017 ( Odisha Samachar ) : ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture has designed and developed a pilot scale Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) aquaponics system under its All India Coordinated Research Project on Plasticulture Engineering & Technology (AICRP on PET) centre located at Bhubaneswar. The system comprises of fish culture tank, submersible water pump, trickling ...
Charlie Dare's insight:
I,ve always thought the flower trade was suitable for aquaponics like these marigold`s (Tagetes erecta)450 marigold flowers from 36 plants in the system in 3 months.I asked about different flowers grown by an American group once but they acted like I was stealing state secrets ~
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Page not found « Global Aquaculture Alliance

Charlie Dare's insight:
There is a need, more than any other time, to bring fish farms to more of the country. I think you have to join to read as I did ~
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Is Seaweed the Next Big Thing in Sustainable Food?

Is Seaweed the Next Big Thing in Sustainable Food? | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
As Tollef Olsen throws a white buoy labeled “SEAFARM” into Portland, Maine’s Casco Bay on a cold, clear November day, he reminisces about talking to the Maine Sea Coast Vegetables founder Shep Erhart back in the early 1980s about the environmental benefits of farming seaweed. Olsen recites: “No land, no fresh water, no fertilizer, no …
Charlie Dare's insight:
Sea weed why not ..
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northamerica's curator insight, March 17, 5:44 AM
Seaweed has been mentioned as a top health-food trend by Today.com, MarketWatch, and Whole Foods.
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Building Soil Health for Healthy Plants by soil scientist Dr. Elaine Ingham

View the slides from this presentation at permaculturevoices.com/96 A revolution in our understanding of soil has been taking place. “Conventional
Charlie Dare's insight:
Things our plants need ~
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19/12/2017: Insect-based meal success for Barramundi and White leg shrimp

19/12/2017: Insect-based meal success for Barramundi and White leg shrimp | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
by Anne Deguerry, Entofood, Malaysia By 2050, the worldwide population will rise from 7.2 billion of today, to 9.6 billion people
Charlie Dare's insight:
More innovation towards a sustainable future diversifying fish feed production for  high protein diets for species like barramundi as fish meal is become less accessible in the future with diminishing stocks in our oceans.Counties of east Asia like Japan and China can only plunder the third world oceans for so long and the rest of the high seas including Antarctic waters ~Hobby farmers now are increasingly turning to insects like the black fly lava ~
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What’s the smartest way to sterilise your stock?

What’s the smartest way to sterilise your stock? | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
As the search for the best way to produce sterile farmed fish stocks continues, novel methods such as germ-cell migration disruption could offer good alternatives to inducing triploidy, according to o…
Charlie Dare's insight:
Something new to learn in fish hatchery management ~
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Wood chips could clean aquaculture wastewater

Wood chips could clean aquaculture wastewater | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
A new study from the University of Illinois shows that a simple, organic system may clean aquaculture wastewater effectively and inexpensively.
Charlie Dare's insight:
New ideas are sometimes quite simple inexpensive options ~
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Rock lobster farming in Tasmania closer to commercial reality under new deal

Rock lobster farming in Tasmania closer to commercial reality under new deal | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
They might not look that edible as juveniles but tiny translucent rock lobster larvae are set to be part of Tasmanian plans for the world's first commercial rock lobster hatchery.
Charlie Dare's insight:
Always a favourite delicious Spiny Rock Lobster farming followed with interest~
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What Is "Sushi-Grade," Anyway? A Guide to Eating Raw Fish at Home

What Is "Sushi-Grade," Anyway? A Guide to Eating Raw Fish at Home | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
We spoke to some experts to help demystify what "sushi-" and "sashimi-grade" mean, and to outline best practices for preparing fish at home for raw consumption, whether it's crudo, sashimi, ceviche, or aguachile.
Charlie Dare's insight:
"It's best to properly freeze or cook the fish. That's the bottom line,"
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Tropical water lilies a blooming success in Margaret River despite Bali bust

Tropical water lilies a blooming success in Margaret River despite Bali bust | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
Developing a second farm in Bali, Indonesia, seemed like a foolproof way to expand the business for two Margaret River water lily growers. But despite a setback, Martin Staines and Kathy Cameron are confident their business is still going strong.
Charlie Dare's insight:
A diversification of income streams is desirable where ever it suits you ~
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Can farmed fish become vegetarian to reduce the industry's eco-footprint?

Can farmed fish become vegetarian to reduce the industry's eco-footprint? | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
Can carnivorous farmed fish become vegetarian?
Charlie Dare's insight:
Today wheat, rapeseed, corn, vitamins and minerals, are combined with fishmeal and fish oils to make the food granules. We know how to make food with between 2 and 5 percent of fish meal and 2 to 5 percent of oil and have a trout that is completely edible, healthy and tasty~
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ঘরের ভেতর মাছ চাষ | Indor Fish Farming RAS

Indor Fish Farming in Manikgonj Bangladesh.It is Recirculating aquaculture system RAS fish farming. Indor fish pond setup tank desgin,installation exper
Charlie Dare's insight:
Cant read it but like their cheap RAS tanks,can imagine the weight 1ton per cubic yard/metre ,one collapsed tank at 7.45 ~The bags have been floated in a tank first to equalise temp assuming pH levels are the same.Tilapia are very hardy and can stand very poor quality water,
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Here is the best fish feeding regime

Here is the best fish feeding regime | Aquaponics~Aquaculture~Fish~Food | Scoop.it
Safina Musa, a research scientist and Station Coordinator at Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute Aquaculture Centre, Sangoro in Kisumu explains
Charlie Dare's insight:
Weather patterns affect the feeding of the fish. On a cloudy weather, the waters are usually cold, thus, the fish will not feed. If possible, have water quality kit or thermometer to measure the temperature before feeding. If the water temperature is below 22 degree Celsius, do not feed your fish.You need more  dissolve oxygen is below 5mg per litre.Small fry more often~Fries have small stomach and their metabolic rate is high hence they feed after every two hours. The frequency of feeding is higher in small fish than in other growers’ stages~
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