Cancer Immunotherapy Review
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Killing Cancer Through the Immune System - UCSF

Killing Cancer Through the Immune System - UCSF | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
UCSF News Services
Killing Cancer Through the Immune System
UCSF News Services
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Krishan Maggon 's insight:
Krishan Maggon 's insight:

The marketing success of Ipilimumab has started the immunotherapy of cancer era.

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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, February 4, 2014 7:46 AM

The marketing success of Ipilimumab has started the immunotherapy of cancer era.

Gilbert C FAURE's curator insight, February 4, 2014 11:31 AM

obv

Cancer Immunotherapy Review
A magic life saving cure for advanced metastatic melanoma.  
Curated by Krishan Maggon
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Ipilimumab (BMS) Review: A Cancer Breakthrough? - un knol de Krishan Maggon

Ipilimumab (BMS) Review: A Cancer Breakthrough? - un knol de Krishan Maggon | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
FDA has approved Yervoy (ipilimumab, BMS) under REMS for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. The European expert panel CHMP...
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First-in-Human CRISPR Immunotherapy Would Target PD-1 | Onclive

First-in-Human CRISPR Immunotherapy Would Target PD-1 | Onclive | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
At a time when PD-1 inhibitors are dominating the immunotherapy field, a team of researchers is seeking to use groundbreaking CRISPR gene editing technology for the first time in human beings to create an engineered T-cell agent that would knock out...
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B and T Cells and the Immune System | MS Immunology

B and T Cells and the Immune System | MS Immunology | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
Find out more about the role of B cells and T cells in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, and their specialized immune response to antigens.
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Aisyah Lubis's curator insight, June 27, 4:43 AM
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NK cells and type 1 innate lymphoid cells: partners in host defense : Nature Immunology : Nature Publishing Group

NK cells and type 1 innate lymphoid cells: partners in host defense : Nature Immunology : Nature Publishing Group | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
NK cells and ILC1s are developmentally distinct but share many functional similarities. Spits and colleagues describe current knowledge on the biology of these cells and the conditions under which they can be distinguished. NK cells and ILC1s are developmentally distinct but share many functional similarities. Spits and colleagues describe current knowledge on the biology of these cells and the conditions under which they can be distinguished.
Krishan Maggon 's insight:
NATURE IMMUNOLOGY | REVIEW

NK cells and type 1 innate lymphoid cells: partners in host defense 
 Hergen Spits, Jochem H Bernink & Lewis Lanier AffiliationsCorresponding author 

Nature Immunology 17, 758–764 (2016) doi:10.1038/ni.3482 Published online 21 June 2016
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Emerging Immunotherapy myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) Target in Spotlight at Wistar | Onclive

Emerging Immunotherapy myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) Target in Spotlight at Wistar | Onclive | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
Amid growing evidence of their importance in the immune system, myeloid-derived suppressor cells are gaining traction as a target for anticancer therapies.
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Cancer therapy re-engineers cells to hunt and destroy - FT.com

Cancer therapy re-engineers cells to hunt and destroy - FT.com | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
Patients taking part in early clinical trials of the riskiest new cancer drugs are often in the final stages of the disease. When other medicines have failed, little is to be lost from a last throw of the dice on an experimental therapy.
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TxCell licenses CAR-T tech

TxCell licenses CAR-T tech | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
TxCell has jumped on its option for a licensing agreement with the Weizmann Institute of Science’s tech transfer arm after it was granted a far-reaching patent for redirected, genetically engineered T regulatory cells by the EPO.
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Treating melanoma by inhibiting BRAF & PD-L1, coupled with enhanced dendritic cell activity

Treating melanoma by inhibiting BRAF & PD-L1, coupled with enhanced dendritic cell activity | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
A new combinatorial immuno-oncology approach to overcome melanoma resistance to BRAF- and immune checkpoint inhibitor single drug treatments has been uncovered.
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Celyad - Immuno Oncology

Celyad - Immuno Oncology | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
The technology acquired by Celyad is different from the classic CAR technologies in the sense that it uses human Natural Killer cells (NK cells) as receptors.
Krishan Maggon 's insight:
An allogeneic platform enables the production of “off-the-shelf” CAR T-cell products from healthy donors.
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AACR Foundation Cancer Immunotherapy Awareness Month

AACR Foundation Cancer Immunotherapy Awareness Month | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
RT @AACR: June is Cancer Immunotherapy Month. Find out how we're supporting progress in #immunotherapy https://t.co/BD7BVbxXwZ https://t.co
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Improved Quality of Life Reported With Nivolumab vs Everolimus in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma - The ASCO Post

Improved Quality of Life Reported With Nivolumab vs Everolimus in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma - The ASCO Post | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
Nivoulmab treatment shows improvement in quality of life on patients with Renal carcinoma.
https://t.co/lUpe737plj

#nivolumab #BMS

Patients with previously treated advanced renal cell carcinoma receiving nivolumab (Opdivo) in the phase III CheckMate 025 trial had improved health-related quality of life compared with those receiving everolimus (Afinitor), as reported by Cella et al in The Lancet Oncology.
Krishan Maggon 's insight:
Lancet Oncol. 2016 Jun 3. pii: S1470-2045(16)30125-5. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30125-5. [Epub ahead of print] Quality of life in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma given nivolumab versus everolimus in CheckMate 025: a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Cella D1, Grünwald V2, Nathan P3, Doan J4, Dastani H4, Taylor F5, Bennett B6, DeRosa M5, Berry S7, Broglio K7, Berghorn E4, Motzer RJ8.
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SnapShot: Interactions between B Cells and T Cells: Cell

SnapShot: Interactions between B Cells and T Cells: Cell | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
Abstract Dynamic interactions between B and T cells underpin the development of adaptive humoral immune responses to infections and vaccines. Recent advances in the molecular and spatiotemporal control of these interactions during primary responses have contributed greatly to elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of numerous immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases. The next challenge is to determine how and where memory B and T cells interact during secondary responses to facilitate the rapid and robust response that characterizes anamnestic immunity. 
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Pre-clinical animal model of CD47-blocking immunotherapy in small-cell lung cancer | NIHilist's Immunology

Pre-clinical animal model of CD47-blocking immunotherapy in small-cell lung cancer | NIHilist's Immunology | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
Pre-clinical animal models of CD47-blocking immunotherapy in small-cell lung cancer
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EORTC literature review highlights methodology issues in immuno oncology

EORTC literature review highlights methodology issues in immuno oncology | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
In a recent paper published in Annals of Translational Medicine (details here to refer to the paper) the EORTC highlights the need to develop new clinical

Abstract Cancer immunotherapy has had a major impact on the established paradigms of drug development and clinical trial research. The innovative mechanism of action of these compounds has resulted in new patterns of response and safety profiles, which pose challenges for the classical trial methodology. In this review we report on the search for the maximum tolerated dose, the recommended phase II dose and the appropriate target population in phase I trials. We provide some statistical considerations on the choice of endpoints for phase II and III trials and the limitations of frequently used trial designs in the presence of a delayed treatment effect, which may be induced by the immune modulating effect of the checkpoint inhibitors. We summarize the currently available data on the safety profile of these new compounds, which can guide protocol safety recommendations. Finally, we report on the current evidence of biomarker development.
Krishan Maggon 's insight:
The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer perspective on designing clinical trials with immune therapeutics 

Authors: Jessica Menis, Saskia Litière, Konstantinos Tryfonidis, Vassilis Golfinopoulos
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Frontiers | Anti-Cancer Stem-like Cell Compounds in Clinical Development – An Overview and Critical Appraisal | Pharmacology of Anti-Cancer Drugs

Frontiers | Anti-Cancer Stem-like Cell Compounds in Clinical Development – An Overview and Critical Appraisal | Pharmacology of Anti-Cancer Drugs | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) represent a subpopulation of tumor cells with elevated tumor-initiating potential. Upon differentiation, they replenish the bulk of the tumor cell population. Enhanced tumor-forming capacity, resistance to antitumor drugs, and metastasis-forming potential are the hallmark traits of CSCs. Given these properties, it is not surprising that CSC have become a therapeutic target of prime interest in pharmacological research. In fact, over the last few years an enormous number of articles describing compounds endowed with anti-CSC activities have been published. In the meanwhile, several of these compounds and also approaches that are not based on the use of pharmacologically active compounds (e.g. vaccination, radiotherapy), have progressed into clinical studies. This article gives an overview of these compounds, proposes a tentative classification, describes their biological properties and their developmental stage. To conclude, we discuss the optimal clinical setting for using these compounds, the need for biomarkers allowing patient selection, the redundancy of CSC signaling pathways and, consequently, the utility of employing combinations of anti-CSC compounds and, eventually, the therapeutic limitations posed by the plasticity of CSCs.
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Innate lymphoid cells in defense, immunopathology and immunotherapy : Nature Immunology : Nature Publishing Group

Innate lymphoid cells in defense, immunopathology and immunotherapy : Nature Immunology : Nature Publishing Group | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
Targeting innate lymphoid cells, the innate counterparts of T cells, might help direct an appropriate immune response during preventive and therapeutic strategies aimed at pathogens and inflammatory pathologies
Krishan Maggon 's insight:
NATURE IMMUNOLOGY | COMMENT 
Innate lymphoid cells in defense, immunopathology and immunotherapy 
 Sascha Cording, Jasna Medvedovic, Tegest Aychek & Gérard Eberl  
Nature Immunology 17, 755–757 (2016) doi:10.1038/ni.3448 Published online 21 June 2016
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Targeted Photoimmunotherapy for Cancer Moves Forward

Targeted Photoimmunotherapy for Cancer Moves Forward | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
Two new studies from NCI researchers add to growing evidence of the promise of a novel type of cancer immunotherapy that uses infrared light to activate rapid and selective killing of cancer cells.
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Tizona Therapeutics Develop Next Generation Cancer Immunotherapies - Minds of Malady

Tizona Therapeutics Develop Next Generation Cancer Immunotherapies - Minds of Malady | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
Promoting and celebrating innovation, from early research to the commercialization of startups, that aim to change healthcare.

Anti-CCR4 Antibody for the Treatment of Cancer Regulatory T cells (Tregs) regulate immune system activity. Scientific evidence suggests that Tregs in the tumor microenvironment may prevent the immune system from eradicating tumor cells. Tizona’s anti-CCR4 antibody is expected to play an instrumental role in potentiating anti-tumor immune responses by selectively depleting Tregs and preventing them from migrating into the tumor microenvironment. Our anti-CCR4 antibody is expected to enter clinical trials in 2017.
Krishan Maggon 's insight:
Tizona develops next-generation immunotherapies The successful development of immunotherapies represents one of the most important and exciting breakthroughs in cancer. Recent approvals of checkpoint inhibitors provide evidence that the immune system is capable of recognizing cancerous cells and eradicating them. These checkpoint inhibitors can achieve complete, durable remissions and help patients live longer. Yet, despite this progress, existing immunotherapies are effective in a relatively small number of patients and types of cancer. Tizona’s therapies are designed to modulate the activity of immunosuppressive cells, thereby activating the body’s ability to fight cancer or preventing the immune system from attacking healthy tissues in autoimmune diseases. Our programs target the cell types and biological mechanisms responsible for immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment and for controlling self-reactivity in autoimmunity:
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Oncolytic viruses: a novel form of immunotherapy

Oncolytic viruses: a novel form of immunotherapy | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
Abstract Oncolytic viruses are novel anticancer agents, currently under investigation in Phase I–III clinical trials. Until recently, most studies have focused on the direct antitumor properties of these viruses, although there is now an increasing body of evidence that the host immune response may be critical to the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. This may be mediated via innate immune effectors, adaptive antiviral immune responses eliminating infected cells or adaptive antitumor immune responses. This report summarizes preclinical and clinical evidence for the importance of immune interactions, which may be finely balanced between viral and tumor elimination. On this basis, oncolytic viruses represent a promising novel immunotherapy strategy, which may be optimally combined with existing therapeutic modalities. 

 Keywords: adaptive, clinical trial, immune response, immunotherapy, innate, oncolytic virus
Krishan Maggon 's insight:
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2009 Aug 20. Published in final edited form as: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2008 Oct; 8(10): 1581–1588. doi: 10.1586/14737140.8.10.1581 PMCID: PMC2729453 NIHMSID: NIHMS75104 Oncolytic viruses: a novel form of immunotherapy Robin J Prestwich, MD,† Kevin J Harrington, MD, PhD, Hardev S Pandha, MD, PhD, Richard G Vile, PhD, Alan A Melcher, MD, PhD, and Fiona Errington, PhD
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Radiotherapy: Changing the Game in Immunotherapy: Trends in Cancer

Radiotherapy: Changing the Game in Immunotherapy: Trends in Cancer | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
RT @CellPressNews: #Radiotherapy: Changing the Game in #Immunotherapy. Demaria&Fomenti @WeillCornell @trendscancer https://t.co/mLPtvpLcHV

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are effective in cancer treatment. A pre-existing immune response demonstrated by significant pretreatment tumor lymphocytic infiltration is a prerequisite for response. Within such infiltrated tumors, referred to as ‘hot’ tumors, ICI rescue the activity of antitumor T cells. By contrast, ‘cold’ tumors lack lymphocytic infiltration and are refractory to immunotherapy. Preclinical data show that radiotherapy sensitizes refractory tumors to ICI by recruiting antitumor T cells. Despite the growing number of clinical studies testing the ability of radiation to enhance immunotherapy, clinical evidence that it converts cold tumors into responsive ones remains elusive. Here, we review evidence that radiotherapy is not only an occasional enhancer of the effects of immunotherapy, but also a ‘game changer’, and propose a blueprint to test this.
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Engineered CAR T Cells Targeting the Cancer-Associated Tn-Glycoform of the Membrane Mucin MUC1 Control Adenocarcinoma: Immunity

Engineered CAR T Cells Targeting the Cancer-Associated Tn-Glycoform of the Membrane Mucin MUC1 Control Adenocarcinoma: Immunity | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
RT @mmw_lmw: Cellular #ImmunoTherapy | #CAR T cells target Mucin effectively | Posey & June @ImmunityCP https://t.co/HWsiBV0vKs https://t.c

Highlights 

•Cancer cells of many tissues express an abnormal glycoform of MUC1, Tn-MUC1 
•Normal human tissue does not express detectable Tn-MUC1 on the cellular surface 
•CAR T cells are engineered to target Tn-MUC1 lyse tumor cells in vitro and in vivo 
Highlights •Cancer cells of many tissues express an abnormal glycoform of MUC1, Tn-MUC1 •Normal human tissue does not express detectable Tn-MUC1 on the cellular surface •CAR T cells are engineered to target Tn-MUC1 lyse tumor cells in vitro and in vivo •Abnormal glycoform epitopes are valid clinical targets for CAR T cells•Abnormal glycoform epitopes are valid clinical targets for CAR T cells
Krishan Maggon 's insight:
Engineered CAR T Cells Targeting the Cancer-Associated Tn-Glycoform of the Membrane Mucin MUC1 Control Adenocarcinoma 
Avery D. Posey Jr.correspondenceemail, Robert D. Schwab, Alina C. Boesteanu, Catharina Steentoft, Ulla Mandel, Boris Engels7, Jennifer D. Stone, Thomas D. Madsen, Karin Schreiber, Kathleen M. Haines, Alexandria P. Cogdill, Taylor J. Chen, Decheng Song, John Scholler, David M. Kranz, Michael D. Feldman, Regina Young, Brian Keith, Hans Schreiber, Henrik Clausen, Laura A. Johnson6, Carl H. June6,correspondenceemail 6Co-senior author 7Present address: Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 

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Meet the virus that slays cancer cells with extreme prejudice

Meet the virus that slays cancer cells with extreme prejudice | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
A simple virus that causes mild stomach upsets in humans can turn cancer cells into mincemeat like no one’s business.
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'Game changer:' BC Cancer Agency opens immunotherapy lab in Victoria

'Game changer:' BC Cancer Agency opens immunotherapy lab in Victoria | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
The BC Cancer Agency opened a new lab in Victoria today focused on custom immunotherapy, where samples from a patient's own tumours are used to stimulate the immune syste
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Resistance Mechanisms to Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer: Tumor-Intrinsic and -Extrinsic Factors: Immunity

Resistance Mechanisms to Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer: Tumor-Intrinsic and -Extrinsic Factors: Immunity | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
Resistance Mechanisms to Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer: Tumor-Intrinsic and -Extrinsic Factors: Immunity https://t.co/TRRw0cXF8X

Inhibition of immune regulatory checkpoints, such as CTLA-4 and the PD-1-PD-L1 axis, is at the forefront of immunotherapy for cancers of various histological types. However, such immunotherapies fail to control neoplasia in a significant proportion of patients. Here, we review how a range of cancer-cell-autonomous cues, tumor-microenvironmental factors, and host-related influences might account for the heterogeneous responses and failures often encountered during therapies using immune-checkpoint blockade. Furthermore, we describe the emerging evidence of how the strong interrelationship between the immune system and the host microbiota can determine responses to cancer therapies, and we introduce a concept by which prior or concomitant modulation of the gut microbiome could optimize therapeutic outcomes upon immune-checkpoint blockade. Keywords: immune-checkpoint blockade, immunotherapy, microbiota, cancer, PD-1, PD-L1, ipilimumab, CTLA-4, microbiome, immunotherapy resistance
Krishan Maggon 's insight:
Immunity Volume 44, Issue 6, p1255–1269, 21 June 2016

Jonathan M. Pitt, Marie Vétizou, Romain Daillère, María Paula Roberti, Takahiro Yamazaki, Bertrand Routy, Patricia Lepage, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, Mathias Chamaillard, Guido Kroemer, Laurence Zitvogelcorrespondenceemail 

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Exosome-Mediated Metastasis: From Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition to Escape from Immunosurveillance: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences

Exosome-Mediated Metastasis: From Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition to Escape from Immunosurveillance: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
Trends 

Tumour-derived exosomes (TDEs) contain prodigious amounts of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducers, and transduce EMT characteristics in recipient epithelial cells. 
 Exosomes are being implicated in the aetiology of organotropic metastasis owing to their target-homing ability and capacity to form a premetastatic niche at specific organ sites. 
 Exosomes may be hijacked by tumour viruses and may confer oncogenic potential or induce malignant transformation in recipient cells. 
 TDEs have potent immunomodulatory effects that likely foster tumour escape from immunosurveillance. 
 Pharmacological agents that directly or indirectly modulate tumour exosome biogenesis, secretion, and function have also shown promising antimetastatic activity.
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Systemic RNA delivery to dendritic cells exploits antiviral defence for cancer immunotherapy

Systemic RNA delivery to dendritic cells exploits antiviral defence for cancer immunotherapy | Cancer Immunotherapy Review | Scoop.it
The development of a nanoparticle RNA vaccine is reported that preferentially targets dendritic cells after systemic administration, and is shown to provide durable interferon-α-dependent antigen-specific immunity in mouse tumour models; initial results in advanced melanoma patients indicate potential efficacy in humans.
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