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From The Sea, Freedom

From The Sea, Freedom | Geography |

owIn 1933, delegates from the United States and fourteen other countries met in Montevideo, Uruguay to define what it means to be a state. The resulting treaty from the Montevideo Convention establis...

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Great little podcast about what it means to be a state. How do micronations fit? Can we really consider Sealand a state?

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Stratfor's Geographic Challenge Video Series

Stratfor's Geographic Challenge Video Series | Geography |

"Stratfor provides geopolitical analysis that is relevant for world regional geography classes, especially their 'Geographic Challenge' series. Videos in the 'Geographic Challenge' series are symbolized on this map as RED numbered pushpins, and other regional Stratfor videos are BLUE." ; Also see my map of my favorite geography videos to share in the classroom ;

Via Seth Dixon
Seth Dixon's curator insight, April 15, 2015 3:50 PM

I produced this interactive on ArcGIS online to spatially index over 70+ videos from Stratfor, a leader in providing geopolitical intelligence.  This is a great starting point for a student researching a country and some of the issues and challenges that it confronts.       

Tags: mapping, video, ESRIgeography education, geopoliticspolitical.

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Primary Models of Urban Growth in the U.S.

Brief explanation of the Concentric Zone (Burgess), Sector (Hoyt) and Multiple Nuclei Models illustrating the growth and organization of cities and urban are...

Via Dana Boisen
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Latin American City Model

Latin American City Model
By: System Administrator On: 2013-05-10 22:57 (26786 Reads)

1. Commercial
2. Elite Residential Sector
3. Middle-class Residential
4. Zone of situ accretion
5. Zone of maturity
6. Gentrification
7. Zone of peripheral squatter settlements

General Definition: The Latin American City Model combines elements of Latin American Culture and globalization by combining radial sectors and concentric zones. Includes a thriving CBD with a commercial spine. The quality of houses decreases as one moves outward away from the CBD, and the areas of worse housing occurs in the disamenity sectors.

Different aspects of the model:
Commercial / CBD: The focus of employment, entertainment, and economic activity; Roads, trains, and buses are fairly reliable here.
Market: - informal economy - primitive form of capitalism; beyond control/taxation of gov't; unlicensed people sell homemade goods and services; may or may not be illegal.
- formal economy - taxed and licensed by the government
- often a central plaza is at the center with the CBD and the Market Area
Elite residential sector: The elite sector forms on either side of a narrow spine that contains amenities attractive to the wealthy, such as water and electricity, as well as offices, shops, restaurants, etc.
Zone of maturity: Residential area in which a stable population has gradually transformed the district into one that is fully serviced.
Zone of in situ accretion: A mix of middle and low income housing, generally thought of as a transitional area (moving either up on down).
Zone of peripheral squatter settlements/ periferico: Home for impoverished and unskilled; housing consists of mostly shantytowns. Lawless barrios / favelas and is usually behind a main ring highway known as a perifico.
Gentrification: A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle to upper-middle class owner-occupied area.
Disamenity: Contains relatively unchanging slums (barrios or favelas) that may not be connected to regular city services.

Outside the CBD, the dominant component is a commercial spine surrounded by the elite residential sector
These two zones are interrelated and called the spine/sector
Essentially an extension of the CBD down a major boulevard
Here are the city’s important amenities — parks, theaters, restaurants, and even golf courses
Strict zoning and land controls ensure continuation of these activities, protecting elite from incursions by low-income squatters - Note: zoning does not usually occur in these cities excepting in the elite areas

Inner-city zone of maturity
Less prestigious collection of traditional colonial homes and upgraded self-built homes
Homes occupied by people unable to participate in the spine/sector
Area of upward mobility - parts of it may be gentrifying

Zone of accretion
Diverse collection of housing types, sizes, and quality
Transition between zone of maturity and next zone
Area of ongoing construction and change
Some neighborhoods have city-provided utilities
Other blocks must rely on water and butane delivery trucks for essential services

Zone of peripheral squatter settlements
Where most recent migrants are found
Fringe contrasts with affluent and comfortable suburbs that ring North American cities
Houses often built from scavenged materials
Gives the appearance of a refugee camp
Surrounded by landscape bare of vegetation that was cut for fuel and building materials
Streets unpaved, open trenches carry wastes, residents carry water from long distances, electricity is often “pirated”
Residents who work have a long commute
Many are transformed through time into permanent neighborhoods

This model makes sense when you think about it.
-The larger poor areas reflect the influx of intraregional migrants (rural moving to urban areas)
-The industry in the city and even entering into the city to the core reflects the economic strength of many of these peripheral countries that now take on industrial work.
-the gentrification and middle class areas as well as the elite reflect an economy that is improving or allowing some to rise up (not what we see in the African City Model).
-Industry is on the opposite side of the elite
-the middle class are next to the elite separating them from the poor
-disamenity can reach all the way to the core but tends to stick to the outside
-gentrification is more likely near the CBD and elite area
-model created by Griffin and Ford and sometimes called that (Griffin-Ford Model)

-Physical geography could also influence the distribution of classes like in Rio, where residents were attracted to the neighborhoods that had nice views of the Atlantic Ocean and beaches.

Via Shelley Freeman
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Vision of the future or criminal eyesore: what should Rio do with its favelas?

Vision of the future or criminal eyesore: what should Rio do with its favelas? | Geography |
Simon Jenkins: Despite the looming World Cup and Olympics, constitutional reform and powerful drug lords have kept redevelopment of Rio’s squatter settlements at bay – but the price is poverty and anarchy

Via Andy Dorn
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2014 World Cup: Will Brazil Be Ready?

ESPN Video: With the FIFA World Cup two years away, will Brazil be ready to host soccers premiere event?


This short sports documentary (12 minutes) looks at some of the socioeconomic and urban planning issues that are a part of the logistics for a country to prepare for a sporting event on the magnitude of the World Cup.  The discussion of demolitions in the favelas (squatter settlements) is especially intriguing.  Major sporting events of this magnitude that last for two weeks can reshape local geographic patterns for decades.  


Tags: sport, Brazil, planning, squatter.

Via Seth Dixon
Brett Sinica's curator insight, October 1, 2013 5:11 PM

I know my soccer, and I know Brazil knows its soccer considering the country has one of the richest histories in the world.  The nation eats, sleeps, and breathes the beautiful game and to host a World Cup right now is immaculate timing.  Some of the best players (possibly ever) in the world would be playing next year, all from star-studded nations.  The forecast for this spectacle will surely be one of the best in history, but that's if it all goes to plan.  There's been many videos and articles of Brazil coming into more problems than solutions.  Repairing and even building new stadiums have set back schedules and have even angered many locals.  In some cities, there have been cases of gentrification, places such as favelas have fell victim.  Being such a passionate fan of the sport, it's almost upsetting that all of these people are being misplaced to house the tournament which has been anxiously waited on since 2010.  The main picture says it all with the three hands covered in blood...  A nation which cares so much about a sport, where it is a way of life and prosperity, is in fact doing more harm than good in some areas.  In the end I hope Brazil can get back on schedule, and leave as little people harmed in the process so the world can enjoy one of the greatest sporting events come summer of 2014.

Ashley Raposo's curator insight, December 19, 2013 12:16 AM

The World Cup is getting closer and all eyes are on Brazil. The Favelas are seeing the worst of it. To improve their country for it's soon to be influx of tourists, the Favelas are going through practically forced renovations. Not to mention safety hazards in Brazil are being pushed to the limits with the building anf remidelling of the soccer stadiums. Just last month 2 construction workers part of the rebuilding were killed by an accident. The question is especially true. Will Brazil be ready? Soccer fans around the globe sure hope so.

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Syrian Journey: Choose your own route

Syrian Journey: Choose your own route | Geography |
Put yourself in the shoes of a Syrian migrant and see whether you could make the right choices on the journey to Europe.

Via Seth Dixon
Norka McAlister's curator insight, April 5, 2015 8:01 PM

Citizens of Syria have experienced difficult times since their country entered into a period of continual war in the past few decades. People migrate to Europe in demand of better life for their families. All begin with a plan and a &helper,&  called trafficker or coyote in Mexico, and money to cross few borders and be able to live life free from war. Although, with countries such as Egypt, Lybia, Lebanon, Turkey, and Greece, with a massive migrations, tough economies, lack of jobs, nothing and no one is safe. However, Europe is very attractive in terms of quality life and safety to raise families. Furthermore, to be able to survive during this migration transition, many risks are involved and even in some cases, killings. Immigrants migrate by boat, truck, train, and sometimes even walking. Day or night immigrants keep moving and pay  high prices to be transported to the next point. It takes them weeks, months, and even years to reach thier final destinations. This is the same for those immigrants in Mexico and U.S. 

Claire Law's curator insight, April 25, 2015 8:41 PM

UK interactive resource to put students in the shoes of refugees fleeing conflict

zane alan berger's curator insight, May 26, 2015 4:42 PM

this is a virtual stimulator showing the struggle of a Syrian migrant, proving that one risky decision can be detrimental for these people. this can be related to the migration unit

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Maeklong Railway Market

"Multi-purpose land use."

Via Seth Dixon
Adam Deneault's curator insight, December 14, 2015 9:15 PM
Definitely a good way for multi-purpose land use. They are utilizing the space they have conservatively, they really nailed this one on the head coming up with an idea to put a market right on a railroad track. Is this concept even safe or sanitary? Most definitely not. First off, it is not sanitary because that train on a daily basis has gone through all sorts of dirt and the train is literally passing right over the farmer's food that he is still going to sell to customers. Also, probably not the safest, because the people are just inches away from the passing train and with the wrong move, they can possibly fall onto the track and they are dead. I will hand it to them though, they act in an orderly fashion and move swiftly both when it comes and when it leaves. As a matter of fact, they go on with life so well after it leaves, it is almost like the train never passed through in the first place.
Nicole Canova's curator insight, May 2, 2:57 AM
In one video we see issues surrounding urban development, city planning (or lack thereof), population density, and land use, among other topics. As more and more people move into Southeast Asia's unplanned cities, there will be more crowding and people will have to use every last available inch of land, even if that means going right up to the train tracks. This is a culture shock to people in the West, where most land is single-use only.
Taylor Doonan's curator insight, May 3, 12:16 PM
Urban planning in a rapidly urbanizing area can be difficult, but in this area two very different urban entities use the land together so beautifully. This market was built around the train tracks and when the train passes through at a slow speed the market clears the tracks and both work together so flawlessly. This is uncommon for us to see because many cities in America had room to grow and expand and had ample planning time because urbanization happened much slower than it is in Asia, with urbanization happening so fast the countries need to use their space flexibly. 
Rescooped by Tadd Farmer from Geography Education!

Population Density

"This talks about what population density is and why people live where they do."


Tags: population, density. 

Via Dean Haakenson, Seth Dixon
Jeremy Hansen's curator insight, October 21, 2014 10:46 AM

Excellent short video defining and explaining population density. 

Catherine Pearce's curator insight, October 23, 2014 6:35 PM

A nice straight forward presentation

Bradley Hunkins's curator insight, October 28, 2014 2:55 PM

Why do people live in the locations they do and how can we impact our enviroment

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Squatters on the Skyline

"Facing a mounting housing shortage, squatters have transformed an abandoned skyscraper in downtown Caracas into a makeshift home for more than 2,500 people."

Via Seth Dixon
Kristin Mandsager San Bento's curator insight, March 5, 2015 2:13 PM

The squatters have made their own community complete with services and mini marts.  This tells me there is not enough affordable housing if the people of Caracas are willing to live in dangerous conditions.  Caracas government needs to build affordable housing or create better paying jobs so the citizens can spend the money in the community.  Its a cycle that needs everyone's participation to work to build a sustaining economy.  

Gene Gagne's curator insight, October 15, 2015 1:42 PM

I found this article interesting

Gene Gagne's curator insight, November 22, 2015 10:57 AM

we have talked about this in class. These people have learned to adapt and find ways to use electricity, running water. We have seen videos of other cities in countries with electrical cables and sewage water out in the open and people find ways to tap into it. The building reminds me of the abandon mills in R.I. where homeless people frequent to beat the harsh elements and sleep at night. They build small fires and use different areas for bathroom visits. The difference is our brick unoccupied mills find a way to catch fire and the city levels them to the ground. This is definitely unsafe but goes to show when you have no place to live its amazing how people find ways to survive and kind of build their own community. What I found disturbing is the people outside the neighborhood angry because the squatters took over the building. All of a sudden they complained about the safety of the squatters when in all reality they are safer because they are acting as a self community and know they need each other to survive. If the government or city officials or citizens of the neighborhood are that concerned then they can find a way to fix up the building.

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Staking a claim to create a country

Staking a claim to create a country | Geography |
Jeremiah Heaton wants a no-man’s-land in east Africa, but international officials say his claim is insufficient.

Via Seth Dixon
Jacob Crowell's curator insight, October 15, 2014 1:14 PM

There was once an episode of Family Guy where Peter Griffin establishes his own country when his house is left of a map of Quahog. This story reminds me of that episode, but also raises some questions as to what it takes to be a sovereign nation. Jeremiah Heaton has long term goals of creating an agricultural production center, has been living in area and is willing to put in the work to establish a political identity. Also an extreme example it does show how some nations come to be globally recognized and also how many forces are against new nations being established and recognized.

Nicole Kearsch's curator insight, November 3, 2014 12:33 PM

This man decided to give his daughter a piece of unclaimed territory in Africa for her seventh birthday so that she could be a princess.  Now he wants his country to be recognized by surrounding countries as well as the UN.  Everyone is saying that this is not allowed for various reasons.  He does not have people living there, he is not himself inhabiting the area, other countries are not recognizing his claim, and one cannot simply put a flag in the ground and say that it is theirs.  If this were the case there would be seven billion flags around the world.  He is claiming that he has hopes for this area, turning it into an agricultural center where he can help with food supply issues in the surrounding area.  I see that he has hopes and dreams for the area, but as far as calling it his own country I don't see that going as well as he thinks.

Jake Red Dorman's curator insight, November 13, 2014 10:32 AM

Having read through most of the article, I find it funny how he actually believes that he can just step foot on soil and claim it as his own country. The description, “members of the occupying nation must have lived on the land for several years,” and, “it must also demonstrate that it has occupied the space, not that it just physically stepped foot there,” are the best ways to describe why it would never work for him. You have to make use of the space that is provided. Even though he claims that he will, turn the country into an agricultural production center that will tackle food security issues in the region, it hasn’t been done yet, and even if it was he wouldn’t occupy nearly enough of the space. Egypt and Sudan are officially negotiating over the land.

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Sierra Leone widens Ebola quarantine

Sierra Leone widens Ebola quarantine | Geography |

"Sierra Leone's President Ernest Bai Koroma has widened a quarantine to include another one million people in an attempt to curb the spread of Ebola."

Via Seth Dixon
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The Most Complex International Borders in the World

"In this video I look at some of the most complex international border. Of course, there are more complex borders in the world, but this video looks at some of my favourites."

Via Seth Dixon
ELAdvocacy's curator insight, October 3, 2014 9:40 AM

There are so many reasons our immigrant students come to the United States.  Some stories are so complex and painful it can be extremely difficult for Americans to understand.

Adilson Camacho's curator insight, October 3, 2014 10:21 PM


Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, October 6, 2014 5:39 AM

The Most Complex International Borders in the World

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The world’s languages, in 7 maps and charts

The world’s languages, in 7 maps and charts | Geography |

"These seven maps and charts, visualized by The Washington Post, will help you understand how diverse other parts of the world are in terms of languages."


Tags: language, culture, infographic.

Via Seth Dixon
Caitlyn Christiansen's curator insight, May 26, 2015 10:35 AM

The world is extremely diverse in its spread of native languages. Yet only a handful are commonly spoken by the majority of the world, about 2/3. Over half of the world's languages are expected to go extinct because of the extreme diversity and the minimal distribution which means that in some places almost every person speaks a completely different language and many are dying as their last speakers do not pass it on to their children.


This article is relates to cultural patterns and processes through the geographic spread of languages around the globe and the increasing acculturation that causes the loss of many of these languages in our increasingly globalized world.

Michael Amberg's curator insight, May 26, 2015 10:35 PM

Its interesting to see just how many people speak the languages we speak everyday, and to see just how many people DONT speak it.

Shane C Cook's curator insight, May 27, 2015 5:34 AM

It is amazing to see all main languages in perspective to the world. Mandarine holding the top spot with 1.39 Billion surprises me but at the same time doesn't. There are 1.3 billion people living there in the first place.

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50 Reasons to #LoveTheWorld

50 Reasons to #LoveTheWorld | Geography |
We asked a range of people, from writers and chefs to musicians and photographers, to share one experience from the last year that truly inspired them – something that, in no uncertain terms, reminded them why they love the world. Madly. Here's what they told us.

Via Seth Dixon
Seth Dixon's curator insight, April 13, 2015 12:30 PM

Most geographers have more than a little bit of wanderlust.  This BBC article is filled with images, quotes and insights into places all around the globe that fill me will a sense of awe and wonder.  For students that have the curiosity, it our mission as educators to cultivate that and help them frame information about the world into a geographic perspective.  I've always felt that window-seat flyers are have the seed of a geographer embedded within them...let's make sure those seeds can grow. 

Tags: place, tourism.

LEONARDO WILD's curator insight, April 14, 2015 9:45 AM

The World is beautiful, but that is not being advertised except by those who want to make money with its beauty (tourism), or call attention to the fact we are destroying it (ecologists). News of destruction and suffering and corruption fill the news outlets, giving us a warped, one percent view of the planet we live in. The only one we have.

Norka McAlister's curator insight, April 18, 2015 3:22 PM

Traveling around the world exposes all culture, traditions and history that probably you will fall in love with. These outstanding images around the world empathize regions, food, people, space, and how people survive on a daily basis will make your mind travel and enjoy places. In every image, we can take and admire sceneries from every single part of the world. Photography captures every image such of cultures, sceneries and geography for people who cannot afford to travel around world.

Break Dancing, Phnom Penh-Style

Rescooped by Tadd Farmer from AP Human Geography!

concentric zone model review - YouTube

This channel will serve as a review site for AP Human Geography and the AP Human Geography Exam. Please leave comments and let me know if you find the materi...

Via Allison Anthony, Courtney Barrowman
Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, May 5, 2014 10:21 AM

Great course resource--Joliet West HS sends an AP HUG out to Mr. Elrod and his helpful review videos!

Rescooped by Tadd Farmer from Global Affairs & Human Geography Digital Knowledge Source!

Favela Landscapes

"This gallery has a fantastic set of images showing Brazil’s poor squatter settlements-the favelas."


See the cultural landscape of how millions live in a megacity.

Via Allison Anthony
Norka McAlister's curator insight, February 14, 2015 7:53 PM

It is interesting how the demographic pattern of Favela serve as the only option for the housing of the poor in Brazil. The lack of jobs and better opportunities force many families to build their houses in the heel of the mountains. However, these mountain based houses are faced with many severe problems involving electricity, sewage, and water. The city offers a lot of opportunities for everyone, except for the poor who are the most in need. Transportation is another issue for these impoverished communities. It takes a lot of time to go up and down from these favelas, and becomes difficult for those that live on the highest peaks. Another important concern is drugs and crime rates that make these poor neighborhood dangerous in which to reside. Favelas are typical houses in the Brazil, which has the highest percentage of poverty out of all South American countries. In the meantime, favela will continue to serve as the permanent residencies of those too poor to afford housing in the Brazilian urban landscape.

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Urban Agriculture Sprouts in Brazil’s Favelas

Urban Agriculture Sprouts in Brazil’s Favelas | Geography |
Urban Agriculture Sprouts in Brazil’s Favelas - Organic agriculture is a growing trend in big cities around the world, including Latin America, and no...


This article nicely ties two commonly taught issues in human geography that aren't the the typical combination: 1) the growth of organic farming and 2) the spread of squatter settlements and slums in the developing world. 


Tags: agriculture, food, urban, unit 5 agriculture, unit 7 cities. 

Via Seth Dixon, Steve Perkins
Anhony DeSimone's curator insight, December 19, 2013 12:03 AM

This is a new trend spreading to Brazil. Now with the organic craze that has been going around in past years farmers have sought out way to grow their food more organically. This also allows poor areas to benefit from organic farming because it is now present in their area and they can no buy food that is good and of their choice. 

Hector Alonzo's curator insight, October 21, 2014 10:19 PM

Seeing how even Urbanized areas of the world can get into agriculture shows that you do not need to have geographic land advantage to grow crops. The Brazilian favelas are getting into agriculture to bring extra income and a sense of community to the area, getting more agriculture into these urban areas will be aided by the government in order to keep the urban agriculture movement growing

Tiphaine Graton's curator insight, October 12, 2016 3:54 AM
Share your insight
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Unkind Architecture: Designing Against the Homeless

Unkind Architecture: Designing Against the Homeless | Geography |

"Defensive architecture is revealing on a number of levels, because it is not the product of accident or thoughtlessness, but a thought process. It is a sort of unkindness that is considered, designed, approved, funded and made real with the explicit motive to exclude and harass. It reveals how corporate hygiene has overridden human considerations…"

Via Seth Dixon
Norka McAlister's curator insight, April 5, 2015 7:58 PM

The government should try to develop better methods to keep homeless out of the street. Planning and designating a place to the homeless group by offering better conditions, will change the problem.  As the architects have new ideas to resolve a problem with the homeless, they should also be formulating ideas to prevent homelessness such as providing feasible shelter on the street. Part of the problem is that shelters should be marketed in the communities. Local businesses, policies and general communities could be more active in helping these minority groups to get aid and better their life. Cities should provide more programs and aid for the homeless group. 

Eden Eaves's curator insight, May 24, 2015 8:07 PM

These structures such as benches with dividers that make it impossible to lie down, spikes and protrusions on window ledges and in front of store windows, forests of pointed cement structures under bridges and freeways, emissions of high pitched sounds, and sprinklers that intermittently go off on sidewalks to prevent camping overnight are very rude and without a shadow of a doubt send a message to the homeless that they aren't welcomed, and we will do whatever it takes to make sure they cannot be comfortable; even something as simple as sitting on a windowsill.  

Logan Haller's curator insight, May 25, 2015 7:11 PM

This article deals with unit 7 because it discusses architecture and new  things in cities. In some cities they have defensive architecture to make it harder for homeless people to live. For example benches with dividers, and pointed cement structures under bridges. This tells the homeless they are unwanted and that others don't care about them.Some corporations have turned to aggressive ways to keep out homeless and the article says the government is denying it. In addition there are few resources to help the homeless and what they do have is insufficient. It also notes that free shelters are very rare. The author says that we should worry a little more about the homeless because "given just the right turn of events, it could happen to us."

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Cultural Code-Switching

Cultural Code-Switching | Geography |

"The way we mix languages and speech patterns is an apt metaphor for the way race, ethnicity and culture intersect in our lives."

Via Seth Dixon
Seth Dixon's curator insight, April 3, 2015 3:57 PM

Who we are, and how we behave is often dependent on the the circumstances and the cultural norms that govern those situations, places and relationships.  All of us, including President Obama, fit into many distinct cultural environments and the picture above shows a quick moment, when he can slip in and out of cultural settings (this was spoofed by Key and Peele). 

Questions to Ponder: When do you 'code switch' and how come?  What does this mean for society at large and for the intersecting cultural groups with which we personally might identify?  When is this being fake or culturally inauthentic? 

Tags: culturelanguage, race, unit 3 culture.

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Complex International Borders

More complex international borders in this follow up to part 1. 
In this video I look at even more enclaves and exclaves."

Via Seth Dixon
Lydia Tsao's curator insight, March 23, 2015 11:40 PM

After viewing this video, I found one common characteristic that ties together the countries involved in all of these border disputes: hunger for power. Although culture and sacred lands do cause border disputes, I believe the underlying purpose of claiming land for cultural reasons is to demonstrate power. Claiming lands for cultural purposes demonstrates that one's culture is superior to the other's culture, so naturally the more powerful culture gets to claim territory. On another note, I think it's interesting to see just how many enclaves and exclaves exist in the world. I did not know how many existed until I saw the video. I think this shows how insignificant these border anomalies are because these exclaves are usually just governed by the other country by which they are surrounded. 

Danielle Lip's curator insight, April 7, 2015 9:13 PM

Borders seem to be a problem whether you live in one continent or another, everyone wants power and control but not everyone can gain it. This video focuses and goes into depth about enclave and exclave borders, showing the irregularity of the borders in different areas that causes conflicts and problems. An example of a problem that the citizens have to deal with is that some villages can not leave due to the road blocks due to the borders. I can not imagine not being able to leave a certain area for all that time, I would go insane and I imagine those people are as well. International borders power has to be split somehow and not everyone can always come to an easy decision because parts of the land are claimed but the people do not have any control of it. Irregular borders cause more trouble than they are worth in my opinion. The final interesting fact about this video was that you learn that Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan are the two locations that have the most irregular border, these places must have the most conflict and problems. These borders are in places such as Germany, South Asia, China, Belgian, Sweden and Central Asia.

Nicholas A. Whitmore's curator insight, December 17, 2015 5:17 PM

A fascinating look into the complexity of borders. It is always important to keep in mind when looking at maps that the borders are neither permanent or defined as it exists in reality. Borders on world maps are rough estimations of what the borders actually are for they can't depict precise details on such a large scale. Furthermore regional/local maps sometimes do not whether as to conform to the border misconception unfortunately. In Central Asia as defined int he video the border were primarily a result of the Soviet Unions attempts to divided ethnic minorities reducing their power (primarily Stalin). As a result the countries after the collapse proceeded to claim the ethnic groups which created enclaves within each-other. As long as these groups are on peaceful terms this kind of thing isn't an issue. Unfortunately it does make the peoples lives in the enclaves slightly more difficult due to having to cross the border twice to see the rest of your country. This kind of thing was even done to the Jews in the first century AD who like the Russians wanted to eliminate or at least reduce attempts at revolution by the local populace. Hopefully Central Asia has or will make the lives of these enclaves easier.

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18 "Geography Fail" Media Gaffes

18 "Geography Fail" Media Gaffes | Geography |
Maps are hard. Not that hard, though.

Via Seth Dixon
Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, September 8, 2014 12:32 PM

THIS is why we take map tests.

Jamie Strickland's curator insight, September 9, 2014 2:28 PM

Yet another resource to add to my "this is why we take map quizzes" lecture at the beginning of the semester!!

Scott Langston's curator insight, September 18, 2014 8:05 PM

I like the 'not that hard, though' tag.

Rescooped by Tadd Farmer from Geography Education!

Why this Ebola outbreak became the worst we've ever seen

"The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa has killed more people than sum total of all the previous outbreaks since the virus was first identified in 1976. This video explains how it got so bad."  

Via Seth Dixon
John Nieuwendyk's curator insight, October 28, 2014 10:20 PM

In just a few months the Ebola virus has cumulated out of control. More people became affected and died in the last five months than all of the combined deaths that have occurred since Ebola was first discovered in 1976. Ebola began to spread from rural areas to a border region in West Africa when ill people traveled to the city to work or go to the market, making international spread likely. Mounting a campaign to increase awareness of the risks and to contain the virus was nearly impossible due to the low illiteracy rates. Consequently, health workers were taking ill people away from family and their homes to contaminate centers. This caused much fear and mistrust and was not successful. More people became infected and the snowball effect ensued. When people did show up at ill-equipped hospitals, there were not enough beds or free space and most were turned away. Some health workers walked off the job fearing being infected because of the poor conditions. No gloves, masks or gowns were provided and workers feared for their own health. The ill patients went back into the community and Ebola continued to spread. The response of the global community was not fast enough, and help did not arrive in time before the spread of Ebola became an epidemic. It is clear that in a world that is so closely connected, we must have a global heath system that works.  

Giselle Figueroa's curator insight, November 4, 2014 5:32 PM

Ebola is getting worst every day. one of the things that has caused the spread of this virus is the fact that many working people cross the border to other regions to work or to go to market. Back in days, you used to see this Ebola issue in very rural areas, but now is getting worst. In these areas were the Ebola is getting worst, they do not count with a good health system. Sometimes there are day when they do not have gloves, gowns and mask, and because of that, there have been health care workers who have just walked away from their jobs because they do not want to put in risk their life. This  is a very sad situation, which I hope it get better.

Kevin Nguyen's curator insight, December 13, 2015 10:41 PM

Geography played an important role in spreading this disease like wild fires. In a rural place such as Liberia where there is low literacy rates and  limited knowledge of Ebola, it can be spread without people knowing what is happening. On top of that there are workers crossing the border everyday for work and exposing it to everyone around them. This even took place in west Africa where Ebola breakout are unheard of. All these contributing factor led to the worst epidemic of the century. 

Rescooped by Tadd Farmer from Geography Education!

13 amazing coming of age traditions from around the world

13 amazing coming of age traditions from around the world | Geography |

"The transition from childhood to adulthood -- the 'coming of age' of boys who become young men and girls who become young women -- is a significant stepping stone in everyone’s life. But the age at which this happens, and how a child celebrates their rite of passage into adolescence, depends entirely on where they live and what culture they grow up in.  Looking back, we'll never forget the majesty that was prom, or the excitement of hitting the dance floor at our friends' co-ed Bar and Bat Mitzvah parties, and why should we? Embarassing or amazing, they were pivotal moments in our lives that deserve remembering. On that note, here are thirteen of it the world’s most diverse coming of age traditions."


Tags: gender, folk culture, culture, indigenous, worldwide.

Via Seth Dixon
Elizabeth Sheppard's comment, October 3, 2014 3:07 AM
Its interesting to see the different cultural traditions that are set at different stages in a persons life as the beginning into adulthood for most. I don't think I would want to be a male in the Brazilian Amazon, or the island of Vanuatu where you literally put your life on the line to prove your ready for adulthood. It shows the differences and what is considered important or the role the person plays in society. I think the mention of the sweet 16 for American girls was a pretty weak presentation. America is a melting pot and represents so much more than that.

Jacob Crowell's curator insight, October 27, 2014 11:59 AM

These traditions reflect the cultural geographies they take place within. In the Brazilian Amazon, the locals use the bullet ants native to the area to use in their Bullet Ant Initation. On North Baffin Island, where Inuits must be able to navigate and hunt in the wilderness of the artic, their coming of age involves a hunting journey that begins with them opening up the lines of communication between men and animals a relationship that the survival of the community hinges on. In the Amish tradition, they send their youth out into the world to witness the perils of modern society as a way to provide them with the choice of Amish Living. In Central and South America, girls have a Quinceanera where they girls solidifies their commitment to her family and faith two very important ideals of that culture. These coming of age traditions reflect the cultural differences between places throughout the world.

Lydia Tsao's curator insight, March 24, 2015 1:34 AM

I think this article could also fit into the view of culture of gender. The fact that there are separate celebrations in Jewish culture represent the divide between men and women. The Satere-Mawe tradition of wearing bullet ant gloves in order for boys to demonstrate their "manliness" is actually quite sexist. It demonstrates how men must behave in "manly" ways and not cry in order to be viewed as a "true" man. This creates a mentality in boys from a very young age that they must not be "feminine," and that they must be more headstrong than girls to be viewed as a man. The same goes for the Vanuatu tradition. Young boys have to go to the extreme (jump from tall towers with a simply a rope around their legs to keep them from dying) to prove their manhood. Of course these traditions are an important part of their culture, and I have no right to criticize, but I am simply providing an alternative analysis of these traditions.

Rescooped by Tadd Farmer from Geography Education!

Ebola easier to stop now than later

Help must come within weeks, or Ebola will require unimaginable resources. Data sources: &

Via Seth Dixon
Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, October 6, 2014 12:36 PM

unit 1 diffusion!

Michael Mazo's curator insight, October 6, 2014 2:54 PM

Ebola has been a growing concern for some time now. With its origin in Africa to its spreading throughout the world, people have become increasingly worried about contracting Ebola. With the initial diagnosis of the first patient infected with Ebola in the US, the CDC has been working constantly to prevent further spread of this infectious disease. Not only has this raised medical concerns, but as soon as the Ebola outbreak has entered the United States Biotechnology stocks began to rise. With the help of devices and programs stemming from Biotechnology there is great hope for eradicating the disease once and for all. Even healthcare workers are hesitant upon working with infected individuals, so hopefully biotech will enter with a grand entrance by providing materials or machinery to help prevent these workers from getting Ebola.

Wilmine Merlain's curator insight, October 16, 2014 11:46 AM

Although Ebola is a disease that can be stopped now, different measures need to be taken now. With the vaccines that were administered to the Ebola aid workers that were working in the site of the outbreak, mass production of that vaccine should be created and made available to those who are believed to be infected with this parasite.