Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice
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Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice
Expanding the critical perspective of justice to suggest restorative processes and ADR as tools for reparation.
Curated by Rob Duke
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The “Recidivism Trap,” Or Why Measuring Failure Is the Wrong Way to Determine Whether Justice Policies Work |

The “Recidivism Trap,” Or Why Measuring Failure Is the Wrong Way to Determine Whether Justice Policies Work | | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it

When we look at how well or poorly a program or strategy in the criminal justice realm is working, the gold standard of assessment has traditionally been whether or not the strategy lowers recidivism rates.

Yet, in an intriguing new paper published this month, nationally regarded justice reform experts Jeffrey Butts and Vincent Schiraldi caution against falling into the “recidivism trap.”

When used as the sole measure of effectiveness, Schiraldi and Butts write, “recidivism misleads policymakers and the public…” and “focuses policy on negative rather than positive outcomes.”

Recidivism is not a comprehensive measure of success for criminal justice in general or for community corrections specifically, according to the two authors. When used to judge the effects of justice interventions on behavior, the concept of recidivism may even be harmful, “as it often reinforces the racial and class biases underlying much of the justice system.”

And that’s a big problem say Butts and Schiraldi.

Rob Duke's insight:
Measure instead: "desistance".  These are things that show a tendency towards more positive modes of living, like:

1. Getting older and maturing 
2. Family and relationships 
3. Sobriety 
4. Employment 
5. Hope and motivation 
6. Having something to give to others 
7. Having a place within a social group 
8. Not having a criminal identity 
9. Being “believed in”

So, given this, what changes could we make in our Justice System:

1. Insist That Recidivism Comparisons Involve Appropriately Matched Groups;
2. Use Other Measures to Assess the Effectiveness of Justice;
3. Increase the Policy Salience of Desistance;

Put another way, this is similar to that old illustration that firefighters present as the most basic fire education in school: the fire triangle.  Remember that on the three sides there was fuel, heat, and oxygen.  The idea was that if you take away even one of these, then the fire goes out.  This model is very similar at it's most basic level, because we know from research that crime is an intersection of economics, social disorganization, and maturity, thus this model seeks to bolster all three conditions by creating a sort of fire triangle matrix with employment, relationships, and maturity as the most basic factors that we seek to address.  This is a fundamental change from simply warehousing offenders in a punitive or incapacitation model waiting until they "age out" of crime.
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Rob Duke's curator insight, March 26, 10:50 AM
Measure instead: "desistance". These are things that show a tendency towards more positive modes of living, like: 
1. Getting older and maturing 
 2. Family and relationships 
 3. Sobriety 
 4. Employment 
 5. Hope and motivation 
 6. Having something to give to others 
 7. Having a place within a social group 
 8. Not having a criminal identity 
 9. Being “believed in” 

So, given this, what changes could we make in our Justice System: 
 1. Insist That Recidivism Comparisons Involve Appropriately Matched Groups; 
 2. Use Other Measures to Assess the Effectiveness of Justice; 
 3. Increase the Policy Salience of Desistance.

Put another way, this is similar to that old illustration that firefighters present as the most basic fire education in school: the fire triangle. Remember that on the three sides there was fuel, heat, and oxygen. The idea was that if you take away even one of these, then the fire goes out. This model is very similar at it's most basic level, because we know from research that crime is an intersection of economics, social disorganization, and maturity, thus this model seeks to bolster all three conditions by creating a sort of fire triangle matrix with employment, relationships, and maturity as the most basic factors that we seek to address. This is a fundamental change from simply warehousing offenders in a punitive or incapacitation model waiting until they "age out" of crime.
Dustin Drover's comment, March 31, 3:25 PM
This was a very unfamiliar and informative read. I never even thought about how changing what you measure as a way to change the out come. It seems as though all we care about is recidivism rates, which makes sense because it is a fundamental problem with our justice system. This article gave great insight to how we can change that problem by changing how we view and measure it. I like how they explained how measuring positive outcomes would inspire corrections staff to “to pay more attention to connecting clients with services, supports, and opportunities that facilitate desistance,” and I couldn’t agree more. When we focus on the bad things someone does we internalize our image of them as bad or “a lost cause”, but if we focus on their positive traits we also give them the feeling that someone believes in them. And when we feel that, we habitually want to do better because it means something.
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Pharmacist's Order: Birth Control Without The Doctor | NPR Illinois

Pharmacist's Order: Birth Control Without The Doctor | NPR Illinois | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
Advocates say increasing access to hormonal contraceptives could help reduce unplanned pregnancies. One legislative proposal considered earlier this year
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Even healthcare is getting more democratic....

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Research suggests Michigan raise jail-time age | MSUToday | Michigan State University

Research suggests Michigan raise jail-time age | MSUToday | Michigan State University | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
Youth, families and communities across Michigan could benefit if the state changes the age for juvenile court jurisdiction from 17 to 18, finds new research from MSU. 
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High Court dismisses Solicitor-General's appeal over prison discount for 'post-colonial trauma'

High Court dismisses Solicitor-General's appeal over prison discount for 'post-colonial trauma' | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
The High Court has dismissed an appeal from the Solicitor-General over a large Māori cultural discount for "post-colonial trauma" and deprivation was given to a woman who stabbed her partner.

Rachael Heta was sentenced by Judge Soana Moala to three years and two months' imprisonment for causing grievous bodily harm with intent, and common assault.

A 30 per cent discount was given to Heta after a cultural report canvassed her background which included alcohol abuse, limited work history and "personal relationships marked by violence".

This was made in addition to a 10 per cent discount for undergoing restorative justice and the 25 per cent discount for an early guilty plea.
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Is restorative justice for sexual misconduct cases effective?

Is restorative justice for sexual misconduct cases effective? | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
A growing number of colleges are exploring restorative justice to address cases of sexual misconduct, a tactic they argue can be more effective than traditional investigations, reduce costs associated with seeking resolution and address due process concerns of the accused, The Chronicle of Higher Education reported.
Restorative justice requires offenders to take responsibility for their actions in order to participate, a factor advocates say distinguishes it from mediation. The approach, which is often used in minor disciplinary cases on campus, covers resolution tactics that focus on education rather than on punishment. 
Critics say some victims may feel pressure to skip available legal remedies and that interacting with the alleged perpetrator could be further damaging. In its draft Title IX guidance, the Trump administration indicated it would be open to alternative means of addressing sexual misconduct cases.
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Why More Colleges Are Trying Restorative Justice in Sex-Assault Cases

Why More Colleges Are Trying Restorative Justice in Sex-Assault Cases | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it

Campuses have used the approach to deal with a wide range of incidents of minor wrongdoing. But until recently, they’ve been reluctant to use it for sexual misconduct.

Lauren H. Adams for The Chronicle
Jordan Draper, Title IX coordinator and dean of students at the College of New Jersey: "We don’t want this to be seen as a get-out-of-jail-free card. It’s an educational opportunity."
It started, like so many dorm parties, with a group of friends drinking in someone’s room. She was pretty drunk by the time the room cleared and she and the other student were alone together. She remembers them kissing and then waking up, her clothes off, underneath him.

Talking about it later to the Title IX officer at the College of New Jersey, she doesn’t understand why she was joking around with him afterward as if it was no big deal. She wanted to tell him how uncomfortable she felt, but she didn’t know how. He lived in her dorm; they shared friends. It was her freshman year, and she was still getting to know people.

If her only choice had been to file a formal complaint and cooperate in a Title IX investigation, she might not have done it. Instead, she opted for an alternative process in which she helped draft a contract that spelled out steps to help him realize the harm he’d caused and that required him to make amends.

The College of New Jersey is among a small but growing number of institutions that now offer alternatives to trial-like investigations that critics say can be traumatic for everyone involved. The U.S. education secretary, Betsy DeVos, has indicated, through Title IX guidance issued in 2017 and then in draft regulations obtained and reported last month by The New York Times, that the Trump administration welcomes alternative ways of handling sexual-misconduct disputes.

Approaches that start with the offender admitting responsibility and agreeing to repair the harm appeal to some students who aren’t interested in seeing someone suspended or expelled. Proponents see alternative resolution agreements as a way to cut down on Title IX investigations, save colleges money, and potentially be fairer to the accused.

But skeptics worry students will feel pressured to bypass a formal investigation and will regret it later on if offenders get off too easily. And asking a student to sit down with an assailant and work out an agreement is not only unrealistic, they argue, but possibly retraumatizing.

The agreement reached by the two students at the New Jersey college didn’t require face-to-face conversations, but they did have to agree on certain stipulations. He would attend a workshop on consent and alcohol-education classes. She wanted him to know how different people’s bodies react to alcohol and how it affects their ability to consent to sex. He would view an online seminar on the neurobiology of sexual assault. The seminar, by Rebecca Campbell, a professor of psychology at Michigan State University, had helped her make sense of her confusing emotional reaction to what she later considered an assault.

Both students had a few days to view and suggest changes in the two-page agreement.

"We don’t want this to be seen as a get-out-of-jail-free card," said Jordan L. Draper, dean of students and Title IX coordinator. "It’s an educational opportunity."

Healing, Not Punishing

Draper is a proponent of what’s known as restorative justice, an umbrella term that covers a variety of interventions aimed at healing rather than assessing blame and punishing.

It’s one of several approaches the College of New Jersey offers, many of which don’t require students to meet directly with their alleged offenders.

Although the intervention Draper described for The Chronicle isn’t restorative justice in its purest sense, since the students didn’t talk directly to each other, it does share similar goals, she said.

Next week she’ll be participating in an online course about restorative justice that is being offered by Naspa: Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education.

In a restorative-justice approach, the victim and the offender, and in some cases other people affected by the misconduct, participate in active and often brutally honest discussions about how someone was harmed and what it would take to heal. They also discuss steps that the offender and others can take to ensure it doesn’t happen again.

The approach has been widely used for a variety of student-disciplinary cases involving relatively minor misconduct, such as underage drinking, vandalism, and loud music. It’s also a popular alternative, in the criminal-justice system, to prison or steep fines. High schools often find it works better than suspensions to handle bullying or fighting.

But when it comes to sexual harassment or assault, few colleges have been willing to promote it as an option.

That’s largely because federal guidelines, at least until now, discourage or even prohibit the use of mediation in such cases, and restorative justice is often lumped — incorrectly, proponents argue — into the same category as mediation.

That is likely to change under new sexual-misconduct regulations that are expected to be released soon. Draft regulations would allow colleges to use an informal resolution process, instead of an investigation, to resolve some cases. Both accuser and accused would have to agree, and the college would have to determine that the case was appropriate for such an intervention.

Mary P. Koss, a veteran sexual-assault researcher and professor of public health at the University of Arizona, believes restorative justice is not only permitted under current Title IX guidelines, but is a better way to handle many complaints.

Koss, who ran a restorative-justice program for sex offenders in the county surrounding Tucson, says most colleges shy away from restorative-justice programs because officials are afraid the programs won’t comply with federal law. Obama-era guidance said mediation was not appropriate, "even on a voluntary basis," in cases involving alleged sexual assault.

In cases involving sexual harassment, the Education Department’s Office for Civil Rights said that a student complainant should not have to work out the problem directly with the alleged harasser, at least without a trained counselor or mediator present.

A Search for Validation

But restorative justice isn’t the same thing as mediation, Koss argues. The main difference, she co-wrote in a paper, is "the requirement that the responsible person accepts responsibility as a precondition of participation as opposed to neutrality toward the parties."

People who opt for a restorative-justice approach "want to be validated as legitimate victims," Koss said in an interview with The Chronicle. "They don’t want to hear any more about what they were wearing, what they were drinking. They want to focus on the responsible person and what that person did."

David R. Karp, a professor of sociology and director of the Project on Restorative Justice at Skidmore College, is part of a project, called Campus Prism,that promotes the use of restorative justice for sexual and gender-based misconduct on college campuses. The approach, Karp said, "is really about gathering students in smaller circles to have dialogues about Title IX topics in a way that’s not just lecturing to them about what the rules are."

It’s more focused, he said, "on their understanding of consent, setting their own sexual standards with each other around sexual communication, around alcohol and sex, around hookup culture, all of these issues that all converge to create an unsafe environment for students."

How Colleges Are Responding

The 11 articles in this collection look at the latest guidance on the enforcement of Title IX, the federal gender-equity law that applies to sexual violence; best practices for evaluating allegations fairly; and the roles that various people on campus play in arriving at just solutions. Download the collection here.

Some colleges, including Bucknell and Rutgers Universities and the University of Notre Dame, have already updated their sexual-misconduct policies to allow for informal resolution. Rutgers has had such a policy in place since 2015, but has had only one case resolved in that way. Notre Dame has had students — a spokesman wouldn’t say how many — opt for the approach since its policy was updated over the summer, and the initial feedback has been positive.

Amy Foerster, general counsel at Bucknell, said she’s glad victims will have options beyond a Title IX investigation.

"I’ve heard enough stories of students who would have come forward if there was something available short of a formal investigative process," she said. It will be important, she added, to make sure complainants know that they have the right to pursue a formal investigation if they prefer, so they don’t feel pressured — by the college or the defendant — to bypass that process.

Since last October, nine students at the College of New Jersey have requested an alternative resolution process, and of the nine, four have completed them and two are in process, Draper said. One was not eligible because the accused person had been reported to her office before and was considered a repeat offender.

Last fall a woman came into Draper’s office saying another student had kissed her against her will and touched her inappropriately. Draper and the student sat down and drafted a proposed contract to let the alleged offender know how his actions had affected her. That evening the woman ran into the male student and told him directly what she had written in her impact statement.

"She said he was shocked," Draper said. "There was some cultural component to it. He didn’t understand that she was so uncomfortable, but it resulted in a good conversation about boundaries and consent." The next day she told Draper they could scrap the contract because the act of writing it up had empowered her to talk to him directly.

A Cathartic Approach

Brett A. Sokolow, president of Atixa, the Association of Title IX Administrators, expects more colleges will now look at alternative ways to resolve disputes, especially in light of the signals coming from DeVos. Restorative justice might be a cathartic approach that works for some victims, but it’s not the panacea some hope for, he said.

Restorative justice "lends itself to much more warm and fuzzy and kind and gentle sanctions," Sokolow said, and it’s unclear how people will feel about it if it becomes widespread.

In his consulting work, he said he often hears from middle-age women who were victimized in college and who wish they had taken stronger action.

In such cases, he said, "The fear of an 18-year-old thinking ‘I don’t want to make too much out of it’ becomes the regret of a 45-year-old saying ‘I wish I’d taken it more seriously.’"

Carly N. Mee, a lawyer who serves as interim executive director of SurvJustice, a victim-advocacy group, said restorative justice makes sense in resolving some conflicts, but not those involving sexual violence.

“It's retraumatizing for some victims to even have to walk past the perpetrator, so to put them in a room and force them to listen to their voice is inappropriate.”

"It’s retraumatizing for some victims to even have to walk past the perpetrator, so to put them in a room and force them to listen to their voice is inappropriate," she said.

Even if restorative justice is introduced as an option, a survivor of sexual abuse may feel pressured by the college, or by the alleged offender, to "make things quietly go away" by taking the restorative-justice approach, Mee said. It may be cheaper and less publicly damaging for the college than a full-blown Title IX investigation. But the result could be an inadequate penalty for the accused and a less-satisfying outcome for the accuser, she said.

Advocates of restorative justice say it could appeal to someone in a dating-violence case, for instance, when the accuser doesn’t want a former boyfriend kicked out of school, but wants to make sure he understands the impact of what he did. Mee calls that argument a "red herring."

"I represent survivors every day," she said, "and I haven’t had people ask, ‘Is there another way I can just sit down and talk it out with them?’"

Colby Bruno, a lawyer for the Victim Rights Law Center, is skeptical about restorative justice in cases involving sexual assault. Her center has helped a handful of people sign contracts in which alleged abusers agree to leave the college and not return, a restraining order helps ensure they stay away, and the college tells his friends they can’t harass her either.

"It almost never works," Bruno said. "The apology from the perpetrator is never sincere. The victim never feels safe, and the friends can never stop torturing the victim."

Draper understands the skepticism, but said the statements participating students have shared with each other speak volumes.

"I am not out to ruin your life," one wrote. "Rather, I hope you learn from this experience because no other person should have to experience what you put me through."

Marc Parry contributed reporting to this article. Katherine Mangan writes about community colleges, completion efforts, and job training, as well as other topics in daily news. Follow her on Twitter @KatherineMangan, or email her at katherine.mangan@chronicle.com.

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Roger Brooks: Restorative justice program should include explaining harm | Opinion

Roger Brooks: Restorative justice program should include explaining harm | Opinion | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
Dear Editor: I applaud the Cap Times for its extensive feature article on restorative justice. It is excellent in explaining the emphasis on restoring offenders to a crime-free life by
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Empathy, justice: Restorative Justice initiatives prove successful at crime prevention, promoting community understanding | Grand Forks Herald

Empathy, justice: Restorative Justice initiatives prove successful at crime prevention, promoting community understanding | Grand Forks Herald | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
About 90 percent of juvenile offenders who participate in Lutheran Social Services' restorative justice program never commit a crime again, Director of Youth Interventions Joel Friesz said.The success, he said, is due in large part to the program's way of "getting to the root of th
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A Different Type of Night Court Is Keeping People Out of Jail | Vera Institute

A Different Type of Night Court Is Keeping People Out of Jail | Vera Institute | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
In one Arizona county, a new justice initiative allows those with minor offenses to face a judge and resolve outstanding warrants without facing time. It’s…
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Editorial: New approach needed to deal with Central Louisiana drug crisis

Editorial: New approach needed to deal with Central Louisiana drug crisis | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
Police, judges can't cure drug crisis alone, it will take the entire community working together to be successful
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Georgia Charter School Wants To Reintroduce Paddling

Georgia Charter School Wants To Reintroduce Paddling | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
A Care2 petition urges the Georgia School of Innovation and the Classics not to reintroduce paddling, an ineffective and destructive way to manage behavior.
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Teach conflict resolution, reduce violent crime | Opinion

Teach conflict resolution, reduce violent crime | Opinion | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
Conflict resolution instruction not only creates a less violent school environment, but academic scores increase as students learn new problem solving skills.
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Pod Squad: Why We Should Stop Punishing Drug Users

Pod Squad: Why We Should Stop Punishing Drug Users | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
The leader of a national drug policy group talks about recreational marijuana and criminal justice reform.
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After helping heroin addicts, Sheriff Karl Leonard expands recovery program | Chesterfield Observer

After helping heroin addicts, Sheriff Karl Leonard expands recovery program | Chesterfield Observer | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
Many lives have been changed for the better since Chesterfield Sheriff Karl Leonard launched a groundbreaking recovery program for heroin-addicted inmates at the county jail in 2016. Now he thinks it's time to tackle addiction more broadly. ASH DANIEL Karl Leonard isn't afraid to take a calculated risk. The Chesterfield sheriff walked out onto a narrow limb when he launched a voluntary recovery program for heroin-addicted male inmates at the county jail in March 2016, knowing that if anything went awry, he alone would be held responsible. Since then, he has created an identical program for female inmates by carving out space for them in a jail that had never permanently housed women. National, state and local leaders, including U.S. Sen. Tim Kaine and Virginia Gov. Ralph Northam, have visited the jail to listen to the inmates' stories and learn more about why the program has been successful in helping many of them break the cycle of addiction. Now Leonard is in the process of taking
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Shutting Down The School-To-Prison Pipeline - Consumer Protection - United States

Shutting Down The School-To-Prison Pipeline - Consumer Protection - United States | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
Public schools across the country too often rely on harsh disciplinary measures. United States Consumer Protection Proskauer Rose LLP 20 Sep 2018
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Communities for Restorative Justice town rep sworn in - > YourArlington.com - Your news, your views

Communities for Restorative Justice town rep sworn in - > YourArlington.com - Your news, your views | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
Chief Frederick Ryan attended the swearing-in ceremony for Erin Freeborn, who will represent the Arlington Police Department's restorative-justice partner organization on the newly formed state restorative justice advisory committee.
Freeborn, the executive director of Communities for Restorative Justice, was sworn into the committee at a ceremony in Governor Charlie Baker's officer at the State House last week, has played an integral role in advocating for the restorative-justice approach and its expansion statewide.
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From November, survivors of sex crimes can access restorative justice

From November, survivors of sex crimes can access restorative justice | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it

Survivors of domestic violence or sexual crimes will be able to access restorative justice for the first time from November, as the final stage of the scheme is rolled out.

Restorative justice brings offenders face-to-face with their victims so they can try to repair the harm caused by their crime.

New laws passed on Tuesday will allow underage offenders who don't confess to their crimes straight away to participate in the scheme for the first time. Before, only offenders who accepted responsibility immediately could access restorative justice.

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Repentance isn’t only for Yom Kippur - Israel News - Haaretz.com

Repentance isn’t only for Yom Kippur - Israel News - Haaretz.com | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
The quest for personal atonement in the Jewish tradition that culminates on Yom Kippur reflects Judaism’s centuries-old system of pursuing forgiveness through repair and repentance. It also resonates with the increasingly popular tool of restorative justice, which in Hebrew is called “tzedek me’acheh” – the justice that comes from mending what is broken.

Restorative justice is usually defined as the practice of bringing victims and offenders together in voluntary mediated dialogue. That is, of course, most complicated – and rare – when it comes to conflict-related violence.
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10 things Grand Rapids schools' retiring superintendent is proud of

10 things Grand Rapids schools' retiring superintendent is proud of | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
Teresa Weatherall Neal is planning to retire on July 1.
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Point Aconi man's fraud case referred to restorative justice | Local | News | Local | Cape Breton Post

Point Aconi man's fraud case referred to restorative justice | Local | News | Local | Cape Breton Post | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it

SYDNEY, N.S. — A Point Aconi man has had a charge of fraud over $5,000 reduced and had his case referred to restorative justice.

Reginald Murray Mitchell, 59, of Point Aconi, is now charged with fraud under $5,000 and uttering a forged
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A Shocking Number of Killers Murder Their Coworkers

A Shocking Number of Killers Murder Their Coworkers | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
Homicide is the third-most-prevalent cause of workplace death.
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More to the issue of violence that might be prevented with ADR and RJ....postal violence was "solved" when Folger & Bush introduced ADR into the postal system, why not try it in schools and other work places.

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Americans Want to Believe Jobs Are the Solution to Poverty. They’re Not. - The New York Times

Americans Want to Believe Jobs Are the Solution to Poverty. They’re Not. - The New York Times | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
U.S. unemployment is down and jobs are going unfilled. But for people without much education, the real question is: Do those jobs pay enough to live on?
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Mock trial tourney provides real-life benefits

Mock trial tourney provides real-life benefits | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
Two local legal professionals want to give high school students an interesting opportunity to improve their public speaking and critical thinking skills while bolstering their resumes.Dane Appleton…
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19-year-old sneaks into Anchorage tunnel and sets up apartment, with a table and a cat

19-year-old sneaks into Anchorage tunnel and sets up apartment, with a table and a cat | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
Officials said the makeshift apartment was an example of a determination, and a system that struggles to quickly connect people with housing.
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Seems like a solution in search of a problem to me... what do you think with this sort of situation?

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New report calls for use of restorative justice to tackle sexual harassment

New report calls for use of restorative justice to tackle sexual harassment | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
Formal approaches that are centred around blame and retribution are not the answer to tackling sexual harassment in the workplace, says a new white paper published today by resolution experts The TC
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Healing as a community –

Healing as a community – | Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation, and Restorative Justice | Scoop.it
Ubuntu Philadelphia returns to St. Joe'sUbuntu Philadelphia hosted its second public forum on community violence in the Cardinal Foley Center on Sept. 8.The event, founded by Rosalind Pich
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