Annexation Of Hawaii
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Global website #1 Puerto Rico


The island of Puerto Rico, over which the flag of the United States was raised in token of formal possession on October 18, 1898, is the most eastern of the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. It is separated on the east from the Danish islands of St. Thomas by a distance of about fifty miles, and from Haiti on the west by the Mona passage, seventy miles wide. The island is 108 miles from the east to the west, and from 37 to 43 miles across from north to south, the area being about 3,600 square miles. The population in 1887 was 798,656, of whom 474,933 were whites, 246,647 mulattoes and 76,905 negroes. An enumeration taken by the United States Government in 1900 showed a population of 953,243. Puerto Rico is unusually fertile, and its dominant industries are agriculture and lumbering.

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Primary Doc #2: Joint Resolution

Primary Doc #2: Joint Resolution | Annexation Of Hawaii | Scoop.it

In the 1890s, the efforts of the Hawaiian people to preserve their national sovereignty and native heritage ran headlong into the unstoppable force of American expansionism. Throughout the 19th century, westerners – particularly Americans – came to dominate Hawaii’s economy and politics. When Queen Liliuokalani assumed the throne in 1891 and tried to reassert the power of the throne and the will of Native Hawaiians, she was deposed by a small group of American businessmen, with the support of the American diplomats and the U.S. Navy.

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Historical Website #4: U.S. History II: The United States as a World Power

The annexation of Hawaii. American missionaries and commercial interests had long been active in Hawaii; by the 1840s, they controlled the sugar plantations and held positions in government. The United States was given the right to build a naval base at Pearl Harbor in 1887, and, in the same year, Americans on the islands forced the Hawaiian rulers to create a constitutional monarchy under American control. In 1891, Queen Liliuokalani assumed the throne and tried to reassert Hawaiian sovereignty, but this brief interlude of independence came to an end two years later when the planters, with the help of American gunboats, staged a successful coup. President Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii and preferred the restoration of a constitutional monarchy, but the leaders of the coup rejected that solution and instead proclaimed The Republic of Hawaii on July 4, 1894. The United States quickly recognized the new republic, but this did not end the matter. McKinley ran on a platform that called for the annexation of Hawaii, and the island became a U.S. territory in 1898, just as European and U.S. imperialism boiled over into the Spanish-American War.

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Historical Website #5: Hawaiian - overthrow

Historical Website #5: Hawaiian - overthrow | Annexation Of Hawaii | Scoop.it

Overthrow of 1893—the Republic of Hawaii (1894–1898)
In January 1893, Queen Liliʻuokalani was overthrown and replaced by a Provisional Government composed of members of the Committee of Safety. Controversy filled the following years as the queen tried to re-establish her throne. The administration of President Grover Cleveland commissioned the Blount Report, which concluded that the removal of Liliʻuokalani was illegal. The U.S. government first demanded that Queen Liliʻuokalani be reinstated, but the Provisional Government refused. Congress followed with another investigation, and submitted the Morgan Report on February 26, 1894, which found all parties (including Minister Stevens) with the exception of the queen "not guilty" from any responsibility for the overthrow.[50] The accuracy and impartiality of both the Blount and Morgan reports has been questioned by partisans on both sides of the debate over the events of 1893.[49][51][52][53]
In 1993, a joint Apology Resolution regarding the overthrow was passed by Congress and signed by President Clinton, apologizing for the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom.[53] It is the first time in American history that the United States government has apologized for overthrowing the government of a sovereign nation.

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Global #2 annexation of Puerto Rico

The act providing a civil government for Puerto Rico was passed by the Fifty-sixth Congress and received the assent of the President on April 12, 1900, and came into force in May. In his annual message delivered to Congress on the 5th day of December, 1899, the President said: "The markets of the United States should be opened up to her (Puerto Rico's) products. Our plain duty is to abolish all customs tariffs between the United States and Puerto Rico and give her products free access to our markets." A later proposal was successfully made to impose customs duties equal to 25 per cent.

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Doc #3 President McKinley

Doc #3 President McKinley | Annexation Of Hawaii | Scoop.it

Hawaii was officially annexed to the United States through the Newlands Resolution, passed on July 4, 1898 as a joint resolution of Congress and signed by President McKinley on July 7. The Resolution also provided that “[t]he President shall appoint five commissioners, at least two of whom shall be residents of the Hawaiian Islands, who shall, as soon as reasonably practicable, recommend to Congress such legislation concerning the Hawaiian Islands as they shall deem necessary or proper.” The commissioners were to be named “by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.”

Congress adjourned for nearly five months the day after McKinley signed the Newlands Resolution. Rather than wait until December to choose his commissioners—Congress needed the recommendations “as soon as reasonably practicable,” after all—McKinley immediately empowered Sanford Dole (President of the Republic and then the Territory of Hawaii) and four others in accordance with the Constitution’s Recess Appointments Clause. McKinley duly submitted his commissioners’ names to the Senate on December 6, 1898, the day after it reconvened.

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Primary Doc #1: Petition Against Hawaiian Annexation

Primary Doc #1: Petition Against Hawaiian Annexation | Annexation Of Hawaii | Scoop.it

The petition was signed by 21,269 of 39,000 Hawaiian people to stop the move to annex Hawaii. However, on July 7, 1898, the Hawaiian Islands were annexed to the United States by a joint resolution of Congress because of the strategic value of the Hawaiian islands as a mid-Pacific fueling station and naval installation during Spanish-American War.

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Historical Website #2: The Annexation of Hawaii

Historical Website #2: The Annexation of Hawaii | Annexation Of Hawaii | Scoop.it

In the 19th century, the Hawaiian Islands were a stop for U.S. merchantmen and sailors en route to and from Asia. As early as 1851, the Hawaiian king requested that the U.S. annex his islands because it would have eliminated tariffs on Hawaiian goods, thus enhancing the islands’ economy. However many Americans, particularly northerners, opposed annexation because they feared the islands would be settled by slaveholders.

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The Annexation of Hawaii - Important Dates

July 6, 1887- January 20, 1891: The reign of King Kalakaua under the "Bayonet Constitution".
January 14, 1893: Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom.
July 17, 1893: James H. Blount delivered his report to President Cleveland.
February 26, 1894: Morgan Report submitted to Senate.
July 6, 1898: William McKinley signs annexation amendment.
February 22, 1900: Official U.S. annexation of Hawaii.

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