U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: Spotlight on Statistics
Cle'ianna Garrett's insight:
In 2008–09, single women spent, on average, 25.4 percent of their annual expenditures on shelter. Those women earning an annual pretax income of less than $5,000—which represented the lowest income group—spent , on average, a higher proportional amount (49.3 percent of total spending) on food, shelter, and apparel and services than women in all other income groups. Women in the highest income group—those earning an annual pretax income greater than or equal to $40,000—spent, on average, a higher amount per person on transportation, entertainment, and apparel and services than women in the lowest three income groups combined.
In closing the argument before this committee, may I summarize our position? We have come here to ask one simple thing: that the Judiciary Committee refer this Suffrage Amendment, known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment, to the House of Representatives. We are simply asking you to do what you can do—that you let the House of Representatives decide this question. We have tried to bring people to this hearing from all over the United States to show the desire of women that this should be done.I want to emphasize just one point, in addition, that we are absolutely non-partisan. We are made up of women who are strong Democrats, women who are strong Republicans, women who are Socialists, Progressives—every type of women. We are all united on this one thing—that we put Suffrage before everything else. In every election, if we ever go into any future elections, we simply pledge ourselves to this—that we will consider the furtherance of Suffrage and not our party affiliations...
Before the 1920s middle-class women were expected to live restricted lifestyles. They had to wear very restrictive clothing and behave politely.
They were not expected to wear any make-up. Their relationships with men were strictly controlled. They had to have a chaperone with them when they went out with their boyfriend. They were expected not to play sports or smoke in public. In most states they could not vote. Very few jobs were open to women. Workingwomen were in low paid jobs like cleaning, dressmaking and secretarial work. The war gave women experience of skilled factory work. In 1920 women got the vote in all states. New electrical goods like vacuum cleaners and washing machines made domestic work easier.Younger women wore more daring clothes. They smoked in public and drank with men without chaperones. They even kissed in public. In urban areas women took on more jobs. In 1929 there were 24% more women working than in 1920. Women became financially independent. Women were less likely to stay in unhappy marriages. In 1929 there were twice as many divorces as in 1914.
Women were still paid less than men, even when they did the same job. In politics, women in no way achieved equality with men. Only a handful of women had been elected by 1929. There was a strong conservative tradition in USA. A combination of traditional religion and old country values kept most American women in a much more restricted role. Young middle class women in the cities – the flappers – experienced massive changes to their roles in American society. Some women living in the more traditional rural areas were outraged by the actions of the flappers in the cities and opposed many of the images of women in films, novels and magazines
Flapper styles were different or odd for that time.]]Being a flapper was a trend in the 1920's where some women rebelled against some of society's strict expectations of females. Flappers were women who liked to be "in the now styles. The dictionary defines a flapper as - "A young woman, especially one in the 1920s, who showed disdain for conventional dress and behavior." That is, conventional in the 1920s. The style came around after the first world war, and women were tired of trying to conform to society's idea of normal - women were gaining more independence (e.g. being given the right to vote), and the face of America was changing! Flappers were most commonly known for their dancing, drinking, smoking, wearing a lot of makeup, and a love of films.Almost all flappers had bobbed hair, dated frequently, and stopped wearing their corsets (which were social norms in the 1910s.)
Stylist and Fashion Editors gathered at the beautiful Hudson hotel for the debut of designer Laquan Smith’s Spring 2013 collection. The sprawling garden rooftop consisted of lush greenery and plush cabana chairs that set the stage for the highly anticipated debut. Most would consider Laquan Smith a budding designer with only two years in the industry; however, he has managed to solidify his position as a talented designer with celebrity clientele.
Biography of Coco Chanel, The designer who created the "little black dress"
Cle'ianna Garrett's insight:
Born: 19 August 1883Died: 10 January 1971Birthplace: Saumur, FranceBest known as: The designer who created the "little black dress"Name at birth: Gabrielle Bonheur ChanelDesigner Coco Chanel gave the world the little black dress, Chanel No. 5 perfume, and the revolutionary notion that style could be both classic and casual. Coco -- a nickname meaning "little pet" -- was raised in an orphanage, where she learned to sew. In 1910 she began selling hats from her own shop, and by the 1920s her fashion business had expanded to include a couture house, her own textile factory and a line of perfumes that included the famous No. 5. Chanel took women's fashions away from stiff corsets and introduced casual, practical clothing that borrowed fabrics and attitudes from men's fashion. She was the first to introduce black as a fashion color; her versatile, semi-formal "little black dress" became a Chanel trademark and an enduring fashion standard. During and after World War II Chanel's popularity waned, and her love affair with a Nazi officer sent her into a form of self-imposed exile in Switzerland for nearly 15 years. She made a comeback in 1954 and her designs became some of the most popular in the western world, especially in the United States. After her death the Coco Chanel Company was directed by designer Karl Lagerfeld.
Women voted for the first time on a national scale in the 1920s. They also worked in greater numbers than ever before, but this autonomy had limits.
Cle'ianna Garrett's insight:
Among single women, there was a huge increase in employment during this era. Certain occupations had always been weighted towards women — teachers, social workers, nurses, and librarians. And for those who were working-class, textile mills had been the one type of factory where jobs could be found. And on the farm, women helped out in myriad ways, as they traditionally had.
But now with the rise of the corporate office, a number of other types of jobs opened up. Typists, filing clerks, stenographers, and even some secretarial roles all became possibilities for the ambitious young woman. In an era with absolutely nothing in the way of mass data storage, entire floors of office buildings were filled with the sound of typewriters and filing drawers.
In most offices, desks were lined across a central room in rows, with no cubicle walls and often not even a window. Tasks consisted of things like listening to dictations and typing their contents, of creating and updating ledgers, or of creating bills and sending out requests for payment.
These jobs supported a great number of young women who had fled the poverty of the countryside. In comparison to mills or farming it was an improvement. However, there was little opportunity for advancement and it was monotonous to the extreme.
Passed by Congress June 4, 1919, and ratified on August 18, 1920, the 19th amendment granted women the right to vote.
The 19th amendment guarantees all American women the right to vote. Achieving this milestone required a lengthy and difficult struggle; victory took decades of agitation and protest. Beginning in the mid-19th century, several generations of woman suffrage supporters lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many Americans considered a radical change of the Constitution. Few early supporters lived to see final victory in 1920.
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