Real time statistics for current population of any country. Real time data on population, births, deaths, net migration and population growth.
This site shows various demographic statistics for every country including some based on projections in demographic trends in the given country. If the current trends hold (which they won't, but that is still an interesting measure), the entire Japanese population will disappear in 1,000 years according to this Global Post article.
The global population is increasingly gravitating towards urban areas. This shift has already taken place in many small countries, not to mention China, which now has more people living in cities and towns than villages. But even in India – where nearly 70% of the populace is rural, and more than half of all citizens are still reliant upon agriculture – the urban population has grown faster than the rural population over the past decade.