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The real reasons behind Indiana's rejection of the #CommonCore | Tony Bennett

The real reasons behind Indiana's rejection of the #CommonCore | Tony Bennett | 420English | Scoop.it
Indiana’s former state superintendent, Tony Bennett, recently sat down with Chalkbeat Colorado Bureau Chief Maura Walz while in Denver for […]

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Mel Riddile's curator insight, April 6, 2014 12:47 PM

“It is unfortunate that the federal government felt the need to be so visibly in front of this issue. Because it wasn’t their issue. So that’s been a problem." - Tony Bennett

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As Chinese Media Reshuffle, Epoch Times Makes Great Leap - The Epoch Times

As Chinese Media Reshuffle, Epoch Times Makes Great Leap - The Epoch Times | 420English | Scoop.it
As Chinese Media Reshuffle, Epoch Times Makes Great Leap The Epoch Times As China's economic capacity becomes the second largest in the world, both the international community and the domestic public urgently need to have unfiltered news with...
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Omotoso Decries Extinction Of African Languages - P.M. News

Omotoso Decries Extinction Of African Languages - P.M. News | 420English | Scoop.it
Omotoso Decries Extinction Of African Languages
P.M. News
He expressed this dismay Thursday at a public lecture, a second in the series, at the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, Lagos.
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mona_alqenai's video on Instagram (Second language aquisition SLA اكتساب اللغة كلغة ثانية keep listening keep speaking keep reading http://t.co/QVUemVkhEZ)...
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DISTORTED MOTHER  TONGUE | 420English | Scoop.it
A casual glance at a busy street plastered with signs and posters reveal plenty of errors -- you can see a sign saying “poster lagano nished” or “dukan bara hobe”. Or you might...
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A play to read.

A play to read. | 420English | Scoop.it

The Project Gutenberg E-Book of Poker!, by Zora Hurston

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net

Title: Poker!

Author: Zora Hurston

Release Date: May 25, 2005 [EBook #15902]

Language: English



To get the most of any reading, one must search for the meaning. Consider (Think about.) these questions.


1. What is this reading about?

2. How many people are in the play?

3. What kind of place are these people playing cards at?

4. What happens before the end of the play?

5. Who has a gun?

6. Who has the knife?

7. Who warns about the danger of playing cards and gambling?

8. What kind of names do these people have? Are they unusual? Do you have a nickname?


A teacher can ask a hundred questions. Think about the words in blue, and about who is doing the talking.


About the play.


Plays are a type of writing intended to be read on a stage, realistically, as if we were all sitting in the room watching. Actors perform the roles. A character plays a role. In this play, there are seven roles. That means, there are seven characters. Each character plays a role. When you pretend to be someone or something that you are not, it is called "role-play".


Words alone cannot give meaning. For example: "My luck sure is rotten! My gal must be cheatin' on me. I ain't had a pair since John Henry had a hammer!", said, Sack Daddy. Here are two idioms. (...luck is rotten...) (...since John Henry had a hammer...)


To know what Sack Daddy means, you must know the meaning of the word, "rotten". A rotten apple has gone bad. We could say, "His luck has gone bad." There are many ways to say the same thing. "John Henry" refers to a famous American song. (If I had a hammer.)


Since, John Henry has long since died, or since, the railroad tracks are finished, and John Henry no longer uses that "hammer" to lay down the railroad ties, we can guess, or know as a fact, that this is a metaphor, or an idiom. It means, I have not had good luck for a very long time.


The line, "My gal must be cheatin' on me.", indicates the character is trying to blame someone for his bad luck. Where is the girl? She is not in the play. This is something the man might say to avoid accepting responsibility for his own bad luck at playing cards.


1. My luck is rotten. (bad luck)

2. She must be cheatin' on me. (someone else is to blame for my bad luck)

3. I ain't had a pair since.... (a pair in cards is like, two Jacks, two Queens, two Aces, or two of anything that matches.) Saying that he has not had a pair since John Henry had a hammer means that he has not had a winning pair of cards for a long time.


LANGUAGE to think about:













drawn up





deck of cards


when the deal goes down

carryin' on

vest pocket

cards on the table

face down

dealt a card

die off

done quickly

wooden leg


Gawd (God)

the devil




Produced by Library of Congress, American Memory Project, Charlene Taylor and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.

[Transcriber's Note: This play transcribed from an original manuscript. There are pencilled notations possibly by Ms. Hurston herself. These pencilled edits have been transcribed as *[Handwritten: (text)]]

Copyright 1931 by Zora *[Handwritten: Neale] Hurston




Place—New York

Cast of characters—
Black Baby
Sack Daddy
Tush Hawg
Aunt Dilsey



A shabby front room in a shotgun house.

A door covered by dingy portieres upstage C. Small panel window in side Wall L. Plain centre table with chairs drawn up about it. Gaudy calendars on wall. Battered piano against wall R. Kerosene lamp with reflector against wall on either side of room.


At rise of curtain NUNKIE is at piano playing…. Others at table with small stacks of chips before each man. TUSH HAWG is seated at table so that he faces audience. He is expertly riffing the cards … looks over his shoulder and speaks to NUNKIE.


TUSH HAWG Come on here, Nunkie—and take a hand! You're holding up the game. You been woofin' round here about the poker you can play—now do it!


Yeah, I plays poker. I plays the piano and Gawd knows I plays the devil.
I'm Uncle Bob with a wooden leg!*[Handwritten: Last sentence crossed out
in pencil in manuscript.]


BLACK BABY Aw, you can be had! Come on and get in the game! My britches is cryin' for your money! Come on, don't give the healer no trouble!*[Handwritten: last sentence crossed out in pencil]


NUNKIE Soon as I play the deck I'm comin' and take you alls money! Don' rush me.

Ace means the first time that I met you
Duece means there was nobody there but us two
Trey means the third party—Charlie was his name
Four spot means the fourth time you tried that same old game—
Five spot means five years you played me for a clown
Six spot means six feet of earth when the deal goes down
Now I'm holding the seven spot for each day of the week
Eight means eight hours that she Sheba-ed with your Sheik—
Nine spot means nine hours that I work hard every day—
Ten spot means tenth of every month I brought you home my pay—
The Jack is three-card Charlie who played me for a goat
The Queen, that's my pretty Mama, also trying to cut my throat—
The King stands for Sweet Papa Nunkie and he's goin' to wear the crown,
So be careful you all ain't broke when the deal goes down!
(He laughs—X'es to table, bringing
piano stool for seat)


TUSH HAWG Aw now, brother, two dollars for your seat before you try to sit in this game.


(Laughs sheepishly—puts money
down—TUSH HAWG pushes stack of chips
toward him. Bus.)
I didn't put it down because I knew you all goin' to be puttin' it right
back in my pocket.


Aw, Y'all go ahead and play.
(TUSH HAWG begins to deal for draw
poker. The game gets tense. SACK

DADDY is first man at TUSH's left—he
throws back three cards and is dealt
three more)


SACK DADDY My luck sure is rotten! My gal must be cheatin' on me. I ain't had a pair since John Henry had a hammer!


(Drawing three new cards)
You might be fooling the rest with the cryin' you're doin' but I'm
squattin' for you! You're cryin' worse than cryin' Emma!


(Studying his three new cards)
When yo' cards gets lucky, oh Partner, you oughter be in a rollin' game.
*[Handwritten: get you foot offa my chair etc]


AUNT DILSEY (Enters through portieres—stands and looks disapprovingly) You all oughter be ashamed of yourself, gamblin' and carryin' on like this!


BLACK BABY Aw, this ain't no harm, Aunt Dilsey! You go on back to bed and git your night's rest.


No harm! I know all about these no-harm sins! If you don't stop this
card playin', all of you all goin' to die and go to Hell.
(Shakes warning finger—exits through
portieres—while she is talking the
men have been hiding cards out of
their hands and pulling aces out of
sleeves and vest pockets and
shoes—it is done quickly, one does
not see the other do it)


(Shoving a chip forward)
A dollar!


Raise you two!


BLACK BABY I don't like to strain with nobody but it's goin' to cost you five. Come on, you shag-nags! This hand I got is enough to pull a country man into town. *[Handwritten: Last sentence crossed through in pencil.]


TOO-SWEET You all act like you're spuddin'! Bet some money! Put your money where your mouth is! *[Handwritten: els my fist where yo mouf is.]


TUSH HAWG Twenty-five dollars to keep my company! Dog-gone, I'm spreadin' my knots!


And I bet you a fat man I'll take your money—I call you.
(Turns up his cards—he has four aces
and king)


TUSH HAWG (showing his cards) Youse a liar! I ain't dealt you no aces. Don't try to carry the Pam-Pam to me 'cause I'll gently chain-gang for you!


SACK DADDY Oh yeah! I ain't goin' to fit no jail for you and nobody else. I'm to get me a green club and season it over your head. Then I'll give my case to Miss Bush and let Mother Green stand my bond! I got deal them aces!


That's a lie! Both of you is lyin'! Lyin' like the cross-ties from New
York to Key West! How can you all hold aces when I got four? Somebody is
goin' to West hell before midnight!


BECKERWOOD Don't you woof at Tush Hawg. If you do I'm goin' to bust hell wide open with a man!


(Pulls out razor—Bus.)
My chop-axe tells me I got the only clean aces they is on this table!
Before I'll leave you all rob me outa my money, I'm goin' to die it off!


I promised the devil one man and I'm goin' to give him five!
(Draws gun)


Don't draw your bosom on me! God sent me a pistol and I'm goin' to send
him a man!
(FIRES. Bus. for all)


(Enters after shooting bus. Stands.
Bus. drops to chair)
They wouldn't lissen—
(Looks men over—Bus.)
It sure is goin' to be a whole lot tougher in hell now!



End of the Project Gutenberg E-Book of Poker!, by Zora Neale Hurston



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Why You Have Been Thinking of Social All Wrong

Why You Have Been Thinking of Social All Wrong | 420English | Scoop.it

In the context of business, it is time to change the way you think about social media.

We must begin viewing social media as a long term investment. Companies need to see the value of customer sentiment and brand loyalty by way of regular interaction and genuine humility. And so many companies overlook the value of social media as they pertain to search engine optimization.

Via Brian Yanish - MarketingHits.com
Nancy Barnett's curator insight, March 19, 2014 10:15 AM

Social media is growing up. No matter the size of your company it needs to be on your radar.

Sudden Impact Web Design's curator insight, March 22, 2014 11:37 AM

Not just a good pictogram, but some very important two paragraphs below it for those calling and e-mailing saying they "just want a website" or asking "how much is a website?"


It's important to appreciate that professional web design, SEO, eCommerce, social media marketing is all one big whole unit (if done right) and is a process that serves as a 24/7, 365 day marketing division of that company. SEO ranks should be monitored for ROI, social media should be pushing that ranking like oars in a boat, custom design should excite the consumer and allow them to quickly find what they want and enable them to spend their money online easily whether using mobile phones, tablets, or laptops.

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Science unit turns students into stewards - Calaveras Enterprise

Science unit turns students into stewards - Calaveras Enterprise | 420English | Scoop.it
Science unit turns students into stewards Calaveras Enterprise Beginning in kindergarten, Valley Springs Elementary students learn science through a Guided Language Acquisition Design, which incorporates scientific vocabulary, writing, art and...
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Pearson PLC (ADR) (PSO) news: Pearson Management Discusses 2013 ... - Seeking Alpha

Pearson PLC (ADR) (PSO) news: Pearson Management Discusses 2013 ... - Seeking Alpha | 420English | Scoop.it
Pearson PLC (ADR) (PSO) news: Pearson Management Discusses 2013 ...
Seeking Alpha
To complicate matters further, curriculum change is not only affecting the U.S. but also the U.K., our second biggest market.
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Fukushima Diary talks about the recent 100m3 leakage on video | Fukushima Diary

Fukushima Diary talks about the recent 100m3 leakage on video | Fukushima Diary | 420English | Scoop.it
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Homeless recruited to decontaminate Fukishima; paid less than minimum wage

Homeless recruited to decontaminate Fukishima; paid less than minimum wage | 420English | Scoop.it
The publicly funded, $35B cleanup of radioactive soil around Fukishima is staffed by homeless men recruited from Tokyo Sendai subway stations. They are preferentially sent to the most radioactive zones, and work for less than minimum wage.

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“The rule is, jam tomorrow and jam yesterday - but never jam today.”

According to Wikipedia, February 09, 2012, "...Logic ...is the formal ... study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in ...semantics, and ...examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms are valid, and which are fallacies."


"Logic is often divided into two parts, inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning." (Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logic, accessed 2-9-2012)




From the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://www.iep.utm.edu/aristotl/, comes this passage in relation to the history of logical arguments. "As the father of the field of logic, he was the first to develop a formalized system for reasoning. Aristotle observed that the validity of any argument can be determined by its structure rather than its content. A classic example of a valid argument is his syllogism: All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal. Given the structure of this argument, as long as the premises are true, then the conclusion is also guaranteed to be true. "


Language or luggage?  Words can be important.


logical argument


formalized system




valid argument










"Aristotle himself, however, uses the term “logic” as equivalent to verbal reasoning. The Categories of Aristotle are classifications of individual words (as opposed to sentences or propositions), and include the following ten: substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, situation, condition, action, passion. They seem to be arranged according to the order of the questions we would ask in gaining knowledge of an object.


For example, we ask, first, what a thing is, then how great it is, next of what kind it is. Substance is always regarded as the most important of these." (accessed 2-9-2012 from, http://www.iep.utm.edu/aristotl/#H3)



"Notions when isolated do not in themselves express either truth or falsehood: it is only with the combination of ideas in a proposition that truth and falsity are possible.


The elements of such a proposition are the noun substantive and the verb. The combination of words gives rise to rational speech and thought, conveys a meaning both in its parts and as a whole. Such thought may take many forms, but logic considers only demonstrative forms which express truth and falsehood. The truth or falsity of propositions is determined by their agreement or disagreement with the facts they represent. Thus propositions are either affirmative or negative, each of which again may be either universal or particular or undesignated."


"The heart of Aristotle’s logic is the syllogism, the classic example of which is as follows: All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal. The syllogistic form of logical argumentation dominated logic for 2,000 years until the rise of modern propositional and predicate logic thanks to Frege, Russell, and others."


syl·lo·gism (Dictionary.com)




1. Logic . an argument the conclusion of which is supported bytwo premises, of which one (major premise) contains theterm (major term) that is the predicate of the conclusion,and the other (minor premise) contains the term (minorterm) that is the subject of the conclusion; common toboth premises is a term (middle term) that is excludedfrom the conclusion. A typical form is “All A is C; all B is A;therefore all B is C.”

2. deductive reasoning.

3. an extremely subtle, sophisticated, or deceptive argument.



[ree-zuh-ning, reez-ning]



1. the act or process of a person who reasons.

2. the process of forming conclusions, judgments, or inferences from facts or premises.

3. the reasons, arguments, proofs, etc., resulting from this process.


Learn more about syllogisms






Download the pdf and study the syllogisms presented.


From the website, changingminds.org,


"Syllogisms are arguments that take several parts, typically with two statements which are assumed to be true (or premises) that lead to a conclusion. This takes the general form:


Major premise: A general statement.
Minor premise: A specific statement.
Conclusion: based on the two premises.


There are three major types of syllogism:

Conditional Syllogism: If A is true then B is true (If A then B).
Categorical Syllogism: If A is in C then B is in C.
Disjunctive Syllogism: If A is true, then B is false (A or B).

Syllogisms are particularly interesting in persuasion as they include assumptions that many people accept which allow false statements or (often unspoken) conclusions to appear to be true. There is a difference between truth and validity in syllogisms. A syllogism can be true, but not valid (i.e. make logical sense). It can also be valid but not true."


Conditional Syllogism: If A is true then B is true (If A then B).


The basic form of the conditional syllogism is: If A is true then B is also true. (If A then B). It appears through a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion.


Major premise

The major premise (the first statement) for example:

Ladies prefer Xanthos.

This statement is not challenged and is assumed to be true.


Minor premise

A minor premise, which may not be spoken, gives further detail about the major premise. For example:

Xanthos smells great.

The minor premise is also assumed to be true. In adverts, it often appears as the secondary line to the main strapline of the major premise.



The conclusion is a third statement, based on a combination of the major and minor premise.

If you use Xanthos cologne, you will attract women.


In adverts, this may well not be mentioned, but it is most clearly what you are intended to conclude.


"Conditional syllogisms are seldom completed with all three sentences -- often only the major and minor premises are needed and sometimes only the major premise is enough.


The conclusion of the conditional syllogism is often unspoken and it is intended that the listener infers it for themselves.


Categorical Syllogism: If A is in C then B is in C.


Categorical syllogism


The basic form of the categorical syllogism is: If A is part of C then B is a part of C. (A and B are members of C).


Major premise

The major premise (the first statement) is a general statement of the form 'All/none/some A are B', for example:

All men are mortal.

This statement is not challenged and is assumed to be true.


Minor premise

The minor premise (the second statement) is also a statement about inclusion and is also assumed to be true. It is usually a specific statement, for example:

Socrates is a man.

It may also be a general statement with a reduced scope. Thus, for example, when the major premise takes the format of 'all', the minor premise may be 'some'. The minor premise is also assumed to be true.



The conclusion is a third statement, based on a combination of the major and minor premise.


Socrates is mortal.


From the truth of the first two statements, a truth is created in this third statement.


The trouble is that this 'truth' is not always true -- yet it often appears to be quite a logical conclusion.


Categorical syllogisms are named as such because they divide things up into categories.


These form groups which can be analyzed using set theory and displayed using Venn diagrams.


There are six rules that categorical syllogisms must obey:


1.  All syllogisms must contain exactly three terms, each of which is used in the same sense.
2.  The middle term must be distributed in at least one premise.
If a major or minor term is distributed in the conclusion, then it must be distributed in the premises.
3.  No syllogism can have two negative premises.
4.  If either premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative.
5.  No syllogism with a particular conclusion can have two universal premises.
6.  When you hear people talking about syllogisms without describing what type of syllogism, they often mean categorical syllogisms.


Categorical syllogisms are sometimes viewed as being a 'spatial reasoning' as it divides the world up into 'spaces'. This is creating a 3D image of the categories, or sets.


The basic flaw that often appears is the an assumption that if you have one characteristics of a group, you have all of the characteristics of the group. This leads people into stereotyping and comments such as 'Oh, they are all like that.'


Whenever you hear a generalization (all, never, some, most, etc.) there is a good chance that there is a categorical syllogism in there that you can challenge.

On the other hand, you can create your own categorical syllogisms, which will often go unchallenged.


To learn more about syllogisms and philosophy, visit changingminds.org. This material originates from their website, accessed 2-9-2012.


Disjunctive Syllogism: If A is true, then B is false (A or B).


Disjunctive syllogism


The basic form of the disjunctive syllogism is: Either A is true or B is true. (A exclusive-or B). Thus, if A is true, B is false, and if B is true, A is false. A and B cannot both by true.


Major premise

The major premise is given in the form of a choice between alternative. The choice is that one out of two or more alternatives is right and that the rest are wrong.

It may appear in a single sentence:

Either Jim, Fred or Billy did it.


Minor premise

The minor premise either selects or rejects alternatives, thus leading to the conclusion.

Jim was in the bar. But Fred had the motive.



The conclusion may be spoken, although often it is not, as it is intended that the target of the major premise concludes this by his or herself. For example:

Fred killed Julius.




Politicians love disjunctive syllogisms, as they offer stark choices:


Either you vote for me or you vote for disaster.


Advertisers love them too. Note here how an airline uses unspoken scare tactics about driving or going by train.


Flying is the safest way to travel.


When comparing two or more items, you are using the contrast principle to use each one to highlight the differences between it and the other.


A fallacy that happens here is when it is assumed that the choices offered are the only choices. By offering alternatives, the listener is given the impression that this is all there is, and that other choices do not exist. This is the basis of the sales person's alternative close.


Another fallacy occurs where it is assumed that the two alternatives are mutually exclusive. Thus if one has a particular characteristic, the other is assumed not to have any of this characteristic. Thus you can cast yourself and your ideas as good by criticizing others as bad. The other guy is bad, which means I am good.


"Once master the machinery of Symbolic Logic, and you have a mental occupation always at hand, of absorbing interest, and one that will be of real use to you in any subject you may take up. It will give you clearness of thought - the ability to see your way through a puzzle - the habit of arranging your ideas in an orderly and get-at-able form - and, more valuable than all, the power to detect fallacies, and to tear to pieces the flimsy illogical arguments, which you will so continually encounter in books, in newspapers, in speeches, and even in sermons, and which so easily delude those who have never taken the trouble to master this fascinating Art."

Lewis Carroll


Puzzle # 1

(a) All babies are illogical.

(b) Nobody is despised who can manage a crocodile.

(c) Illogical persons are dispised.


Puzzle # 2

(a) None of the unnoticed things, met with at sea, are mermaids.

(b) Things entered in the log, as met with at sea, are sure to be worth remembering.

(c) I have never met with anything worth remembering, when on a voyage.

(d) Things met with at sea, that are noticed, are sure to be recorded in the log.


Puzzle # 3

(a) No interesting poems are unpopular among people of real taste.

(b) No modern poetry is free from affectation.

(c) All your poems are on the subject of soap-bubbles.

(d) No affected poetry is popular among people of real taste.

(e) No ancient poem is on the subject of soap-bubbles.


Lewis Carroll created these puzzles (below). 


My saucepans are the only things I have that are made of tin.
I find all your presents very useful.
None of my saucepans are of the slightest use.


No potatoes of mine, that are new, have been boiled.
All my potatoes in this dish are fit to eat.
No unboiled potatoes of mine are fit to eat.


No ducks waltz.
No officers ever decline to waltz.
All my poultry are ducks.


Every one who is sane can do Logic.
No lunatics are fit to serve on a jury.
None of your sons can do logic.


No experienced person is incompetent.
Jenkins is always blundering.
No competent person is always blundering.


All puddings are nice.
This dish is a pudding.
No nice things are wholesome.


No one takes in the Times, unless he is well educated.
No hedgehogs can read.
Those who cannot read are not well educated.


All the old articles in this cupboard are cracked.
No jug in this cupboard is new.
Nothing in this cupboard, that is cracked, will hold water.


All unripe fruit is unwholesome.
All these apples are wholesome.
No fruit, grown in the shade, is ripe.


All hummingbirds are richly colored..
No large birds live on honey.
Birds that do not live on honey are dull in color.

Colored flowers are always scented.
I dislike flowers that are not grown in the open air.
No flowers grown in the open air are colorless.


All my sons are slim.
No child of mine is healthy who takes no exercise.
All gluttons, who are children of mine, are fat.

No daughter of mine takes any exercise.


No boys under 12 are admitted to this school as boarders.
All the industrious boys have red hair.
None of the dayboys learn Greek.
None but those under 12 are idle.



The only books in this library, that I do not recommend for reading, are unhealthy in tone.
The bound books are all well written.
All the romances are healthy in tone.
I do not recommend you to read any of the unbound books.


All writers, who understand human nature, are clever.
No one is a true poet unless he can stir the hearts of men.
Shakespeare wrote “Hamlet”.
No writer, who does not understand human nature, can stir the hearts of men.
None but a true poet could have written “Hamlet”.


A rainbow will not bear the weight of a wheelbarrow.

Whatever can be used as a bridge will bear the weight of a wheelbarrow.

I would not take, as a gift, a thing that I despise.

No kitten, that loves fish, is unteachable.
No kitten without a tail will play with a gorilla.
Kittens with whiskers always love fish.
No teachable kitten has green eyes.
No kittens have tails unless they have whiskers.


No shark ever doubts that he is well fitted out.
A fish, that cannot dance a minuet, is contemptible.
No fish is quite certain that it is well fitted out, unless it has three rows of teeth.
All fishes, except sharks, are kind to children.
No heavy fish can dance a minuet.
A fish with three rows of teeth is not to be despised.


No one, who is going to a party, ever fails to brush his hair.
No one looks fascinating, if he is untidy.
Opium eaters have no self-command.
Everyone, who has brushed his hair, looks fascinating.
No one wears white kid gloves, unless he is going to a party.
A man is always untidy, if he has no self-command.


These puzzles from Lewis Carroll were provided from http://www.math.hawaii.edu/~hile/math100/logice.htm, so please visit this site to learn more.


“The rule is, jam tomorrow and jam yesterday - but never jam today.”

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