How much does irrationality limit autonomy? BioEdge How irrational beliefs and desires limit rationality is more controversial. The most frequent example is Jehovah's Witnesses' attitude to blood transfusions.
“UCSD psychology researchers confirmed the gender stereotype that men are funnier than women, but not by much. The researchers suspect the small difference is that men try harder and more often to be funny than women do.”
Via Jocelyn Stoller
A new study of 2,929 5-year-old children has found a link between consuming sodas and bad behaviour.
The US researchers found that children who drank more soda were more likely to be aggressive, to have attention problems, to get into fights and to destroy other people’s belongings (Suglia et al., 2013).
This backs up findings in adolescents that have linked drinking more soda to self-harm, aggression, depression and even suicidal thoughts (Lien et al., 2006; Solnick & Hemenway, 2013).
Among the 5-year-olds, 43% consumed at least one soda per day and 4% had 4+ servings per day. Those consuming four or more sodas a day were twice as likely to be involved in bad behaviours as those who drank none
Nudge theory has quickly become nudge practice – whether it is vouchers to encourage women to breastfeed or text messages to pay a parking fine. But can governments really encourage us to change our ways?
Maslow created a hierarchy of needs for the individual.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is a popular way of thinking about people's needs. Published by psychologist Abraham Maslow in his 1943 article, "A Theory of Human Motivation," this theory contends that as humans strive to meet our most basic needs, we also seek to satisfy a higher set of needs.
Maslow presents this set of needs as a hierarchy, consisting of:
Physiological/bodily needs.Safety needs.Love/belonging needs.Self-esteem.Self-actualization (the desire to be "all that you can be").
The theory argues that the most fundamental level starts with the physiological need for food, water and shelter.
This is followed by security and social needs.
Maslow believed that the higher level needs, such as self-esteem and self-fulfillment, could only be met after the lower level needs had been satisfied.
Using the need hierarchy frame and a specific software, Sarma and van der Hoek 2004 got an insight into what are the fundamental needs for a team to function, what makes the team cohesive and how can the team be made more efficient.
They createed a hierarchy comprising of the deficiency needs and the growth needs.
The first four layers are namely fundamental needs, safety needs, belonging needs and Esteem needs.
Once the needs at a particular level are satisfied the team needs to fulfill the needs at the higher level.
Once all the deficiency needs are satisfied the team is free to address its growth needs and reach self-actualization.
As the requirements of an individual in a society are different from the collaboration requirements of a software development team the specific needs in a layer are different than that of the individual.
Maslow placed the needs in a hierarchy such that only after the needs of a layer are satisfied would an individual care about the needs in the next layer.
The five layers in our hierarchy of collaboration needs for a team are illustrated within their paper...
Using Maslow's insight Sarma and van der Hoek 2004 created a hierarchy of needs for the team. In their paper they map the needs of a software development team to the need layers that Maslow prescribed for the individual.
In creating this mapping they come across an interesting observation that most collaborative tools focus on enhancing the efficiency of the team and de- pend on collocation to create team cohesiveness...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs relates to organizational theory and behavior because it explores a worker’s motivation.
Some people are prepared to work just for money, because of friends, or the fact that they are respected by others and recognized for their good work.
➳ The Limitations of Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs:
Five important Limitations about maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory:
1. The Theory is lacking about the motivators of extrinsically driven individuals...
2. Difficult for manager to identify the need level for employees...
3. The Most Powerful unsatisfied Need provides the most motivation...
This is often due to the fact that different individuals are driven to satisfy different needs at a certain time...
4. The theory is not empirically supported...
The definition of empirical is ‘something that can be proven or verified through studies or experiments’...
5. Basic Needs may not need to be satisfied to acknowledge higher needs...
Based on the theory, we assume that if an individual that is lacking in basic amenities or in a questionable working environment, he/she will never unlock the higher needs in the hierarchy....
The Maslow's hierarchy of needs, not only provides a set of techniques for subtly coercing higher productivity from employees, but alsofosters a new culture in the workplace, one that leads to fulfilled workers, in which productivity is an advantageous fringe benefit.
The pyramid can be revised and expanded to include aesthetic needs, cognitive needs, and the need to find meaning.
An understanding of these needs and the value of fulfilling them in the workplace may add immeasurable long-term benefits in employee well being, and therefore employee productivity and retention.
>> Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: General Considerations
✿ Physiological Needs:
Once an employee's immediate living needs are taken care of, he or she is likely to begin thinking about safety and security needs...
✿ Safety Needs:
When an employee feels safe, he or she will seek to become a contributing member of the community of employees.
✿ Belonging and Social Needs:
Once the employee feels valued, he or she will seek to grow in competence and self-esteem...
✿ Esteem Needs:
Once an employee begins to feel good about him or herself, that employee will want to continue to grow...
✿ Cognitive Needs:
When an employee is continuously learning and growing, he or she will begin to organize this knowledge, often in new and creative ways...
✿ Aesthetic Needs:
The employee’s work now has the potential to become a means of self-expression....
✿ Self-actualization Needs
Once a person feels that he or she has achieved his or her potential, that person will begin to feel a need for a connection with something greater...
✿ Need for Transcendence:
When an employee's work is imbued with grander meaning, he or she will be less likely to indulge in short-term unethical behavior.
The employee will also be internally motivated to keep doing good work, with continuous improvement....
The present research builds upon the extant literature as it assesses psychophysiological factors in relation to empathy, conflict resolution, and romantic relationship satisfaction. In this study, we examined physiological reactivity of individuals in the context of emotionally laden interactions with their romantic partners. Participants (N = 31) completed self-report measures and attended in-person data collection sessions with their romantic partners. Participants were guided through discussions of problems and strengths of their relationships in vivo with their partners while we measured participants’ skin conductance level (SCL) and interbeat interval (IBI) of the heart. We hypothesized that participants’ level of empathy towards their partners would be reflected by physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) and relationship satisfaction, such that higher levels of empathy would be linked to changes in physiological arousal and higher relationship satisfaction. Further, we hypothesized that differences would be found in physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) based on the type of conflict resolution strategy used by participants. Finally, we hypothesized that differences would be found in empathy towards partner and relationship satisfaction based on the type of conflict resolution strategies used by participants. Results partially supported hypotheses and were discussed in light of existing knowledge based on empirical and theoretical sources.
Via Edwin Rutsch
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