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10 demographic trends that are shaping the U.S. and the world

10 demographic trends that are shaping the U.S. and the world | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
We gathered key facts for this year’s Population Association of America (PAA) meeting.
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Girls smuggled into China and forced to marry

Girls smuggled into China and forced to marry | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
Vietnamese girls are being drugged, tricked and trafficked into China, where they are sold as child brides.

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Harrison Rose's comment, April 21, 2016 11:52 PM
In China, a big problem currently is Vietnamese girls being smuggled into the country by human traffickers and being forced into marriages they don't want to enter. They are usually tricked or drugged and then find themselves across the border. A reason for this occurring in China is a result of the one child policy, which was abolished in late 2015. This being said, the damage is done, because the gender ratio is more heavily male as males are the preferred gender over females. Another factor leading to buying a child wife in China is that it is expensive for a Chinese man to marry a Chinese woman, as the man is expected to pay for a big celebration and purchase a home to live in after. Going against tradition can avoid this. A Vietnamese bride can be sold for a maximum of $3,000 and they are desirable because the culture of the two countries are much the same. Organizations and the two countries have both tried to stop human trafficking in many ways. First of all, for victims that escape there are shelters available that they can live in and be educated. Vietnamese police try to combat trafficking by stopping them before they cross the border. They also have help from Chinese police. Last year, China returned 109 victims. But for the people not saved, it is up to them to find their own way out.
Jared Hurand's comment, April 22, 2016 4:12 AM
Summary: Villages along the Vietnam-China border are a target for human traffickers. Young girls are continuously being tricked or drugged, and then brought into China. Due to the skewed gender ratio in China, because of the One-child Policy, young Vietnamese women are valuable. Once these young girls are brought into China, they are sold as brides. Marrying girls from Vietnam, means that Chinese men won't have to pay for expensive wedding costs and for a new home (because of traditional Chinese culture).
Jared Hurand's comment, April 22, 2016 5:02 AM
This article relates to our previous unit of population because, the population unit that we already did had to do with the characteristics and data of people living in countries. As stated in my summary, due to China's One-Child policy and other variables, this has lead to an increase in human trafficking of young girls. If young girls are getting married at a young age, they have a high chance of also getting pregnant. With an increased number of babies being born, this increases the country's crude birth rate, total fertility rate, natural increase, etc. So because of the trafficking of young girls into China, it relates to the changing of data in the population such as growth rates. Personally I see this article as a big issue and a worldwide problem that needs to be fixed. Most girls are being forced to leave their families forever, and get married and have babies. These girls do not receive proper education, and have no knowledge about how increasing these certain measures (NIR, TFR,CBR, IMR) affect a country's growth and population measures. I feel people should be more informed about human trafficking and the negative affects of it, not just about what these girls face and the impact on them, but also the effect on what it does for the entire population. With increased awareness about human trafficking, like whats happening on the China-Vietnam border, this could severely decrease the amount of human trafficking. I think article does a great job of outlining the human trafficking on the China-Vietnam border, and really touches on the issues of it.
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They're The Invisible Ones: Refugees Who Aren't Officially Refugees

They're The Invisible Ones: Refugees Who Aren't Officially Refugees | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
Nearly 28 million people were displaced within their own country last year by conflict and natural catastrophe. And they're especially hard to help.

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These Charts Show How Globalization Has Gone Digital

These Charts Show How Globalization Has Gone Digital | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it

"Yes, globalization. For many people, that word conjures up, at best, images of container ships moving manufactured goods from far-flung factories. At worst, it harkens back to acrid debates about trade deficits, currency wars and jobs moving to China. In fact, since the Great Recession of 2008, the global flow of goods and services has flattened, and cross-border capital flows have declined sharply. But globalization overall isn't on the wane. Like so much in our world today, it has reinvented itself by going digital."

 

Tags: technology, globalization, diffusion, industry, economic.


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Alisha Meyer's curator insight, March 24, 2016 9:04 AM
Our world is changing, that is inevitable.  It's how we decide to use the technology and knowledge we now have to better ourselves or destroy ourselves.
Kelsey McIntosh's curator insight, January 18, 7:46 PM

This chart is pretty straight forward, yet it clearly lays out the difference between 20th and 21st century Globalization patterns. Through modern invention and progress in technology the world has become a place where connections can be created at the speed of light. Through technology, the world no longer has to wait for the physical movement of goods and ideas, at the touch of a button information can be in anyone's hands 

Nicole Canova's curator insight, May 1, 10:48 PM
Globalization is a process that has been occurring for centuries.  However, modern technology is making globalization faster than ever, and has enabled globalization to shift to a more information- and knowledge-based exchange rather than ever as well thanks to the Internet.
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These Charts Show How Globalization Has Gone Digital

These Charts Show How Globalization Has Gone Digital | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
Just 15 years ago, cross-border digital flows were almost non-existent. Today, they exert a larger impact on global economic growth than traditional flows of goods, which developed over centuries.

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Trish Harris's curator insight, March 31, 2016 7:40 AM

"Yes, globalization. For many people, that word conjures up, at best, images of container ships moving manufactured goods from far-flung factories. At worst, it harkens back to acrid debates about trade deficits, currency wars and jobs moving to China. In fact, since the Great Recession of 2008, the global flow of goods and services has flattened, and cross-border capital flows have declined sharply. But globalization overall isn't on the wane. Like so much in our world today, it has reinvented itself by going digital."

 

Tags: technology, globalization, diffusion, industry, economic.

malbert's curator insight, April 4, 2016 4:15 PM

"Yes, globalization. For many people, that word conjures up, at best, images of container ships moving manufactured goods from far-flung factories. At worst, it harkens back to acrid debates about trade deficits, currency wars and jobs moving to China. In fact, since the Great Recession of 2008, the global flow of goods and services has flattened, and cross-border capital flows have declined sharply. But globalization overall isn't on the wane. Like so much in our world today, it has reinvented itself by going digital."

 

Tags: technology, globalization, diffusion, industry, economic.

Raquel Oliveira's curator insight, October 9, 12:00 PM
Eu esccolhi esta notícia porque penso explicar perfeitamente o que tem sido a globalização no que toca ao mundo digital nos últmos anos comparativamente ao que costumava ser no passado. É muito mais fácil chegar a diferentes pessoas por exemplo apenas publicando um "olá" através da internet.
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Paris Attacks: How Can Political Leaders Be Shocked?

Paris Attacks: How Can Political Leaders Be Shocked? | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it

...the current generation of European political leaders has exhibited an irresponsibility and lack of leadership that is almost infantile. ... 

these attacks happened in France. They could have happened in Germany, where police revealed the arrest of a man whom they believe may be connected the Paris attacks. Recently, the Welt Am Sonntag newspaper cited intelligence warnings that "the integration of hundreds of thousands of illegal migrants Germany is no longer possible in light of the number and already existing parallel societies." "Parallel societies" refers to Muslim communities that have little or no contact with the rest of the society in their host countries. According to an intelligence document obtained by Welt am Sonntag, "We are importing Islamic extremism, Arab anti-Semitism, national and ethnic conflicts of other peoples, as well as a different understanding of society and law." Most ominously, however, the intelligence document went on to say that "German security agencies ... will not be in the position to solve these imported security problems and thereby the reactions arising from Germany's population."


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How gentrification effects every cities’ neighborhoods

How gentrification effects every cities’ neighborhoods | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
MSNBC’s Jacob Soboroff takes a second look at his own neighborhood in Los Angeles, and changing neighborhoods around the country, to see what happens when the rents go up and the artisan coffee shops appear.
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Money, Race and Success: How Your School District Compares

Money, Race and Success: How Your School District Compares | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
Sixth graders in the richest school districts are four grade levels ahead of children in the poorest districts.
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Lack of grocery store options in one part of Louisville creating 'food desert'

Lack of grocery store options in one part of Louisville creating 'food desert' | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
While a new grocery store opened in St. Matthews on Wednesday, there is a "food desert," in NuLu, downtown and the West End after a local grocery store closed.  
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Africa can follow Brazil's lead in battle to eradicate hunger, says Lula | The Guardian.co.uk

Subsistence agriculture must be abolished if African countries want to eradicate hunger by 2025, the former president of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, told a meeting in Addis Ababa on Sunday.

 

In a rousing speech to open a conference of African ministers and international leaders, Lula said Africa could end hunger if there was enough political will to embed the needs of poor people in national policy.

 

"It's necessary for us to put in the minds and hearts of people to produce … [and] have access to technology and modern machinery to increase their productivity. Brazil overcame this idea that citizens only grow for their subsistence. They have to have excess to sell," he told the conference at the African Union.

 

Drawing on Brazil's Fome Zero (zero hunger) programme, Lula said his country's successes could be repeated elsewhere. But to do this, he said, poor people must be included in national budget plans and their needs seen as investments rather than an extra state expense.

 

"It is possible and it is within our reach to eradicate hunger in Brazil and in African countries and any other place in the world," he said. "[Tackling poverty] should become government policy, it should not be ad-hoc policy or something for electoral campaigns.

 

"Economists will not include the poor in budgets because it takes a while to give a return on the investment, but there is no other way to have poverty relief if we don't include the poor [in policy]."

 

Under his eight-year presidency, Brazil's economy grew at an average annual rate of 5%, poverty levels dropped – more than 20 million Brazilians have come out of extreme poverty since 2003 – and 20 million jobs were created. Smallholder farmers were supported with seeds and credit lines, and 50 million people benefited from the cash transfer scheme Bolsa Familia.

 

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India's Green Revolution Is Stunted as Fertilizer Subsidy Backfires

India's Green Revolution Is Stunted as Fertilizer Subsidy Backfires | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
India has been providing farmers with heavily subsidized fertilizer for more than three decades. The overuse of one type—urea—is so degrading the soil that yields on some crops are falling and import levels are rising.

SOHIAN, India—India's Green Revolution is withering.

In the 1970s, India dramatically increased food production, finally allowing this giant country to feed itself. But government efforts to continue that miracle by encouraging farmers to use fertilizers have backfired, forcing the country to expand its reliance on imported food.

Popularized during the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, fertilizers helped boost crop yields and transformed India into a nation that could feed itself. But now their overuse is degrading the farmland. WSJ's Geeta Anand reports.

 

India has been providing farmers with heavily subsidized fertilizer for more than three decades. The overuse of one type—urea—is so degrading the soil that yields on some crops are falling and import levels are rising. So are food prices, which jumped 19% last year. The country now produces less rice per hectare than its far poorer neighbors: Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.

Agriculture's decline is emerging as one of the hottest political issues in the world's biggest democracy.

On Thursday, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's cabinet announced that India would adopt a new subsidy program in April, hoping to replenish the soil by giving farmers incentives to use a better mix of nutrients. But in a major compromise, the government left in place the old subsidy on urea—meaning farmers will still have a big incentive to use too much of it.

Journal Community Vote: Can India's Rice Yields Recover?

The setback of the Green Revolution matters enormously to India's future. The country of 1.2 billion has positioned itself as a driver of global growth and as a significant commercial power in coming decades.

India likely will struggle to get there, and to return to the heady days of 9% economic growth, unless it figures out how to reinvigorate its agricultural sector, on which the majority of its citizens still rely for a living.

India's Food Crisis

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Akshay Mahajan for The Wall Street Journal

Bhupinder Singh's wheat yield on this 10-acre plot used to increase every year. But for the last five years it's been barely holding steady.

More photos and interactive graphics

 

 

 

Agriculture has lagged behind other industries such as manufacturing and services, posting less than 2% growth in the latest reports on gross domestic product. And double-digit food inflation and declining yields spell less money in the pockets of rural Indians.

India spends almost twice as much on food imports today as it did in 2002, according to the Ministry of Agriculture. Wheat imports hit 1.7 million tons in 2008, up from about 1,300 tons in 2002. Food prices rose 19% last year.

To be sure, there are bright spots. Indian officials say the country may produce a record wheat harvest this year because of good weather conditions, unless rain or hail appear. The wheat harvest last year was better than expected, making some hopeful that the importing trend will be reversed.

Behind the worsening picture is the government's agricultural policy. In an effort to boost food production, win farmer votes and encourage the domestic fertilizer industry, the government has increased its subsidy of urea over the years, and now pays about half of the domestic industry's cost of production.

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European Pressphoto Agency

Indian commuters pass a rice shop as a shop keeper waits for customers in Calcutta, India, on Feb. 18.

Mr. Singh's government, recognizing the policy failure, announced a year ago that it intended to drop the existing subsidy system in favor of a new plan. But allowing urea's price to increase significantly would almost certainly trigger protests in rural India, which contains 70% of the electorate, political observers say.

The ministers of fertilizers and agriculture each declined requests for interviews.

"This is politically very difficult," says U.S. Awasti, managing director of the Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Ltd. and an informal adviser to government officials on the issue. The cooperative of 50 million farmers is the largest fertilizer producer in the country.

Farmers spread the rice-size urea granules by hand or from tractors. They pay so little for it that in some areas they use many times the amount recommended by scientists, throwing off the chemistry of the soil, according to multiple studies by Indian agricultural experts.

Like humans, plants need balanced diets to thrive. Too much urea oversaturates plants with nitrogen without replenishing other nutrients that are vitally important, including phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, magnesium and calcium.

The government has subsidized other fertilizers besides urea. In budget crunches, subsidies on those fertilizers have been reduced or cut, but urea's subsidy has survived. That's because urea manufacturers form a powerful lobby, and farmers are most heavily reliant on this fertilizer, making it a political hot potato to raise the price.

As the soil's fertility has declined, farmers under pressure to increase output have spread even more urea on their land.

Kamaljit Singh is a 55-year-old farmer in the town of Marauli Kalan in the state of Punjab, the breadbasket of India. He says farmers feel stuck. "The soil health is deteriorating, but we don't know how to make it better," he says. "As the fertility of the soil is declining, more fertilizer is required."

Increased demand and the soaring price of hydrocarbons, the main ingredient of many fertilizers, have taken India's annual subsidy bill to more than $20 billion last year, from about $640 million in 1976.

"The only way for agricultural yields to rise again is for the government to give farmers the incentives and the products to provide balanced nutrition to their crops," says Bimal Goculdas, chief executive officer of Dharamsi Morarji Chemical Co., one of the oldest fertilizer firms in India.

Agriculture experts say the country can't afford to wait. "There are big problems for the future of food production in India if these problems are not addressed now," says Reyes Tirado, an agricultural scientist and researcher for Greenpeace Research Laboratories, an arm of advocacy group Greenpeace International.

Under the new plan, the government will offer subsidies to fertilizer companies on the nutrients, such as sulphur, phosphorus and potassium, from which their products are made, rather than the fertilizer products themselves. The idea is to provide incentives for farmers to apply a better mix of nutrients.

Ultimately, the government plans to pay the subsidy directly to farmers, who will be able to buy products of their choice, including but not limited to urea.

Mr. Singh's government, however, said it would continue to subsidize urea, although it would set the price 10% higher.

Mr. Awasti, the fertilizer cooperative head, says the continuing urea subsidy means that farmers likely will still use too much of it. "The government is opting, as with any very difficult change, to adopt it in phases," he says. He says he believes that the urea subsidy will be dropped altogether in a year.

In the early years after India gained independence in 1947, the country couldn't even dream of feeding its population. Importing food wasn't possible because India lacked the cash to pay. India relied on food donated by the U.S. government.

In 1967, then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi imported 18,000 tons of hybrid wheat seeds from Mexico. The effect was miraculous. The wheat harvest that year was so bountiful that grain overflowed storage facilities.

Those seeds required chemical fertilizers to maximize yield. The challenge was to make fertilizers affordable to farmers who lacked the cash to pay for even the basics—food, clothing and shelter.

Back then, giving cash or vouchers to millions of farmers living all over India seemed like an impossible task fraught with the potential for corruption. So the government paid subsidies to fertilizer companies, who agreed to sell for less than the cost of production, at prices set by the government.

The subsidies were designed to make up the difference between the production price and sale price—and to give the producers a 12% after-tax return on any equity investment.

Enlarge Image

Akshay Mahajan for the Wall Street Journal

Bhupinder Singh's wheat yield has been barely holding steady lately.

Fertilizer manufacturing companies sprang up around the country. Nagarjuna Fertilizers & Chemicals Ltd. became one of the most profitable publicly listed companies in India.

In 1991, with the cost of the subsidy weighing heavily on India's finances, Manmohan Singh, then finance minister and now prime minister, pushed to eliminate it. Most fertilizer companies lobbied fiercely to retain the program. Many legislators also resisted ending the subsidy, fearing a backlash from farmers.

"The business interests lobbied and the business interests prevailed," says Ashok Gulati, the director in Asia of the International Food Policy Research Institute, a Washington-based think tank, who was involved in the policy discussions at the time. A last-minute compromise eliminated the subsidy on all fertilizers except for urea.

"That's when the imbalanced use of fertilizers began," says Pratap Narayan, ex-director general of the industry group, the Fertilizer Association of India.

With urea selling for a fraction of the price of other fertilizers, farmers began using substantially more of the nitrogen-rich material than more expensive potassium and phosphorus products.

In the state of Haryana, farmers used 32 times more nitrogen than potassium in the fiscal year ended March 2009, much more than the recommended 4-to-1 ratio, according to the Indian Journal of Fertilizers, a trade publication. In Punjab state, they used 24 times more nitrogen than potassium, the figures show.

"This type of ratio is a disaster," Mr. Gulati says. "It is keeping India from reaching the production levels that the hybrid seeds have the power to yield."

Producers of phosphorus-based fertilizers struggled. The government reintroduced a small subsidy on phosphorus fertilizers, but at times it didn't cover the difference between the government-set price and the actual cost of production. Dharamsi Morarji, one of the oldest fertilizer companies in India, closed some plants.

With scant domestic supply, India had to import seven million tons of phosphorus-based fertilizers last year, according to a senior official at the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers.

Twenty-one percent of the urea, 67% of the phosphorus-based fertilizers and 100% of the potash-rich fertilizers sold in India in the fiscal year ended March 2009 were imported, according to a report this month from Fitch Ratings.

In the northern state of Punjab, Bhupinder Singh, a turbaned, gray-bearded 55-year-old farmer, stood barefoot in his wheat field in December and pointed to the corner where he had just spread a 110-pound bag of urea.

"Without the urea, my crop looks sick," he said, picking up a few stalks of the young wheat crop and twirling them in his fingers. "The soil is getting weaker and weaker over the last 10 to 15 years. We need more and more urea to get the same yield."

Mr. Singh farms 10 acres in Sohian, a town about 25 miles from the industrial city of Ludhiana. He said his yields of rice have fallen to three tons per acre, from 3.3 tons five years ago. By using twice as much urea, he's been able to squeeze a little higher yield of wheat from the soil—two tons per acre, versus 1.7 tons five years ago.

He said both the wheat and rice harvests should be bigger, considering that he's using so much more urea today than he did five years ago. Adding urea doesn't have the effect it did in the past, he said, but it's so cheap that it's better than adding nothing at all.

Land needs to be watered more when fertilizer is used, and Mr. Singh worries about the water table under his land. When his parents dug the first well here in 1960, the water table lay 5 feet below the ground, he says. He recently had the same well dug to 55 feet to get enough water.

"The future is not good here," he said, shaking his head.

Balvir Singh, an agriculture development officer for Punjab state, says it is as if farmers have become addicted to urea.

"One farmer sees another's field looking greener, so he adds more urea," he says. "A farmer will become bankrupt, but he will not stop using urea."

The fertilizer industry, which had lobbied to retain subsidies back in 1991, now sees them as a problem. That's because the government, trying to rein in spending, has been squeezing the reimbursement promised to fertilizer companies.

The subsidy theoretically gives companies a 12% profit margin. Today, in part because of the way the government calculates the subsidy, it offers the average company a 3% margin, according to K. Rahul Raju, joint managing director of Nagarjuna Fertilizers & Chemicals, and Mr. Awasti, the fertilizer cooperative head.

Farmers in Punjab are increasingly glum. "Farming is in shambles," said Kamaljit Singh, standing with fellow farmers in the courtyard of the village agriculture cooperative. "If we have to support our growing families and our increasing population on this land, we must get higher yields. Otherwise our families and our nation will suffer."


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Can organic farming enhance livelihoods for India's rural poor?

Can organic farming enhance livelihoods for India's rural poor? | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
An experiment in organic agriculture could improve prospects for farmers by providing greater profit and sustainability

Sixteen months ago, Delhi-born Ashmeet Kapoor returned to India with a wish to make a difference. The 26-year-old graduate, who had recently completed his masters in innovation management and entrepreneurship at Brown University in the US, knew he wanted to improve the lives of India's rural poor in some way.

"I wanted to work to improve rural livelihoods using enterprise, but I needed to get my feet on the ground to explore where I could have the most impact," Kapoor explained.

It didn't take long for him to identify agriculture, which accounts for almost half of India's workforce, as his chosen sector.

Kapoor's search began with a train journey across India, the Jagriti Yatra, where he joined 400 other young people eager to gain inspiration for entrepreneurial work. The experience introduced him to the challenges facing farmers in India, as well as the attendant opportunities.

"Our agricultural system is in a mess," he said. "Many of our farmers are underpaid, malnourished, are frequently using chemicals that harm their health, and rely on practices that seriously degrade their land. Not only this, the food that they are producing is often coated in harmful chemicals, has little taste and is low in essential nutrients."

Kapoor was also struck by what he describes as the "lost talent" in rural areas. "I was amazed to discover that a lot of people in rural India actually have BAs and MAs, but there are no jobs for them. Their only option is to move to the cities to take jobs in factories. If you want to support rural development, you have to create the right opportunities. Farmers are still not really looking at agriculture as a business."

Kapoor moved to rural Uttar Pradesh and started a two-acre demonstration farm to experiment with different agricultural practices and spend time among farmers. The more farmers he spoke to, the more convinced he became of the relevance of organic practices as a solution to many of the challenges they face.

"Organic farming, when practised properly, reduces the input costs for fertilisers, pesticides and seeds, dramatically improves farmer health and enhances the fertility and resilience of their land," said Kapoor, as we travelled to Haryana, just north of Delhi, to visit a group of farmers he plans to work with. "Of course, it also gives you tastier, safer and more nutritious produce."

The problem is that the right incentives for farmers to convert to more sustainable practices have not been effectively created, said Kapoor. "People want good, nutritious food but they don't want to pay more for it. Farmers want to be paid fairly for their work, and to farm in a way that can support them long into the future, but today's systems don't provide for that. Certification is expensive, many of their skills have been lost and much of the money paid for good produce is, in any case, lost to middlemen."

As a result of these experiences, Kapoor set up a company, Jagriti Agro Tech, which, on Thursday, will start to supply affordable organic fruit and vegetables direct to households in Delhi, sourced from farmers in the surrounding states under the brand name I Say Organic.

His remit is simple: by connecting farmers directly to markets, he hopes to address several challenges simultaneously, providing better incomes and quality of life to rural farmers.

Kapoor plans to pay his farmers prices 25% higher than the current market rates for their produce, incentivising the use of more sustainable practices. In addition, unlike most "box schemes", few of which exist in India today, he says the cost of his produce will remain competitive with local non-organic fruit and vegetables. Kapoor believes customers should be able to choose what they want, and receive it within a day.

It sounds an impossible task, but the only way to achieve these goals is to work with the system, said Kapoor. "You can't just create markets, nor can you just work with farmers, so instead we are trying to work from one end to the other: to create and support the whole value chain."

The farmers appear to have seen rapid benefits. "We currently have no means of marketing our produce, and initial conversion costs to organic farming require time, effort and money," said Nepal Singh, a farmer from southern Haryana. "I Say Organic is giving us better rates for our produce, and clearly labels it, making it far more worthwhile to farm organically."

"In the future, I believe organic produce will be in great demand," added Gulzar Singh, another farmer from the same region. "I want to be one of the first people to grow it, just like our ancestors used to. I Say Organic is providing us with proper markets for our produce, and better prices than the Mandi [local market]."

Kapoor's work is part of a wider wave of change in India.

"The organic market is growing in India," said Sunil Gupta, founder and CEO of Dharani Organic, and one of Jagriti's first partners. "More farmers are becoming aware of both the hazards of conventional farming and the opportunities, financial and otherwise, of more sustainable methods."

A number of Indian states, including Mizoram, Uttarakhand and Sikkim intend to go 100% organic, with many more adopting policies to promote organic farming. There is a growing dialogue around the potential for India's organic market both within and outside India. One study has estimated it could grow by about 15% between 2011 and 2013.

To scale up his business, Kapoor plans to increase the number of farmers and customers he works with from hundreds to thousands, and to diversify his business model.

"Our goal is to make organic produce accessible to everyone eventually, not just a niche group," he said. "To do this, we hope to start also marketing B and C grade produce – vegetables which might be smaller or less physically perfect, but perfectly usable – to lower-income customers, to develop rural markets, and even to start processing any food we don't sell. It's just one step along the road at a time."

• This article was amended on 19 April 2012. The headline and standfirst were changed. The headline originally read 'Organic farming promises to yield a sustainable future for India's rural poor'. The standfirst read 'Organic agricultural practices are improving prospects for India's farmers by providing greater profit and sustaina


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Organic Farming Continues to Expand | News | Food Manufacturing

Organic Farming Continues to Expand | News | Food Manufacturing | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it

 

 

WASHINGTON (Worldwatch Institute) — Despite a slight decline between 2009 and 2010, since 1999 the global land area farmed organically has expanded more than threefold to 37 million hectares, according to new research conducted by the Worldwatch Institute for its Vital Signs Online service (www.worldwatch.org). Regions with the largest certified organic agricultural land in 2010 were Oceania, including Australia, New Zealand, and Pacific Island nations (12.1 million hectares); Europe (10 million hectares); and Latin America (8.4 million hectares), write report authors Catherine Ward and Laura Reynolds.

 

Organic farming is now established in international standards, and 84 countries had implemented organic regulations by 2010, up from 74 countries in 2009. Definitions vary, but according to the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements, organic agriculture is a production system that relies on ecological processes, such as waste recycling, rather than the use of synthetic inputs, such as chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

 

"Although organic agriculture often produces lower yields on land that has recently been farmed conventionally, it can outperform conventional practices — especially in times of drought — when the land has been farmed organically for a longer time," said Reynolds, a researcher with Worldwatch's Food and Agriculture Program. "Conventional agricultural practices often degrade the environment over both the long and short term through soil erosion, excessive water extraction, and biodiversity loss."

 

Organic farming has the potential to contribute to sustainable food security by improving nutrition intake and sustaining livelihoods in rural areas, while simultaneously reducing vulnerability to climate change and enhancing biodiversity. Sustainable practices associated with organic farming are relatively labor intensive. Organic agriculture uses up to 50 percent less fossil fuel energy than conventional farming, and common organic practices — including rotating crops, applying mulch to empty fields, and maintaining perennial shrubs and trees on farms — also stabilize soils and improve water retention, thus reducing vulnerability to harsh weather patterns. On average, organic farms have 30 percent higher biodiversity, including birds, insects, and plants, than conventional farms do.

 

Certifications for organic agriculture are increasingly concentrated in wealthier countries. From 2009 to 2010, Europe increased its organic farmland by 9 percent to 10 million hectares, the largest growth in any region. The United States has lagged behind other countries in adopting sustainable farming methods. When national sales rather than production are considered, however, the U.S. organic industry is one of the fastest-growing industries in the nation, expanding by 9.5 percent in 2011 to reach $31.5 billion in sales.

 

Sustainable food production will become increasingly important in developing countries, as the majority of population growth is concentrated in the world's poorest countries. Agriculture in developing countries is often far more labor intensive than in industrial countries, so it is not surprising that approximately 80 percent of the 1.6 million global certified organic farmers live in the developing world. The countries with the most certified organic producers in 2010 were India (400,551 farmers), Uganda (188,625), and Mexico (128,826). Non-certified organic agriculture in developing countries is practiced by millions of indigenous people, peasants, and small family farms involved in subsistence and local market-oriented production.

 

Further highlights from the report:

In 2010, the most recent year for which data are available, certified organic farming accounted for approximately 0.9 percent of the world's agricultural land.Africa is home to 3 percent of the world's certified organic agricultural land, with just over 1 million hectares certified. Asia has 7 percent, with a total of 2.8 million hectares.Despite a decline in organically farmed land in China and India between 2009 and 2010, India's export volume of organic produce increased by 20 percent.


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Hurricane Katrina migration: Where did people go? Where are they coming from now?

Hurricane Katrina migration: Where did people go? Where are they coming from now? | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
In the decade since the levees broke, the story of the Katrina diaspora has evolved into a tale of post-Katrina transplants. NOLA.com | The Times-Picayune has created a New Orleans migration map using Internal Revenue Service records to show where families relocated after the storm -- and where new arrivals are coming from in recent years. Look at the state-by-state numbers, then click on "more" to see parish/county-specific data. See anything interesting? Please share your observations in the comments. Story by Ray Koenig, Richard Rainey - and - Katherine Sayre NOLA.com | The Times-Picayune The map shows that more than 22,500 households settled in Harris County, Texas, the home of Houston, immediately after the storm. More people migrated to Harris County than any other county or parish in the country that first year, about a third of the 65,120 households who officially reported a new address for their home. Fast forward to 2011, New Orleans had a net increase of 3,167 households — 7,668 households moved away, while 10,835 moved in. More than 6,280 household in other parishes in Louisiana moved into New Orleans. Nearly 1,100 arrived from Houston. Hundreds arrived from New York, Georgia and California. The city's population o

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Mason Robinson's curator insight, April 14, 2016 7:47 PM

Summary: This article was about the migration that occurred after hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans in 2006. Many people emigrated from New Orleans because of the massive flooding and damage within the city but people have also immigrated to New Orleans since Katrina. Harris County, Texas received the most amount of immigrants from New Orleans than any other county in the country. Analysis: This article relates to human geography because it is an example of migration of people to and from an area. The damage caused by Hurricane Katrina was a push and pull factor for people to migrate to and from New Orleans. People had to leave because of their loss of property and people came to New Orleans to help with aid. This events also shows how people became refugees from a natural disaster; some people lost everything and were forced to relocate. The migration that occurred after the hurricane were examples of inter and intra-regional migration; the intra-regional migration occurred when survivors migrated within the south region, whether it be from New Orleans to Texas or Georgia. Inter-regional migration occurred when people migrated from the west or northeast regions to New Orleans in the south or vice versa.           

Connor Leeson's comment, April 14, 2016 8:28 PM
Part 1: Summary: This article was basically explaining where people went in the aftermath of Katrina in 2006. The majority of flooding in the city was in the minority and poor neighborhoods of the city. Only the touristy French Quarter survived. Many people didn't have the money to rebuild, so they obviously had to move house. It provides a couple of interactive maps that give you a state by state analysis of exactly where people went. They emigrated to all parts of America, especially immediately after the storm, and waited for the city to rebuild itself. This diffusion of so many people led the American people to help repair the city as fast as possible. Article is basically a county by county analysis of the amount of "refugees" coming in from New Orleans. Analysis: Now this one really hits home for me. As some of you may know, I went to New Orleans this past spring break. I got to see and speak to some of those brave souls who were able to come back to their city after so much devastation hit it. It was definitely a huge push factor for people to leave the state of Louisiana entirely, but it's really hard to leave to New Orleans. I fell in love with the city in just 4 days and the locals even told me that if you live there, it's really hard to live anywhere else. I see what they mean. There was a lady at the French Market telling me how she went to her sister's house in Texas following the storm, and she actually saw her house on CNN. There was a sailboat through the middle of it. Yet she came back as soon as she could, and rebuilt that house from the ground. She was one of the nicest people I met there. Anyways, enough with the personal stuff. Obviously, this article deals with the migration unit and why people move. This was an example of intraregional migration, because lots of people stayed in the Southeast. Many moved to Mississippi, Texas, and even back into Louisiana. It's also interregional, as many people got way far away from New Orleans, from New York to Seattle. All this definitely ties in with human geography, and it tells us a little more about why people move. I'm sure these people wouldn't have moved from New Orleans if they weren't forced, as I said earlier the city is very easy to love. I've noticed that people have diffused from the bayou to all over the country, and they're spreading that Big Easy love all over the nation. I've seen it first hand.
Kayla McIntosh's curator insight, April 14, 2016 9:28 PM

In this article it discusses the migration of people after Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. It shows the amount of people that moved from New Orleans and people that moved to New Orleans. There is a map that has the number of households that are from New Orleans that moved to other states and households that moved from each state in the United States to New Orleans from the year 2005 to 2012. The map shows that more than 22,250 people moved to Harris County, Texas soon after the storm. The map also shows that hundreds of people have moved to New Orleans from New York, Georgia, and California probably to help rebuild and get people back on their feet.

This article relates to the Population and Migration unit in AP Human Geography. The article discusses the immigration and emigration of people after Hurricane Katrina. A  large number of people migrated to Houston, Texas directly after the storm which I was not aware of until now. They used a census to compare the number of people that lived in New Orleans before the storm and the number of people that live there now. The interactive map allows you to see each state in the United States and the net migration of the number of people that moved to New Orleans and from New Orleans. I thought the map was very helpful in showing the distribution of people that moved from New Orleans after the storm. I am a Hurricane Katrina victim myself that moved from Mississippi to Arizona after the storm. This created a chain migration and a lot of my other family from Mississippi moved to Arizona.

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CDC: Zika virus definitely causes birth defects

CDC: Zika virus definitely causes birth defects | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
The Zika virus assuredly causes microcephaly and other birth defects, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says.

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Katlynn Reaves's comment, April 21, 2016 10:52 PM
The Zika virus is a huge problem in the world right now. There is an unknown range of health problems it can cause, but the leading problem it can cause is birth defects that include smaller heads. By having a smaller head that causes major destruction on the brain. Researches have been watching brain scans of babies born to see the certain effects that the Zika virus had on them. Doctors suggest that pregnant women should NOT get bitten by a mosquito, and that goes for anybody. To do that they could wear long pants and long sleeves and use bug repellent. Since it is a virus, there is no cure; there are only treatments. Never before has it been recorded that a mosquito bite has had this big of an impact on people. This is related to population and migration because the infected mosquitos are diffusing from Africa and the population is getting infected by it. If everyone could make it a habit to wear bug repellant in the times that mosquitos are out and about, then we would all mostly be safe and maybe-just maybe the virus will minimize. The distribution of the mosquitos containing the virus isn't uniform so we should always be on the look out for them, just in case. Researchers may eventually find a pattern in where the worst cases reported are. That is, if they find the worst cases in a certain region then they could go there and focus on doing their other research and treatments there. I believe that the Zika virus is a truly dangerous thing. This article just highlights how much more wicked it could truly be. The video on the pregnant woman, and her not knowing whether her child will be healthy like her other son, is absolutely disheartening. I don't think that this will ever go away since it's a virus; however I bet that we could find a way to minimize the chances of you getting it. Then again, it could mutate and become something much, much worse. And so, the Zika virus is a terrible thing and I hope if someone does get it, their baby won't be affected.
Nancy Bakri's comment, May 10, 2016 9:11 PM


Summery:This article is about the Zika virus. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention the Zika virus causes Microcephaly and other birth defects to unborn babies, this outbreak is caused by mosquitoes bites. The virus is mainly found in the Americas. There has been a large amount of babies and mothers that were affected. The article also states that there have been previous sicknesses from mosquitoes but nothing like the Zika virus.

Analysis: The Zika virus originated from Africa but the recent outbreak was diffusing from Brazil. It spread through migration and people that were traveling. There is no cure or treatment for the virus which can cause an increase in the child mortality rate in some countries because the life expectancy of a child that was affected is not very high. The article states" the White House said President Barack Obama will sign a bill that offers incentives to companies working on Zika treatments and vaccines" showing that there might be a cure found for this virus. While the virus is a push factor the people may move to the places working on the cure making the cure a pull factor. Hopefully the groups working on finding a cure will find one.
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This Haunting Animation Maps the Journeys of 15,790 Slave Ships in Two Minutes

This Haunting Animation Maps the Journeys of 15,790 Slave Ships in Two Minutes | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
Usually, when we say “American slavery” or the “American slave trade,” we mean the American colonies or, later, the United States. But as we discussed

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Report Finds Retail Globalization Continues to Roll On

Report Finds Retail Globalization Continues to Roll On | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
Hong Kong was the hottest market in 2015 with 73 new brands opening there.
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Age of Geographic Enlightenment - Trends in GIS - Big Data & IoT

Age of Geographic Enlightenment - Trends in GIS - Big Data & IoT | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
In the past, GIS has been one of those edgy, niche technologies that required some skill to take full advantage of its capabilities. However, today’s GIS is easier to use and, therefore, more accessible to the masses. Moreover, data providers offer massive amounts of quality information, well worth accessing. Within just a few years, these proficiencies have driven the growth of GIS applications around the world and in nearly every industry. GIS is awakening the world to the power of geography and bringing us into an era of geographic enlightenment.

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Getting past the ‘indigenous’ vs. ‘immigrant’ language debate

Getting past the ‘indigenous’ vs. ‘immigrant’ language debate | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
“Indigenous languages” and “immigrant languages” are much discussed in language policy research, but surprisingly little time is spent actually defining those terms. In general, “indigenous” tends ...

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AKanaki's curator insight, August 14, 2015 11:32 AM

More problematisation and debate about Languages are needed. This is a nice discussion on an important topic.

Valentina Acevedo's curator insight, August 14, 11:56 PM
Different from Europe, America has an extensive variety of indigenous languages. For example, in Colombia, there are more than 60 indigenous languages including the creoles, and as the indigenous languages of Europe and the rest of the world they aredevalued for people, and it makes that they start to desapear. It is important for people that get to knowabout the importance that each native language has in their countries, and even to think about that indiginousdo not meant ignorance. By the end the author tried to give a explanation in how different "indiginous language" and "immigrant languages" is, and he said that "indiginous language" is the one which belonggedimmigrant language" is the one that was carried out and stablished by them. Due to the colonization in America, and other territories of the world, today we have what a great variety of language, cultures, communities, tradicions and more that are significant, relevant and need to be apreciated by us. 
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1970s New York Was An Absolutely Terrifying Place: 41 Photos

1970s New York Was An Absolutely Terrifying Place: 41 Photos | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
These startling 1970s New York photos reveal a city undergoing an unparalleled transformation fueled by economic collapse and rampant crime.
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How the Other Fifth Lives

How the Other Fifth Lives | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
The self-segregation of a privileged fifth of the population is changing the American social order and the American political system.
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Urban Farming: an Architect’s Answer to 'Green'?

Urban Farming: an Architect’s Answer to 'Green'? | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it

Sustainable. Local. Natural. Green. Architects talk about these words all the time but what do they really mean?


'To present the concept of Urban Farming, I’ve collected images of existing urban farms that are already “digging into” (on/over/through) the built environment – doing amazing things for food, people, cities, communities, and sustainability –  as well as conceptual urban farming architecture – projects which begin to rethink the word “farm,” especially in the urban environment, and offer a very bold response to the question, “What is Green Architecture?” Some of these ideas may seem pretty far-fetched, but I’ll bet not many people thought we’d be farming all over rooftops in NYC either! And they’re not only doing it, they’re doing it sustainably + successfully. Architecture could stand to learn a thing or 2 from these urban farms…'


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Lenni Morkel-Kingsbury's curator insight, November 9, 2013 4:35 PM

RE comment that some of these ideas seem pretty far fetched...sad that we feel we need to temper ideas with statements  like this.Once upon a time landing on the moon and having personal computers also seemed far fetched. Thinking beyond current boundaries is what is needed to tackle issues of food production and sustainable living for the future , now!

 

"Naively ambitious, maybe. But as a twitter-mate noted, “creating food AND jobs and making productive use of vacant land and changing the urban landscape in a huge way!” is in my opinion extremely exciting and worth every effort of that ambition!"

 

.....I couldn't agree more!

Let' s get inspired and figure out how to make  far fetched  ideas work and work sustainably and effectively. 

Lili Dávila's curator insight, December 6, 2013 4:35 PM

Another green design to go local...

URBREG International Group's curator insight, September 26, 2014 9:20 PM

www.theurbanegroup.com

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Map: Literally every goat in the United States

Map: Literally every goat in the United States | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
The geography of goats.

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Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, January 14, 2015 12:44 PM

unit one--how could I ignore this map?

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Do You Know Where Your Food Comes From? | KUNC

Do You Know Where Your Food Comes From? | KUNC | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it
Recent trends have more and more people in Colorado - and the rest of the country - buying local and organic produce.

KUNC Gardener Tom Throgmorton says you can’t get any more local than a CSA farm...On the Western Slope we have orchards and vineyards. The High Plains host acres and acres of grains. In between there is rangeland.

Agriculture used to be a main economic force in Colorado. Agriculture bolstered the local, rural economy. Farmers took care of the land they tended. Consumers could buy fresh food and they knew where it was grown. That part of agriculture is still strong in Colorado. It’s Community Supported Agriculture, CSA.

A CSA farm sells memberships for shares of the harvest. During the growing season the farm distributes fresh produce to the members. If it hails or frosts the members get less produce just like the farmer would. During good growing seasons the shares are bountiful.

Buying into a CSA farm keeps income in the local economy. CSA farms are part of the neighborhood, town or county. The money they earn stays close to home.

A CSA farm is part of our open space. As more homes are built and more ag-land changed into malls, we need some open space. Supporting a CSA farm keeps land available for farming. In Ft. Collins, we have CSA farms in the middle of neighborhoods. Surrounded by suburban lawns these farms thrive. Other, larger CSA farms maintain open space in the northern part of our county.

The trend is to buy local and organic produce. You can’t get any more local than a CSA farm. Most CSA farms also grow produce organically. If they aren’t certified organic growers they usually use fewer chemicals than mass production farms.

Being a CSA member you can see how and where your food is being grown. Your kids can see that salads don’t just come pre-made in bags. Salad stuff comes from sun, water and work.

Some CSA farms offer working shares. The farmer trades produce for the member’s work on the farm. Members can pull weeds, help harvest and distribute food or do office chores as part of their membership.

The growing season is here. Check into a CSA farm to keep the local economy and agriculture vibrant.

 

http://www.kunc.org/post/do-you-know-where-your-food-comes


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INDIA: Odisha has potential to be No-1 State in shrimp production, export

INDIA: Odisha has potential to be No-1 State in shrimp production, export | AP Human Geography | Scoop.it

Report by Odisha Diary bureau, Bhubaneswar: Chief Secretary Jugal Kishore Mohapatra has directed the concerned departments to prioritize laying of infrastructural facilities like road and power connectivity to fishing firms to boost up fishery product and sea food export from Odisha. 

 

Mohapatra has given this direction while reviewing the present status of fish farming in the State and the potential that the State has in this sector, in a high level meeting held in secretariat conference hall last evening. 

 

Discussions in the meeting reveal that Odisha has the potential to be No-1 State in shrimp production and export. Available data shows Odisha has fresh water area of 6.73 lakh hect. and brackish water area of 4.18 lakh hect along with 480 kms of coastal line. With this natural resource State has the production potential of 6.5lakh MT fishery product per year.

 

At present near about 2.95 % of population are engaged in fishing and contribution of fishery to GSDP is around 6%. This trade supports more than 12 lakh fishermen in the State. The area suitable for shrimp culture is 32000 hector out of which 16,000 hectors have already been developed for shrimp culture.  

 

Target has been set to have optimal use of the developed area within coming years, which as per one estimate, has production potential of 300,000 Ton per year, the value of which in terms of export is around Rs.18000 cr. Sources say, that the total shrimp production in the State has been increased to 168,585 MT in 2012-13 against the production of 133,893 MT in 2011-12 thereby registering a growth of 25.91%.  

 

The growth in terms of value of this product is around 26.31%. Similarly, the vennamei shrimp production in Odisha has been enhanced to 91,610 MT in 2012-13 against the production of 48,430 MT in 2011-12 recoding a growth of 89.16%. The growth in terms of the value of this production is 115%. The policies favoring investment in shrimp culture have also been put in place by Government of Odisha.

 

Land lease policy, provision of subsidy for aquaculture equipment, low power tariff for fishing firms, subsidy for establishment of cold stores, cold chain and reefer vehicles, etc have already been enacted by Government.

 

Upgradation of Biju Pattanik Airport to international status has also enhanced the export potential of chilled fish and live fish. Considering these realities, Chief Secretary Mohapatra has directed to prioritize infrastructural support like road and power connectivity to 125 already indentified fishing clusters.

 

Chief Secretary has advised Principal Secretary Energy Pradeep Kumar Jena, present in the meeting to regularly review the power connection status to fishing firms . Jena said that Govt will provide special feeders to the fishing clusters through investment of Rs.250 cr. during the 12th plan period.

 

In Odisha power tariff for fishing is treaded at par with agriculture which is around Rs.1.10 per unit. The departments of water resources and rural development have been asked to focus on construction of roads to identified clusters.

 

Chief Secretary has also directed that land for shrimp culture should be allotted in clusters so that infrastructural facilities can be provided there and marketing support can also enhanced. Sri Mohapatra has also directed Fishery department to encourage more number perspective entrepreneurs for shrimp culture by giving definite target to each BFDA. 

 

Additional Chief Secretary Finance Sri U.N.Behera, Principal Secretary Water Resources Sri Suresh Chandra Mohapatra, Principal Secretary Agriculture Sri Rajesh Kumar Verma Secretary MSME Sri Panchanana Das, CMD GRIDCO Sri Hemant Kumar Sharma, Secretary Fisheries & Animal Resource Development Sri Bishnupada Sethy along with representatives of Sea Food Exporters Association and other senior officers participated in discussion. 

 

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