Almanac Pests
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Almanac Pests
Plant pests of current importance (potential or existing risk for the European region)
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Detection and Sequence Diversity Analysis of Viroids Isolated from Grapevine & Apple

Detection and Sequence Diversity Analysis of Viroids Isolated from Grapevine & Apple | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

The first report is made about Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Australia grapevine viroid (AGVd), Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd1) and Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 2 (GYSVd2)  in China.

A new viroid was found in grapevine sample, named Chinese grapevine viroid (CGVd), which has less than 90% similarity to GYSVd1 and GYSVd2.

Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) was not detected in all the grapevine samples.

Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd) was detected in apple samples. The sequences of ASSVd Liaoning isolate and Xinjiang isolate have a top similarity with the sequences reported by Puchta.

28 HSVd sequences, 18 GYSVd sequences, 7 CGVd sequences, 8 AGVd sequences, 3 ASSVd sequences, and 5 CBVd1 sequences were deposited into GenBank.

Agricultural Science Research Paper, 166 p

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Virus Classification - Wiki Article

Virus classification is the process of naming viruses and placing them into a taxonomic system. Species names generally take the form of [Disease] virus. Similar to the classification systems used for cellular organisms, virus classification is the subject of taxonomists. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is the only body charged by the International Union of Microbiological Societies with the task of developing, refining, and maintaining a universal virus taxonomy - see ICTV classification.

Baltimore classification (se picture) is a classification system that places viruses into one of seven groups depending on a combination of their nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). In the original @ Virus Classification - Wiki Article also subviral agents like viroids, satellits and prions are described. They are smaller than viruses but have some of their properties.



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Forest Health Initiative

The initiative will initially focus on restoring a test species and an icon of eastern U. S. forests – the American chestnut – whose numbers were decimated during the past century by chestnut blight. While working to restore the American chestnut as the test tree, the program will explore new approaches to enhance the health and vitality of other trees, forests, and forest ecosystems. The Initiative will use a holistic approach to address emerging forest health threats by assessing not just the science but the societal and regulatory issues concurrently.

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Charcoal Rot Invades Soybean Fields ... - Corn and Soybean Digest

Charcoal Rot Invades Soybean Fields ... - Corn and Soybean Digest | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it
"The fungus can infect a number of crops, including corn, which limits the effectiveness of tillage and rotations for managing disease," she says. Growers should look for plants exhibiting symptoms similar to drought stress, ...
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EPPO Alert List: addition of Aromia bungii

In 2011, the presence of Aromia bungii (Redneck longhorned beetle) was recorded for the first time in one location in Germany. Because A. bungii is a fruit tree pest originating from Asia which was previously not known to occur in the EPPO region, the NPPO of Germany and the EPPO Panel on Phytosanitary Measures suggested its addition to the EPPO Alert List.

 

http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Alert_List/insects/Aromia_bungii.htm


Via Muriel Suffert, Anne-Sophie Roy
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A Destructive New Disease of Citrus in China Caused by Cryptosporiopsis citricarpa sp. nov.

A Destructive New Disease of Citrus in China Caused by Cryptosporiopsis citricarpa sp. nov. | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

Defoliation, dieback and mortality of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), as well as kumquat (Fortunella margarita), in Chenggu County, Shaanxi Province, China was first noticed in 2006 and caused substantial economic losses to citrus production. The incidence of leaves infected approached 100% in some badly infected orchards. The disease prevailed only in late winter and early spring, where early symptoms were rounded and target-like spots on leaves. The disease was named target spot. Black conidiomata were observed on the upper surface of the leaves. A Cryptosporiopsis species was consistently recovered from the infected leaves, shoots, and branches. The name Cryptosporiopsis citricarpa sp. nov. is given to accommodate the fungal pathogen in this study.

Plant Disease, Volume 96, Issue 6, Page 804-812, June 2012.

By Li Zhu, Xinghong Wang, Feng Huang, Jinze Zhang, and Hongye Li, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, China; Dekuan Ding, Citrus Institute of Chenggu County, and Kevin D. Hyde, Institute of Excellence in Fungal Research, Thailand; King Saud University, College of Science, Botany and Microbiology Department, Saudi Arabia

http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-11-0775

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Spatial Patterns and Spread of Potato Zebra Chip Disease in the Texas Panhandle

Spatial Patterns and Spread of Potato Zebra Chip Disease in the Texas Panhandle | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

Zebra chip (ZC, also known as papa manchada and papa rayada) is a disease that is affecting potato production in the southwestern United States and in other countries, and which has been linked to potato psyllids (Bactericera cockerelli, which infests both potatoes and tomatoes) that harbor the bacterial plant pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’.

Until recently, the epidemiology of ZC was unknown, motivating research to elucidate the spatial and temporal patterns of ZC infections in potato fields. Studies were performed in multiple commercial potato fields located in the Texas Panhandle, wherein locations of ZC-affected potato plants were georeferenced or counted within large plots and along belt transects consisting of contiguous 10-by-10-m quadrats. The frequency of ZC infections within belt transect quadrats was well described by negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial distributions, in agreement with observed clustering of infections and distance-based spatial statistical results.


Plant Disease, Volume 96, Issue 7, Page 948-956, July 2012.

By D. C. Henne, F. Workneh and C. M. Rush, Texas AgriLife Research

http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-11-0805-RE

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Beetle-fungus Disease Threatens Crops and Landscape Trees in Southern California

Beetle-fungus Disease Threatens Crops and Landscape Trees in Southern California | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

RIVERSIDE, Calif. — A plant pathologist at the University of California, Riverside has identified a fungus that has been linked to the branch dieback and general decline of several backyard avocado and landscape trees in residential neighborhoods of Los Angeles County.

The fungus is a new species of Fusarium. Scientists are working on characterizing its specific identification. It is transmitted by the Tea Shot Hole Borer (Euwallacea fornicatus), an exotic ambrosia beetle that is smaller than a sesame seed. The disease it spreads is referred to as “Fusarium dieback.”

“This beetle has also been found in Israel and since 2009, the beetle-fungus combination has caused severe damage to avocado trees there,” said Akif Eskalen, an extension plant pathologist UC Riverside, whose lab identified the fungus.

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Tuin & Landschap | Anoplophora chinensis demarcated areas

Tuin & Landschap | Anoplophora chinensis demarcated areas | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

After finding of Anoplophora chinensis in the Netherlands, the official service  demarcated areas and implemented eradication measures in: Boskoop, Westland, Maasland, Krimpen, Hoofddorp and Delft. Young tree producing companies that are located in the demarcated areas, where East Asian longhorn beetle was found, demand compensation. Eradication measures in demarcated areas are defined by Commission decision 2012/138/EC. Only in Boskoop area, 160 registered companies are affected by phytosanitary measures. The Dutch official service has found 65 high risk locations like wood packing companies in these areas and inspected host plants at several houndreds of sites in last year with the aim to early detect newly infested trees and eradicate the introduced insect species.


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Emerging Problems of Tospoviruses (Bunyaviridae) and their Management in the Indian Subcontinent

Tospoviruses have emerged as serious viral pathogens affecting the cultivation of several field and horticultural crops. In the Indian subcontinent, due to their economic impact on a wide range of important crops, most of the research was carried out only in India, although tospoviral diseases cause significant problems in several other countries in the subcontinent including Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

 

Plant Disease, Volume 96, Issue 4, Page 468-479, April 2012.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-11-0520

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First Report of Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Turkey

First Report of Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Turkey | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

The disease in on the EPPO Alert list of emerging plant pests.

 

A new disease was observed during the spring and autumn of 2009 and 2010 on kiwifruit plants (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) in Rize Province of Turkey. Disease incidence was estimated as 3% in approximately 10 ha. Symptoms were characterized by dark brown spots surrounded by yellow halos on leaves and cankers with reddish exudate production on twigs and stems. Eight representative bacterial strains were isolated from leaf spots and tissues under the bark on King's B medium (KB) and identified as Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae on the basis of biochemical, physiological (1,2), and PCR tests (3).

 

Bastas KK, Karakaya A (2012) First Report of Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Turkey. Plant Disease, Volume 96, Issue 3, Page 452, March 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-11-0675

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Golden nematode still has North Fork potato farms under quarantine

Golden nematode still has North Fork potato farms under quarantine | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

The golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) is a microscopic cyst-producing worm that mainly infects potatoes and tomatoes. The USDA considers the nematode “potentially more dangerous than any of the insects and diseases affecting the potato industry.

Despite the original article states that this nematode is the main pest in Europe, it is actually regulated quarantine pest in European Union. The potato cyst nematode control directive regulates survey, testing and measures in production, processing and trade to prevent the spread of potato cyst nematodes.

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Luperomorpha xanthodera, a flea beetle recently introduced into Europe

Luperomorpha xanthodera, a flea beetle recently introduced into Europe | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

During the last decade, the presence of a new flea beetle species, Luperomorpha xanthodera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has been reported from several European countries on ornamental plants. L. xanthodera is a polyphagous species which originates from China. In Europe, it was first reported in 2003 in the United Kingdom on roses (in garden centres). In Italy, the insect was first reported in 2006 in Toscana as Luperomorpha nigripennis (see EPPO RS 2007/195), but subsequently identified as L. xanthodera. The presence of this new species has also been reported from France (2008), the Netherlands (2008, on roses in garden centres), Switzerland, Germany (2009), Hungary (2010, on ornamental plants grown in containers which had been imported from Italy), and Austria (2011, in a private garden near Salzburg). Its currently known geographical distribution can be summarized as follows:
Asia: China (no details).
EPPO region: Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom.

 

Del Bene G, Conti B (2009) Notes on the biology and ethology of Luperomorpha xanthodera, a flea beetle recently introduced into Europe. Bulletin of Insectology 62(1), 61-68.

http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/pdfarticles/vol62-2009-061-068delbene.pdf


Via Anne-Sophie Roy
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Polymorphism and Population Structure of two Pospoviroids

Polymorphism and Population Structure of two Pospoviroids | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

MyJournals.org. Analysis of Sequence Polymorphism and Population Structure of Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid and Potato spindle tuber viroid in Viroid-Infected Tomato Plants is presented. The results demonstrated for the first time that TCDVd, like many other viroids including PSTVd, exists in host plants as a collective group comprised of various sequence variants. However, in comparison to PSTVd, TCDVd is less polymorphic in tomato plants as fewer variants and lower haplotype/nucleotide diversities were observed.

Viruses, Vol. 4, Pages 940-953 

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Viroids

Potatato Spindle Tuber disease was observed already in 1922, but causal agent - small RNA particle, later named Viroid, was discovered only 50 years later (Diener, 1971).

 

Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur A Seminar on : viroids and prionsGuided By : Submitted By :Dr. S. K.

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UK Government considers ban on ash tree movements

UK Government considers ban on ash tree movements | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

Forestry Commission News. The Forestry Commission, Fera and the Scottish Government's plant health team are requiring the destruction of all infected ash plants before the disease...

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'Save our Citrus' - a CDFA video about citrus huanglongbing (USA)

A video from CDFA about the first detection of citrus huanglongbing in California. 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHjsBEG1J94

 


Via Anne-Sophie Roy
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EPPO Reporting Service no. 6

EPPO Reporting Service no. 6 | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

The last issue of the EPPO Reporting Service has just been released. Read more about 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum', citrus leaf spot diseases caused by Cryptosporiopsis species and many other plant pests ...

 

http://archives.eppo.int/EPPOReporting/2012/Rse-1206.pdf

 

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Bio-Nematon: How to control Root knot nematode

Bio-Nematon: How to control Root knot nematode | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

Bio-Nematon controls effectively the economically important nematodes like root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne), burrowing nematodes, cyst nematodes, lesion nematodes etc., from among wide range of crops.

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Woolly Cup Grass - Pest Risk Management

Woolly Cup Grass - Pest Risk Management | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

Canadian Food Inspection Agency will regulate plant species Eriochloa villosa (Woolly Cup Grass) as a quarantine pest.

Pest Risk Management Document examines the risks associated with the introduction of Eriochloa villosa (Thunb.) Kunth (woolly cup grass) into Canada and outlines potential risk management options. The following commodities are recognized to present risk of introducing seeds of woolly cup grass: grain and seeds (propagative and non-propagative) of wheat and triticale, rye, barley, oat, corn and soybean. 

If legislation is adopted, as phytosanitary measure all imports of grain into Canada will be required to be certified free from Eriochloa villosa (woolly cup grass) in addition to any existing phytosanitary requirements for those commodities.  All shipments will require proof of absence of Eriochloa villosa, such as a phytosanitary certificate with additional declarations or another method of verifying freedom from contaminants that is approved in writing by the CFIA.

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Root-Knot Nematodes in Golf Course Greens of the Western United States

Root-Knot Nematodes in Golf Course Greens of the Western United States | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

A survey of 238 golf courses in 10 states of the western United States found root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in 60% of the putting greens sampled. Sequence and phylogenetic molecular analyses were used to identify specimens from 110 golf courses. The most common species, Meloidogyne naasi, was found in 58 golf courses distributed from Southern California to Washington in the coastal or cooler areas of those states. In the warmer regions of the Southwest, M. marylandi was recovered from 38 golf courses and M. graminis from 11 golf courses. Two golf courses in Washington were infested with M. minor, which is the first record of this nematode in the Western Hemisphere. Columbia root-knot nematode, M. chitwoodi, was found in a single golf course in California.

 

McClure MA, Nischwitz C, Skantar AM, Schmitt ME, Subbotin SA (2012) Root-Knot Nematodes in Golf Course Greens of the Western United States.- Plant Disease Volume 96, Number 5 Pages 635-647 http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-11-0808

 

 

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EFSA: Plant health risk assessment

EFSA: Plant health risk assessment | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

EFSA is the EU risk assessment body for food and feed safety, including risk assessment of organisms hramful to plants with regard to their introduction into European Union and their spread within EU and its Member States.

 

On 19th of March, 2012 the third meeting of EFSA’s Scientific Network for Risk Assessment in Plant Health met in Parma to discuss pertinent issues in pest risk assessment on a national and European level. The aim of the network, since 2010 a new platform for cooperation between EFSA and national plant health authorities, is to exchange views on improving data collection and harmonising pest risk assessment across the European Union. The participants discussed possible areas for cooperation, including sharing on-going pest risk assessment activities, identifying emerging risks and other priorities in the area of plant health.

 

The meeting brought together plant health experts from EU Member States and Norway, observers from Turkey, Croatia, Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and representatives of the European Commission DG SANCO, European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation and EFSA staff. It gave EFSA an opportunity to give an overview of its activities, including an update on current risk assessment work, cooperation with Member States' institutions, outsourcing, research priorities  and Horizon 2020.

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Purdue Entomology Centennial Website

Purdue Entomology Centennial Website | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it
Ferris, Virginia R. | 546-552. Ferris, V.R., W.F. Mai, and H.H. Lyon, A new method for counting golden nematode cysts. United States .... McSorley, R., J.M. Ferris, and V.R. Ferris, A predictive simulation model of corn-nematode interactions.
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Rhizoctonia Web Blight—A New Disease on Mint in Israel

Rhizoctonia Web Blight—A New Disease on Mint in Israel | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

Mentha longifolia is produced in and exported from Israel with annual revenue of US$16 million. In 2010, a severe epidemic of unknown etiology reduced growers' returns up to 50%. Disease symptoms included water-soaked lesions, necrosis, and web-like mycelia on plants. Two isolates (JV-1 and BS-1) from randomly selected symptomatic plants were identified as members of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis groups. The authores state this is the first report of Rhizoctonia web blight in mint in Israel.

 

Nitzan N, Chaimovitsh D, Davidovitch-Rekanati R, Sharon M, Dudai N (2012) Rhizoctonia Web Blight—A New Disease on Mint in Israel. Plant Disease, Volume 96, Issue 3, Page 370-378, March 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-11-0271

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First Report of a Soft Rot of Philodendron ‘Con-go’ in China Caused by Dickeya dieffenbachiae

First Report of a Soft Rot of Philodendron ‘Con-go’ in China Caused by Dickeya dieffenbachiae | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

Lin et al.  (2012) has recently made first report on identification of bacterium Dickeya dieffenbachiae in China. Bacteria cause soft rot of Philodendron and can be transffered by plants and growing medium.


Philodendron is a popular foliage plant cultivated in interiorscapes of homes, offices, and malls throughout China. A severe outbreak of a soft rot of Philodendron ‘Con-go’ occurred in Guangzhou, China from 2010 to 2011. The disease was characterized by leaf infections starting as pinpoint spots that are water soaked and yellow to pale brown. The lesions are sometimes surrounded by a diffuse yellow halo. When the humidity is high and temperatures are warm to hot, the spots expand rapidly, becoming slimy, irregular, and sunken with light tan centers, darker brown borders, and diffused yellow margins and may involve the entire leaf in a few days. An invasion of the midrib and larger veins by the causal bacterium often results in advancement into the petiole and stem.

A survey of three areas of production of Philodendron ‘Con-go’ (5 ha) in Guangzhou revealed that 91% of the fields were affected at an incidence ranging from 15 to 30%. Biolog analysis identified the isolates as Pectobacterium chrysanthemi alias Dickeya sp. PCR and other molecular tests followed by bioassey identified Dickeya dieffenbachiae, which ia a causal agens of soft rot of Philodendron ‘Con-go' in China.


 

Lin BR, Shen HF, Zhou JN, Pu XM, Chen ZN, Feng JJ (2012) First Report of a Soft Rot of Philodendron ‘Con-go’ in China Caused by Dickeya dieffenbachiae.- Plant Disease 96(2012)3 p 452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-11-0795

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