The doctoral thesis is integrated into a line of research related to the study of historical processes and their transformations during Late Prehistory in the Spanish Northern Plateau. In this case, the investigation is focused on a particular phase, the Chalcolothic, basically confined to the III millennium BC, whose study in eastern North Plateau was unattractive and problematic because the archaeological record was poor and inexpressive until now. The great amount of information collected in the last 30 years in the Middle Valley Arlanzón has enabled to carry out an original research. In this sense, the thesis presents new theoretical approaches and research techniques which explore the archaeological record linked with Chalcolithic peasant societies. The collected data have allowed the discussion in historical terms of the material evidence left by these communities.