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Is ‘Big Data’ the next big thing? | KurzweilAI

Is ‘Big Data’ the next big thing? | KurzweilAI | analytics | Scoop.it
A data visualization created by IBM shows that Big Data such as Wikipedia edits by bot Pearle are more meaningful when enhanced with colors and position...

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Why living in the moment is impossible: Decision-making memories stored in mysterious brain area known to be involved with vision

Why living in the moment is impossible: Decision-making memories stored in mysterious brain area known to be involved with vision | analytics | Scoop.it
The sought-after equanimity of "living in the moment" may be impossible, according to neuroscientists who've pinpointed a brain area responsible for using past decisions and outcomes to guide future behavior.

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Simple mathematical computations underlie brain circuits

Simple mathematical computations underlie brain circuits | analytics | Scoop.it

In a new paper appearing in the Aug. 9 issue of Nature, they report that two major classes of brain cells repress neural activity in specific mathematical ways: One type subtracts from overall activation, while the other divides it.


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Scientists Find Brain's Irony-Detection Center!

Scientists Find Brain's Irony-Detection Center! | analytics | Scoop.it
OK, that headline is a bit hyperbolic, but not as hyperbolic as you might think.

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Scientists Discover Previously Unknown Cleansing System in Brain

Scientists Discover Previously Unknown Cleansing System in Brain | analytics | Scoop.it

A previously unrecognized system that drains waste from the brain at a rapid clip has been discovered by neuroscientists at the University of Rochester Medical Center. The highly organized system acts like a series of pipes that piggyback on the brain’s blood vessels, sort of a shadow plumbing system that seems to serve much the same function in the brain as the lymph system does in the rest of the body – to drain away waste products.

 

Scientists have known that cerebrospinal fluid or CSF plays an important role cleansing brain tissue, carrying away waste products and carrying nutrients to brain tissue through a process known as diffusion. The newly discovered system circulates CSF to every corner of the brain much more efficiently, through what scientists call bulk flow or convection.

 

While the previously discovered system works more like a trickle, percolating CSF through brain tissue, the new system is under pressure, pushing large volumes of CSF through the brain each day to carry waste away more forcefully.

 

The glymphatic system is like a layer of piping that surrounds the brain’s existing blood vessels. The team found that glial cells called astrocytes use projections known as “end feet” to form a network of conduits around the outsides of arteries and veins inside the brain – similar to the way a canopy of tree branches along a well-wooded street might create a sort of channel above the roadway.

 

Those end feet are filled with structures known as water channels or aquaporins, which move CSF through the brain. The team found that CSF is pumped into the brain along the channels that surround arteries, then washes through brain tissue before collecting in channels around veins and draining from the brain.


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Dov Henis's comment, August 23, 2012 11:32 AM
Brain's Cleansing System

Tags: brain clean-up, brain evolution, melatonin function, neural cells evolution

A.
Another Wheel Reinvention
Brain's hidden sewers revealed
Specialized cells host a hitherto unknown cleansing system.
http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/343079/title/Brains_hidden_sewers_revealed

B.
http://www.articlesbase.com/science-articles/life-is-simpler-than-they-tell-us-817144.html
Now we can appreciate the fractal nature of life's evolution. It is ever-continuous ever-enhanced ever-complexed cooperation. Now we can understand why, and grosso modo how, all the organs and processes and signals found in multicelled organisms have their origins in the monocells communities, cultures. And this includes the functions of serotonin and melatonin and, yes, the evolution of neural cells and the neural systems with their intricate outer-membrane shapes and functionings and with their high energy consumption requirements.

C.
http://www.immunityageing.com/content/2/1/17/comments
Melatonin Origin And Function
Dov Henis (2009-02-03)
Melatonin's role was to signal that the genes are asleep, their functional activities are shut off, and it is time for the security and maintenance crews to do their tasks, especially to clean up the intercell environment, for keeping the community of cells in proper state.

Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
http://universe-life.com/
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Eide Neurolearning Blog: Fact Retrieval vs. Problem Solving in the Brain

Eide Neurolearning Blog: Fact Retrieval vs. Problem Solving in the Brain | analytics | Scoop.it

Researchers from Stanford have found that school children retrieving math facts to solve arithmetic problems show different brain fMRI patterns when retrieving math facts, than when solving problems.


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When rules change, brain falters

When rules change, brain falters | analytics | Scoop.it

For the human brain, learning a new task when rules change can be a surprisingly difficult process marred by repeated mistakes, according to a new study by Michigan State University psychology researchers.


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Brain's Hidden Sewers Revealed

Brain's Hidden Sewers Revealed | analytics | Scoop.it

The brain is a self-cleaning machine. A previously unknown plumbing system blasts out waste by flushing it with the brain’s cleaning solution — cerebrospinal fluid.


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