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Scooped by Eric Chan Wei Chiang!

China plans world's largest supercollider

China plans world's largest supercollider | World of Tomorrow |
Chinese scientists are designing a particle-smashing collider so massive it could encircle a city.


The underground particle-smashing ring aims to be at least twice the size of the globe's current leading collider - the Large Hadron Collider (CERN) outside Geneva. With a circumference of 80 kilometres, the Chinese accelerator complex would encircle the entire island of Manhattan.


A preliminary conceptual design for this leading-edge particle physics laboratory is now being drafted by China's elite sphere of physicists, joined by a circle of Western counterparts. Called the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC), China hopes it will shine as a symbol of the country's rise as a global superpower in terms of pure scientific research.


"This machine is by and for the world," explains Professor Gao Jie, one of the leaders of the project at the Institute of High Energy Physics in Beijing. Beijing plans to speedily expand cooperation between China's foremost physicists and their European and American counterparts with the new collider. 


The new collider research outpost, situated on the Avenue of Eternal Peace in the centre of Beijing, is aiding in the conceptual design that plans to be submitted to China's top leadership in December, according to Professor Arkani-Hamed, a scholar at Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study, the one-time home of Albert Einstein.


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Eric Chan Wei Chiang's insight:

The rise of China in some ways mirrors the rise of other global superpowers during the middle 20th century such as America, Russia and Japan. Other technological advancements of China are scooped here:


Nonetheless, CERN's supercollider is a technological marvel in its own right

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Quantum-scale time travel simulated by Australian physicists!

Quantum-scale time travel simulated by Australian physicists! | World of Tomorrow |
Using photons, scientists have simulated a way that quantum particles could travel through time.


Physicists at the University of Queensland in Australia have used photons - single particles of light - to simulate quantum particles travelling through time and study their behaviour. They were hoping to find out more about whether time travel would be possible at the quantum level - a theory first predicted in 1991.

In the study, the researchers simulated the behaviour of a single photon that travels through a wormhole and interacts with its older self. This is known as a closed timelike curve - a closed path in space-time that returns to the same starting point in space but at an earlier time. Their study is published in Nature Communications.

According to Einstein’s theory, it could be possible to travel back in time by following a closed timelike curve. However physicists and philosophers have struggled with this theory given the paradoxes such as the grandparents paradox, where a time traveller could prevent their grandparents from meeting, thus preventing the time traveller’s birth in the first place.


But in 1991 it was suggested that time travel in the quantum world would avoid these kinds of paradoxes because the properties of quantum particles are “fuzzy” and “uncertain” - and this is the one of the first times anyone has simulated the behaviour of such a scenario.

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Eric Chan Wei Chiang's comment, June 27, 2014 10:55 PM
@Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, @Sepp Hasslberger and @Luca Baptista, this is something you may find newsworthy.
Sepp Hasslberger's comment, June 30, 2014 3:09 AM
not sure, for my part I prefer things that are more close to actually doing something. This simulation might be showing a way to time travel or not, but it is simply too early to tell, imhv.
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Could Dark Matter Be Made Up Of Miniscule Black Holes?

Could Dark Matter Be Made Up Of Miniscule Black Holes? | World of Tomorrow |
Scientists have been on the hunt for dark matter for decades. A new hypothesis now suggests that the strange invisible stuff could be made of microscopic, or quantum, black hole atoms.

The concept is not entirely new; others have suggested that various types of miniature black holes could make up dark matter, which is so named because it apparently neither absorbs nor emits light, and thus cannot be detected directly by telescopes. 

Dark matter is estimated to constitute 84.5% of the total matter in the universe!

Physicists have also long believed that microscopic black holes must have existed in the early universe, because quantum fluctuations in the density of matter just after the Big Bang would have created regions of space dense enough to allow the formation of such tiny black holes.

Some researchers believe that the universe could still be full of such "primordial black holes."

Cool infographic here:

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Rescooped by Eric Chan Wei Chiang from Brain Tricks: Belief, Bias, and Blindspots!

Was our 3D universe created from a black hole of a 4D universe?

Was our 3D universe created from a black hole of a 4D universe? | World of Tomorrow |
Our universe may have emerged from a black hole in a higher-dimensional universe, propose a trio of Perimeter Institute researchers.


The big bang poses a big question: if it was indeed the cataclysm that blasted our universe into existence 13.7 billion years ago, what sparked it?


Three Perimeter Institute researchers have a new idea about what might have come before the big bang. It's a bit perplexing, but it is grounded in sound mathematics, testable, and enticing enough to earn the cover story in Scientific American, called "The Black Hole at the Beginning of Time." What we perceive as the big bang, they argue, could be the three-dimensional "mirage" of a collapsing star in a universe profoundly different than our own.


"Cosmology's greatest challenge is understanding the big bang itself," write Perimeter Institute Associate Faculty member Niayesh Afshordi, Affiliate Faculty member and University of Waterloo professor Robert Mann, and PhD student Razieh Pourhasan. Conventional understanding holds that the big bang began with a singularity – an unfathomably hot and dense phenomenon of spacetime where the standard laws of physics break down. Singularities are bizarre, and our understanding of them is limited. "For all physicists know, dragons could have come flying out of the singularity," Afshordi says in an interview with Nature.


In our three-dimensional universe, black holes have two-dimensional event horizons – that is, they are surrounded by a two-dimensional boundary that marks the "point of no return." In the case of a four-dimensional universe, a black hole would have a three-dimensional event horizon. In their proposed scenario, our universe was never inside the singularity; rather, it came into being outside an event horizon, protected from the singularity. It originated as – and remains – just one feature in the imploded wreck of a four-dimensional star.


The researchers emphasize that this idea, though it may sound "absurd," is grounded firmly in the best modern mathematics describing space and time. Specifically, they've used the tools of holography to "turn the big bang into a cosmic mirage." Along the way, their model appears to address long-standing cosmological puzzles and – crucially – produce testable predictions. Of course, our intuition tends to recoil at the idea that everything and everyone we know emerged from the event horizon of a single four-dimensional black hole. We have no concept of what a four-dimensional universe might look like. We don't know how a four-dimensional "parent" universe itself came to be.


But our fallible human intuitions, the researchers argue, evolved in a three-dimensional world that may only reveal shadows of reality. They draw a parallel to Plato's allegory of the cave, in which prisoners spend their lives seeing only the flickering shadows cast by a fire on a cavern wall.


"Their shackles have prevented them from perceiving the true world, a realm with one additional dimension," they write. "Plato's prisoners didn't understand the powers behind the sun, just as we don't understand the four-dimensional bulk universe. But at least they knew where to look for answers."


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The associated research article can be read here:

Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, Jocelyn Stoller
Eric Chan Wei Chiang's insight:

This is a fairly long scoop that would appeal to theologist from various faiths. It provides a scientific explanation for the "original mover" of Abrahamic faiths. The higher realms of existence would appeal to followers of Hinduism and Buddhism.


Other scoops related to cosmology can be read here:

Vloasis's curator insight, August 12, 2014 2:00 AM

Maybe an alien experiment from another dimension went horribly awry and created our universe. Like, they were trying to find a new way to bomb the shit out of each other, and instead created a new existence. Or perhaps it was all too successful and rent open their world to create ours.

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Is Time Disappearing From the Universe?

Is Time Disappearing From the Universe? | World of Tomorrow |

We’ve written many great articles that detail time. We talked about how we know it exists, its function in entropy, when it came into being etc. However, one theory suggests that time doesn’t exist at all. This hypothesis postulates that instead of time  being an absolute part of the spacetime continuum, or the “fourth dimension,” time is a needless and arbitrary human construct.

Similarly, proponents of this theory believe that the natural world can better be explained if we remove time from the equation and start thinking of it as the numerical order of change instead.  This idea is favorable to a lot of laypeople, but most scientists generally dismiss the notion without much thought. Something tells me those individuals won’t favor the radical hypothesis we’re about to discuss, which solves as many problems as it creates (a rarity in this field).

This hypothesis is but one means of explaining dark energy — the mysterious “anti-gravitational” force that’s responsible for causing the accelerating expansion of the universe and driving the galaxies away from each other at an ever-increasing-speed. Many have tried, and failed, to come up with a reasonable origin for such a force, but one of the more interesting ideas (a very controversial one, I might add) puts forth a very interesting question: “what if we’re looking at it backwards? ” What if the universe itself isn’t actually expanding an at ever increasing speed, but time is actually slowing down, where it will eventually cease to exist entirely?


Interestingly enough, the idea isn’t entirely hogwash. According to the most accepted model of cosmology that aims to explain the inception of our universe, time itself (along with the other dimensions that comprise the entirety of space/time and all four dimensions) came into being during the big bang. Therefore, it can also disappear — which is just the reverse effect. No need to worry about it happening anytime soon though. In the event that there actually is something to this hypothesis, there is still quite a bit of time left (about five billion years) before the clock strikes midnight for the final time – leaving everything in the universe,  including you and I, frozen in the vastness of space forever.

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The Large Hadron Collider may have found a new form of matter

The Large Hadron Collider may have found a new form of matter | World of Tomorrow |
Scientists have discovered an elusive particle that may be an example of a tetraquark, an entirely new form of matter.


Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, the overachieving device famous for finding the Higgs boson, have confirmed that a new particle called Z(4430) exists, and is the best evidence to date of a new form of matter called a tetraquark.


Quarks are the subatomic particles that form all matter and are usually found in pairs or triplets - but scientists had long predicted that a new particle Z(4430) could exist that was a combination of four quarks. And now the LHC has spotted as many as 4,000 of the elusive particles, the researchers reported in


Before you get too excited, there is still work to be done to determine if Z(4430) really is a tetraquark, and, if so, what that means for us.


Right now, scientists still aren't 100% sure a tetraquark would obey the laws of physics. Thomas Cohen at the University of Maryland in College Park told New Scientist: "Our computers aren't yet big enough to solve the theory from first principles."


But the big first hurdle has been overcome - scientists have proved that Z(4430) really does exist and shown there's still so much we have to discovery about the world we live in.


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Read the associated research article here:

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