Agricultural Biotechnology
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Acusan a Monsanto de robar variedad silvestre tomate resistente a botrytis

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ong europea declara que una vez más una empresa transnacional ha tomado semillas de plantas silvestres y las patentado bajo su nombre sin agregar un real aporte científico a ellas
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Rescooped by Virginia Garreton from Genomics and metagenomics of microbes
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Strategies for mining fungal natural products

Strategies for mining fungal natural products | Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it

Fungi are well known for their ability to produce a multitude of natural products. On the one hand their potential to provide beneficial antibiotics and immunosuppressants has been maximized by the pharmaceutical industry to service the market with cost-efficient drugs. On the other hand identification of trace amounts of known mycotoxins in food and feed samples is of major importance to ensure consumer health and safety. Although several fungal natural products, their biosynthesis and regulation are known today, recent genome sequences of hundreds of fungal species illustrate that the secondary metabolite potential of fungi has been substantially underestimated. Since expression of genes and subsequent production of the encoded metabolites are frequently cryptic or silent under standard laboratory conditions, strategies for activating these hidden new compounds are essential. This review will cover the latest advances in fungal genome mining undertaken to unlock novel products.


Via Bradford Condon
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Strategies to find those useful secrets fungies hide

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The Metabolic Interplay between Plants and Phytopathogens

The Metabolic Interplay between Plants and Phytopathogens | Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
1 Max Planck Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology, 14476 Potsdam, Germany 2 Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen City AB24 3UE, Aberdeen, United Kingdom ...
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One of the channels were plants connect with their pathogens

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BASF inaugurates new facility for plant biotechnology research ...

BASF inaugurates new facility for plant biotechnology research ... | Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
In Belgium, BASF has opened a new facility in the Ghent region, one of the leading centers for European plant biotechnology research. BASF's subsidiary CropDesign has moved into a new wing of the Bio-Accelerator ...
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New agrobiotech development unit in the private sector

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PUBLICATION: Overcoming smallholder challenges with biotechnology

PUBLICATION: Overcoming smallholder challenges with biotechnology | Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it

A new FAO publication calls for greater national and international efforts to bring agricultural biotechnologies to smallholder producers in developing countries.

The publication, Biotechnologies at Work for Smallholders: Case Studies from Developing Countries in Crops, Livestock and Fish, asserts biotechnologies can help smallholders to improve their livelihoods and food security.

Biotechnologies at Work for Smallholders covers 19 case studies in crops, livestock and fisheries, written by scientists and researchers worldwide. It describes the practical realities and experiences of taking biotechnology research and applying it in smallholder production of bananas, cassava, rice, livestock, shrimp and more, in different parts of the developing world.

The case studies encompassed a wide range of biotechnologies. They included older or "traditional" ones like artificial insemination and fermentation, and cutting-edge techniques involving DNA-based methodologies - but not genetic modification.

The publication was prepared by a multi-disciplinary team at FAO as part of an agricultural biotechnologies project partially funded by the Government of Canada.

“With the right institutional and financial arrangements, governments, research institutions and organizations can help to bring biotechnologies to smallholders, improving their capacity to cope with challenges like climate change, plant and animal diseases, and the overuse of natural resources,” said Andrea Sonnino, Chief of FAO’s Research and Extension Unit.

Case studies

Four case studies were from India, two from China and one each from Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia, Cuba, Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Thailand.

Researchers used their knowledge of DNA markers to develop a flood-tolerant rice variety in India with a potential yield of 1-3 tons per hectare more than previously used varieties, under flood conditions. After being released in 2009, the new variety, Swarna-Sub1, spread rapidly and was used by three million farmers in 2012.

“In summary, submergence-tolerant varieties provided opportunities for improving and stabilizing yields in flash flood-affected areas, significantly contributing to national food security,” stated Uma Singh and colleagues from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) who prepared the case study.

In China, the Jian carp was developed using within-family genetic selection and gynogenesis (a reproductive technology resulting in all-female offspring that have only received genes from their mother). The Jian carp is now grown on about 160,000 fish farms and makes up over 50 percent of common carp production in China.|

In northern Cameroon, the use of DNA-based diagnostic tools in the field allowed veterinary authorities to quickly diagnose outbreaks of Peste des Petits Ruminants, a highly contagious viral disease affecting goats and sheep. Rapid and accurate disease diagnosis meant that the authorities could stamp out these outbreaks and stop the spread of the fatal disease to other flocks.

“Without this rapid response, thousands of sheep and goats would likely have succumbed to the disease during these outbreaks, leading to millions of CFA francs in losses,” affirmed Abel Wade and Abdoulkadiri Souley from the National Veterinary Laboratory (LANAVET) in Cameroon.

The editors say biotechnologies can improve crop-, livestock- and fish-related livelihoods by boosting yields and enhancing market access. Introducing new and traditional biotechnologies on family farms can also keep production costs down and improve sustainable management of natural resources.

Lessons learned

The publication offers lessons from the case studies which can be used to inform and assist policymakers in making decisions on programs involving biotechnologies. High up on the list was the need for national political commitment to improving smallholder productivity and livelihoods; financial support from non-governmental sources to supplement national efforts; and, long-term national investment in both people and infrastructure linked to science and technology.

The publication also found international and national partnerships were vital for achieving results, as was the sharing of genetic resources, techniques and know-how across national and continental borders.

Biotechnologies at work for smallholders also underlines the importance of involving smallholders in the process at all stages, taking into consideration their knowledge, skills and own initiatives.

Biotechnologies at Work for Smallholders:
Case Studies from Developing Countries in Crops, Livestock and Fish

Edited by
J. Ruane, J.D. Dargie, C. Mba, P. Boettcher, H.P.S. Makkar, D.M. Bartley and A. Sonnino


Download Full Report: http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3403e/i3403e.pdf

 

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Biotechnology is a powerful tool mainly accesible to rich countries. How can we all change that?

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PLOS Pathogens: RNA Biology in Fungal Phytopathogens

PLOS Pathogens: RNA Biology in Fungal Phytopathogens | Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
From molecules to physiology (RT @julponchart: #PLOSPathogens: RNA Biology in Fungal Phytopathogens http://t.co/qmvWVegY0b)
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Response of pathogens and plants at the level of RNA

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Rescooped by Virginia Garreton from Plant Breeding and Genomics News
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BMC Biotechnology | Abstract | Development of selectable marker free, insect resistant, transgenic mustard (Brassica juncea) plants using Cre/lox mediated recombination

Background: Radish (Raphanus sativus L., 2n = 2x = 18) is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide. A large collection of radish expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has been generated but remains largely uncharacterized. Results: In this study, approximately 315,000 ESTs derived from 22 Raphanus cDNA libraries from 18 different genotypes were analyzed, for the purpose of gene and marker discovery and to evaluate large-scale genome duplication and phylogenetic relationships among Raphanus spp. The ESTs were assembled into 85,083 unigenes, of which 90%, 65%, 89% and 89% had homologous sequences in the GenBank nr, SwissProt, TrEMBL and Arabidopsis protein databases, respectively. A total of 66,194 (78%) could be assigned at least one gene ontology (GO) term. Comparative analysis identified 5,595 gene families unique to radish that were significantly enriched with genes related to small molecule metabolism, as well as 12,899 specific to the Brassicaceae that were enriched with genes related to seed oil body biogenesis and responses to phytohormones. The analysis further indicated that the divergence of radish and Brassica rapa occurred approximately 8.9-14.9 million years ago (MYA), following a whole-genome duplication event (12.8-21.4 MYA) in their common ancestor. An additional whole-genome duplication event in radish occurred at 5.1-8.4 MYA, after its divergence from B. rapa. A total of 13,570 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 28,758 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified. Using a subset of SNPs, the phylogenetic relationships of eight different accessions of Raphanus was inferred. Conclusion: Comprehensive analysis of radish ESTs provided new insights into radish genome evolution and the phylogenetic relationships of different radish accessions. Moreover, the radish EST sequences and the associated SSR and SNP markers described in this study represent a valuable resource for radish functional genomics studies and breeding.


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New technology to accelerate the selection of genetic markers relevant to plant selection

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