Ecosystèmes Tropicaux
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L'annuaire des professionnels du bois-énergie et des biocombustibles solides est disponible

L'annuaire des professionnels du bois-énergie et des biocombustibles solides est disponible | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Après l'actualisation de son annuaire des professionnels du chauffage au bois domestique, la commission biomasse du syndicat des énergies renouvelables (SER-FBE) publie le premier annuaire de la filière française du bois énergie et des combustibles...
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Ecosystèmes Tropicaux
Veille sur les écosystèmes tropicaux. Réalisée par Agroparistech - Centre de Montpellier - A. Filatre
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Gender matters in forest landscape restoration

Gender matters in forest landscape restoration | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Delving into Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) and gender equality considerations, this infographic looks at restoration efforts, safeguards, opportunities and more. With a host of benefits available for those practicing restoration also comes risks, and this publications outlines the issues involved and ways to move forward.
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Social Forestry – why and for whom? A comparison of policies in Vietnam and Indonesia

Community forestry or social forestry (henceforth referred collectively as SF) programs have become new modes of forest management empowering local managers and hence, allowing integration of diverse local practices and support of local livelihoods. Implementation of these initiatives, however, face multiple challenges. State-prescribed community programs, for example, will remain isolated efforts if changes in the overall economic and social governance …
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Amérique latine | Quelles politiques publiques pour favoriser l’agro-écologie ? - CIRAD

Amérique latine | Quelles politiques publiques pour favoriser l’agro-écologie ? - CIRAD | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Amérique latine | Quelles politiques publiques pour favoriser l’agro-écologie ? : Une analyse comparée des politiques publiques en faveur de l’agro-écologie en Amérique latine montre que malgré l’essor de ce courant, il reste encore très marginal en termes de production, d
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Amazon rainforest modulation of water security in the Pantanal wetland

Amazon rainforest modulation of water security in the Pantanal wetland | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Publication date: 1 April 2018
Source:Science of The Total Environment, Volumes 619–620
Author(s): Ivan Bergier, Mario L. Assine, Michael M. McGlue, Cleber J.R. Alho, Aguinaldo Silva, Renato L. Guerreiro, João C. Carvalho
The Pantanal is a large wetland mainly located in Brazil, whose natural resources are important for local, regional and global economies. Many human activities in the region rely on Pantanal's ecosystem services including cattle breeding for beef production, professional and touristic fishing, and contemplative tourism. The conservation of natural resources and ecosystems services provided by the Pantanal wetland must consider strategies for water security. We explored precipitation data from 1926 to 2016 provided by a regional network of rain gauge stations managed by the Brazilian Government. A timeseries obtained by dividing the monthly accumulated-rainfall by the number of rainy days indicated a positive trend of the mean rate of rainy days (mm/day) for the studied period in all seasons. We assessed the linkage of Pantanal's rainfall patterns with large-scale climate data in South America provided by NOAA/ESRL from 1949 to 2016. Analysis of spatiotemporal correlation maps indicated that, in agreement with previous studies, the Amazon biome plays a significant role in controlling summer rainfall in the Pantanal. Based on these spatiotemporal maps, a multi-linear regression model was built to predict the mean rate of summer rainy days in Pantanal by 2100, relative to the 1961–1990 mean reference. We found that the deforestation of the Amazon rainforest has profound implications for water security and the conservation of Pantanal's ecosystem services.
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Des formations vidéo pour diffuser les bonnes pratiques agroécologiques

Des formations vidéo pour diffuser les bonnes pratiques agroécologiques | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Depuis 2010, le Gret et l’Institut cambodgien pour la recherche et le développement rural (Cird) mettent en œuvre le projet [Lire la suite]
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Sustainable mangrove management an essential response to climate change

Sustainable mangrove management an essential response to climate change | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
The sustainable management of mangroves is crucial for global efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change and requires much more attention from policymakers, according to ITTO’s Executive Director, Gerhard Dieterle, who made the remarks at a side-event during the 23rd Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC COP23), now underway in Bonn, Germany. Mangroves store large amounts of carbon, protect and increase the resilience of coastlines, and are sources of income for millions of coastal-dwelling people.
Dr Dieterle called for sound land-use planning in coastal regions, integrated mangrove management for multiple benefits, and innovative financial mechanisms to enable communities to improve their livelihoods, protect coastlines and arrest mangrove loss and degradation, thereby helping achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 13, “Combating climate change”, SDG 14, “Life below water”, and other SDGs.
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Data synthesis of carbon distribution in particle size fractions of tropical soils: Implications for soil carbon storage potential in croplands

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Geoderma, Volume 313
Author(s): Kenji Fujisaki, Lydie Chapuis-Lardy, Alain Albrecht, Tantely Razafimbelo, Jean-Luc Chotte, Tiphaine Chevallier
Organic carbon saturation in soils refers to the theoretical maximum soil organic carbon (SOC) that can be associated with and stabilized on fine silt plus clay particles (F<20μm). We reviewed the literature dealing with SOC distribution between soil fractions to evaluate carbon saturation for tropical soils and estimate the C storage potential of cropland. We collected 258 data points on SOC distribution between soil fractions in tropical soils from 84 sites in 27 countries. We used boundary line analysis to estimate the maximum stabilized SOC depending on soil group, clay type and land use. SOC storage potential was calculated as the SOC saturation deficit, the difference between the actual SOC content and the maximum stabilized SOC content. We found that the maximum SOC in the fine fraction of tropical soils (53gCkg−1 fine fraction) was lower than previous assessments of global SOC storage scale based mainly on temperate soils. The F<20μm fractions were closer to SOC saturation in forest soils than in croplands. The cropland had a higher soil C storage potential, but changing agricultural management practices did not fill the deficit that is calculated using the whole dataset. The deficit was much lower when it was estimated with grassland or cropland data only: this provides a more realistic estimate for SOC storage potential for croplands. The SOC content in the coarser fraction (F>50μm) did not depend on soil texture and significantly contributed to the total SOC, especially in sandy soils (41.3%). This is affected by changes in agricultural management practices. We concluded that, although the aim of increasing SOC stabilization originally arose from climate change mitigation strategies, it must now be more viewed as being more relevant to food security and local adaptation to climate change.
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Variation of main terrestrial carbon stocks at the landscape-scale are shaped by soil in a tropical rainforest

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Geoderma, Volume 313
Author(s): Armando Navarrete-Segueda, Miguel Martínez-Ramos, Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez, Lorenzo Vázquez-Selem, Christina Siebe
Economic incentives to offset carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions associated with deforestation and other human activities affecting forest ecosystems depend on robust estimates of changes in forest carbon (C) stocks. Such stocks are difficult to assess in heterogeneous landscapes where the soil properties and the forest structure and functionality vary in space and time. Here we show that geopedological mapping is useful to quantify the above- and belowground C stocks in the different land units of the Lacandon tropical rainforest, southeast Mexico. We used an ordination method to recognize major gradients in the soil and we applied regression analyses to identify relationships between soil properties and AGB. Total forest C stocks differed among land units (287 to 478MgCha−1 in limestone mountains and fluvial terraces, respectively). Soil constrains like rooting depth (ranging from 0.13 to 1.34m), available water storage capacity (ranging from 32.3 to 161.4Lm−2) and Al saturation in the ion exchange complex (0 to 22.6% Alsat) were correlated with the aboveground biomass (AGB) C stock by affecting the stem size and density of trees. Soil organic carbon (SOC) in the solum represented 22 to 46% of the total forest C stock in the different landscape units, of which 28 to 45% was stored below 30cm depth. Therefore, an accurate assessment of forest C stocks must consider not only the variation between land units with contrasting soil properties, but also the solum depth. Our results indicate that stratified sampling based on geopedologic mapping is useful to allocate incentives assessment of C storage at relatively low costs and with reasonable effort.
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Restoring forest landscapes: A question of community rights

Restoring forest landscapes: A question of community rights | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
What does forest landscape restoration mean for tenure, governance and communities? About 30 percent of the earth’s surface is covered by forests, and around 1.6 billion people depend on them for significant contributions to their environments and livelihoods. Yet, 12 million hectares of intact forests are lost in the tropics every year, either through permanent destruction or degradation. Forest Landscape …
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The impact of climate change and energy resources on biodiversity loss: Evidence from a panel of selected Asian countries

Publication date: March 2018
Source:Renewable Energy, Volume 117
Author(s): Miraj Ahmed Bhuiyan, Musarrat Jabeen, Khalid Zaman, Aqeel Khan, Jamilah Ahmad, Sanil S. Hishan
This study examined the relationships between climate change, energy resources, growth specific factors and their resulting impact on biodiversity loss in a panel of 18 selected Asian countries during the period of 2000–2014. The study employed panel fixed effect regression and panel quantile regression to assess the influence of different factors on biodiversity loss at low, medium, and high levels quantile distribution. The results show that climatic factors increase aquaculture production, whereas energy sources and growth specific factors affected the production of aquaculture in a panel of selected countries. Potential habitat area is affected by high population growth and renewable energy consumption whereas Global Environment Facility (GEF) biodiversity index is affected by average precipitation, foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, and per capita income. Climatic factors and renewable energy both supported the total fisheries production, whereas nitrous oxide emissions, renewable internal freshwater resources, FDI inflows, per capita income, and population growth affected the production of total fisheries at different quantile distributions.
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Conservation des écosystèmes forestiers : l'Union européenne accorde 10 milliards de Fcfa au Cameroun - Médiaterre

Conservation des écosystèmes forestiers : l'Union européenne accorde 10 milliards de Fcfa au Cameroun - Médiaterre | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
L'actualité du développement durable avec Médiaterre, le système d'information mondial francophone pour le développement durable concourt à la mise en oeuvre du développement durable dans l'espace francophone par la diffusion et l'échange d'informations, et l'aide à la constitution de réseaux de coopération.
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An integrated decision support system for the Mediterranean forests - Land Use Policy

An integrated decision support system for the Mediterranean forests - Land Use Policy | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it

Mediterranean forests contain a relevant biological diversity and are relevant for local economy. However, they are subject to various risks, particularly the risk of forest fires. This turns the critical decisions of forest managers, affecting both the long-term future of the forest and daily activities, to be difficult. To simulate decisions, and help managers and policy makers, a decision support system, which integrates the biological, environmental and economic management perspectives of agricultural and forest areas, was developed and considers the activities existing in the territory. The decision support system considers the characteristics of the biophysical units that comprise the territorial study area, production technologies and conservation of agro-forestry goods and preferences of managers or stakeholders. The proposed approach was applied in a pilot Forest Intervention Zone (FIZ) located within the Algarve region inner land. The results show that the decision support system proposed is an important tool for managing the territory and for implementing the manager's decisions.


Via CIHEAM News
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A review of research on the effects of drought and temperature stress and increased CO2 on Theobroma cacao L., and the role of genetic diversity to address climate change - Forests, Trees and Agrof...

A review of research on the effects of drought and temperature stress and increased CO2 on Theobroma cacao L., and the role of genetic diversity to address climate change - Forests, Trees and Agrof... | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
The global status of research on the effects of drought, temperature and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the cacao plant, and the role of genetic diversity in producing more resilient cacao, are presented in this report. With the aim to enhance what we know about the resilience of cacao to climate change, and generate a comprehensive understanding of the …
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Farm-forestry in the Peruvian Amazon and the feasibility of its regulation through forest policy reform

Farm-forestry in the Peruvian Amazon and the feasibility of its regulation through forest policy reform | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
In 2015 the Peruvian government launched a new set of regulations associated with the forest law aimed to increase competiveness of the timber sector, ensure the conservation and sustainable production of timber on public and private forestlands, and improve rural livelihoods. Small-scale timber producers have been marginalized in the sector in the past, and the new regulations claim to provide …
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2017 - ICT in agriculture: connecting smallholders to knowledge, networks and institutions

Portail de veille thématique pour les sciences sociales en Agriculture, Alimentation, Espace et Environnement
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Rule of Law and Avoided Deforestation from Protected Areas

Publication date: April 2018
Source:Ecological Economics, Volume 146
Author(s): Ryan Abman
Global efforts to protect biodiversity and slow deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas; land set aside that cannot be deforested or developed. This paper studies the macro-level relationship between rule of law and variation in avoided deforestation from protected areas. Using recent global satellite data from 2000 to 2012, I estimate the country-level avoided deforestation of protected areas established in this period via nearest-neighbor matching. I then use weighted least-squares regressions to explain country-level variation in estimated avoided deforestation as a function of a country’s governance characteristics as well as other country-level controls. Across 71 countries in this study period, protected areas were more effective in countries with higher levels of corruption control and protection of property rights, protected areas were more effective in more democratic countries, and there appears to be no relationship between political stability and avoided deforestation from protected areas.
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La forêt naturelle pour modèle agricole ? (éditorial de BFT, n° 333) / Actualités - Unité de recherche Cirad - Forêts et sociétés

La forêt naturelle pour modèle agricole ? (éditorial de BFT, n° 333) / Actualités - Unité de recherche Cirad - Forêts et sociétés | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
L’idée s’enracine parfois dans nos pensées : l’agriculture serait à réinventer selon le modèle des écosystèmes forestiers naturels. Dans le sillage du biomimétisme, copier ces derniers devrait être envisagé comme nécessairement bon. Et puisque nous avons appris à cultiver la forêt, il conviendrait en retour de forestiser l’agriculture.
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Rights abuse allegations in the context of REDD+ readiness and implementation: A preliminary review and proposal for moving forward

This review reveals multiple allegations of abuses of the rights of Indigenous Peoples in the context of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) readiness and implementation. Findings from the review should be transformed into opportunities for REDD+ to promote and strengthen the rights of Indigenous Peoples. A rights-based approach to REDD+ requires engagement with indigenous men and women …
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How Agroforestry Propels Achievement of Nationally Determined Contributions

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) have emerged as the main tool for defining, communicating and potentially reporting party contributions to the Paris Agreement on climate change. Agroforestry has been identified as a key part of most developing country NDCs, hence it is a potentially important contributor to global climate objectives. This policy brief seeks to explore the degree to which agroforestry …
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An explanation of Green Climate Fund payments

An explanation of Green Climate Fund payments | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
A COP23 special: How will countries be paid for REDD+ results? In early October, at its 18th Board meeting in Cairo, the Green Climate Fund (GCF) adopted its latest policy related to the UNFCCC policy framework known as REDD+, this time a USD 500 million envelope accompanied by a detailed and comprehensive process for countries to seek results-based payments (RBPs). …
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Critical review of the impacts of grazing intensity on soil organic carbon storage and other soil quality indicators in extensively managed grasslands

Publication date: 1 February 2018
Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 253
Author(s): M. Abdalla, A. Hastings, D.R. Chadwick, D.L. Jones, C.D. Evans, M.B. Jones, R.M. Rees, P. Smith
Livestock grazing intensity (GI) is thought to have a major impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and soil quality indicators in grassland agroecosystems. To critically investigate this, we conducted a global review and meta-analysis of 83 studies of extensive grazing, covering 164 sites across different countries and climatic zones. Unlike previous published reviews we normalized the SOC and total nitrogen (TN) data to a 30cm depth to be compatible with IPCC guidelines. We also calculated a normalized GI and divided the data into four main groups depending on the regional climate (dry warm, DW; dry cool, DC; moist warm, MW; moist cool, MC). Our results show that taken across all climatic zones and GIs, grazing (below the carrying capacity of the systems) results in a decrease in SOC storage, although its impact on SOC is climate-dependent. When assessed for different regional climates, all GI levels increased SOC stocks under the MW climate (+7.6%) whilst there were reductions under the MC climate (−19%). Under the DW and DC climates, only the low (+5.8%) and low to medium (+16.1%) grazing intensities, respectively, were associated with increased SOC stocks. High GI significantly increased SOC for C4-dominated grassland compared to C3-dominated grassland and C3-C4 mixed grasslands. It was also associated with significant increases in TN and bulk density but had no effect on soil pH. To protect grassland soils from degradation, we recommend that GI and management practices should be optimized according to climate region and grassland type (C3, C4 or C3-C4 mixed).
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Impact of plant root functional traits and associated mycorrhizas on the aggregate stability of a tropical Ferralsol - ScienceDirect

Publication date: 15 February 2018
Source:Geoderma, Volume 312
Author(s): Julien Demenois, Fabian Carriconde, Pauline Bonaventure, Jean-Luc Maeght, Alexia Stokes, Freddy Rey
In many tropical regions, such as New Caledonia, soil erosion from anthropogenic activities and subsequent ecological restoration are major issues that require detailed soil and vegetation data for the production of management plans. To determine if some plant species are more useful for stabilizing soil aggregates and thus reducing erodibility, we examined three species endemic to New Caledonia, and measured how root traits and associated mycorrhizas and fungi influenced Ferralsol aggregate stability (MWD). The three species are hosts to different types of mycorrhizas and were: (i) the sedge Costularia arundinacea (Sol. Ex Vahl) Kük., an AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) host, (ii) the shrub Tristaniopsis glauca Brongn. & Gris and (iii) the tree Arillastrum gummiferum (Pancher ex Brongn. & Gris) Baill., both of the latter are ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) hosts. Fungal abundance, aggregate stability, soil organic carbon (SOC), iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) sesquioxides were measured in the soil beneath 20 individuals for each species, as well as in 20 control samples of bare soil. Root functional traits including root mass density (RMD), root length density (RLD) and percentage of fine roots were measured on all individuals. Results showed that plant species can significantly influence soil aggregate stability. MWD was greater in soil beneath Costularia characterized by high RMD, RLD, percentage of fine roots and fungal abundance, while MWD in the rhizosphere of Tristaniopsis and Arillastrum was similar to that of bare soil. Fe and Al were very high in all soil samples and are suspected of masking the influence of roots, fungi and SOC on MWD at the scale of isolated ECM-hosts. Therefore, MWD alone would not be a relevant predictor of restoration on such soil and further investigations should be carried out to identify a set of predictors useful for indicating the restoration of degraded soils on ultramafic substrates.
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COP 23 | Le Cirad mobilisé sur le stockage du carbone dans les sols - CIRAD

COP 23 | Le Cirad mobilisé sur le stockage du carbone dans les sols : Organisée par les Iles Fidji, la 23e Conférence des parties à la convention-cadre des Nations-Unies sur les changements climatiques (COP23) « Viser plus loin, plus vite et tous ensemble », s
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Gestion durable des ressources forestières : l'appui du PNDP à cinq communes camerounaises - Médiaterre

Gestion durable des ressources forestières : l'appui du PNDP à cinq communes camerounaises - Médiaterre | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
L'actualité du développement durable avec Médiaterre, le système d'information mondial francophone pour le développement durable concourt à la mise en oeuvre du développement durable dans l'espace francophone par la diffusion et l'échange d'informations, et l'aide à la constitution de réseaux de coopération.
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Governing mangroves: From Tanzania to Indonesia - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry

Governing mangroves: From Tanzania to Indonesia - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Mangroves constitute only 0.5 percent of forest area worldwide, but millions of people depend on them for food, income and protection of coastlines against erosion. Since 1980, about one-fifth of the world’s mangroves have disappeared. Although human pressures are a major threat, little is known about the governance conditions that facilitate long-term conservation and restoration of these coastal forests — …
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