Voilà neuf mille ans, les agriculteurs du Proche-Orient ont commencé à envahir l'Europe, assimilant les chasseurs-cueilleurs Cro-Magnon. Leur route de migration faisait encore débat. Une vaste enquête génétique portant sur plus d'un millier d'habitants du pourtour méditerranéen lève en partie le mystère. Selon la biologiste grecque Peristera Paschou, la vague paysanne aurait transité par l'Anatolie (en photo, l'intérieur d'une maison datant du néolithique), les îles du Dodécanèse et la Crète, avant de recouvrir la Sicile, la Sardaigne, l'Italie, le Pays basque, la France... Cette voie maritime s'oppose à la voie terrestre défendue par les archéologues, qui passerait par la Thrace et les Balkans. C'est une invasion lente dont la vitesse est grossièrement chiffrée à un peu plus de 1 kilomètre par an. Par ailleurs, d'autres études ont voulu estimer la part génétique héritée par l'Européen moderne de ces envahisseurs proche-orientaux. Suivant les populations, elle représente entre 10 et 22 %, avec un taux plus élevé chez les Méditerranéens.
Mais où est-il donc, ce pur Français vanté par Jean-Marie Le Pen ?
In the late 1990s two remarkable Bronze Age timber circles were discovered on Holme Beach. One of these – Seahenge – was excavated in 1998 and 1999. Since the excavations the second circle has been monitored and evidence of damage by coastal processes has been recorded.
The discovery of a schistosomiasis parasite egg in a 6200-year-old grave at a prehistoric town by the Euphrates river in Syria may be the first evidence that agricultural irrigation systems in the Middle East contributed to disease burden, according to new research. Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by several species of flatworm parasites that live in the blood vessels of the bladder and intestines.
Shell beads appear to have been one of the earliest examples of personal adornments. Marine shells identified far from the shore evidence long-distance transport and imply networks of exchange and negotiation. However, worked beads lose taxonomic clues to identification, and this may be compounded by taphonomic alteration. Consequently, the significance of this key early artefact may be underestimated. We report the use of bulk amino acid composition of the stable intra-crystalline proteins preserved in shell biominerals and the application of pattern recognition methods to a large dataset (777 samples) to demonstrate that taxonomic identification can be achieved at genus level. Amino acid analyses are fast (<2 hours per sample) and micro-destructive (sample size <2 mg). Their integration with non-destructive techniques provides a valuable and affordable tool, which can be used by archaeologists and museum curators to gain insight into early exploitation of natural resources by humans. Here we combine amino acid analyses, macro- and microstructural observations (by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and Raman spectroscopy to try to identify the raw material used for beads discovered at the Early Bronze Age site of Great Cornard (UK). Our results show that at least two shell taxa were used and we hypothesise that these were sourced locally.
The conference “Northern Greece and Southeastern Europe during the Neolithic Period” will take place in the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki from June 26, to June 29 2014. It is organized by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. The interdisciplinary nature of the conference is aimed to gather state-of-the-art researches of various disciplines to contribute to the topic with their scientific work within the field, to discuss the archaeological data from the current fieldwork and, finally, to challenge the present state of the knowledge with the most recent results and interpretations.
C'est l'histoire d'une découverte inédite il y a deux ans sur un chantier à Bergheim : 8 corps et sept bras gauches, visiblement amputés. Ces ossements datent du néolithique soit 6000 ans avant notre ère et portent des traces de violence.
In the last years several phylogeographic studies of both extant and extinct red deer populations have been conducted. Three distinct mitochondrial lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian) have been identified reflecting different glacial refugia and postglacial recolonisation processes. However, little is known about the genetics of the Alpine populations and no mitochondrial DNA sequences from Alpine archaeological specimens are available. Here we provide the first mitochondrial sequences of an Alpine Copper Age Cervus elaphus. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the remains of the clothes of the glacier mummy known as the Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350–5,100 years before present). A 2,297 base pairs long fragment was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplifications and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer's haplotype with haplotypes of modern and ancient European red deer. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the haplotype of the Alpine Copper Age red deer falls within the western European mitochondrial lineage in contrast with the current populations from the Italian Alps belonging to the eastern lineage. We also discussed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer with the populations from Mesola Wood (northern Italy) and Sardinia.
The Department of Antiquities of the Ministry of Communications and Works has announced the completion of the first season of archaeological investigation at the Tremithos valley, under the direction of Dr Sarah Stewart.
According to an official press release “the project, funded by Trend University, Canada, conducted a pedestrian survey of sections of the valley and the aim of the project was to identify Neolithic use along the Tremithos River, by humans who sought to access resources in the Troodos foothills, particularly the abundant and high quality chert sources”.
From the ‘Crystal Pathway’ that links stone circles on Cornwall’s Bodmin Moor to star-aligned megaliths in central Portugal, archaeo-astronomers are finding evidence that Neolithic and Bronze Age people were acute observers of the Sun, as well as the Moon and stars, and that they embedded astronomical references within their local landscapes.
La grotte de Foissac a été découverte en 1965 par le club de spéléologie de Capdenac. À l'époque, la municipalité refuse d'exploiter le site, n'y voyant pas d'avenir, et c'est alors qu'une équipe de bénévoles, des Foissacois et des membres du ...
Archaeologists were stunned to discover evidence of a Mesolithic settlement alongside the A1, which stretches 410 miles from London to Edinburgh. The route, which is now the A1 between London and Edinburgh, may have been in use for a staggering 10,000 years, newly-discovered archaeological evidence suggests. Experts have discovered ancient artefacts during the widening of the road through North Yorkshire [Credit: North News & Pictures Ltd] The site, near Catterick in North Yorkshire, is believed to have been used by people travelling north and south as an overnight shelter, similar to today’s motorway service stations. Items discovered at the settlement include flint tools that date back to between 6000 and 8000 BC.