If you ask people whether they think stealing is wrong, most of them would answer yes. And yet, in 2013, organizations all over the world lost an estimated total of $3.7 trillion to fraud. Kelly Richmond Pope explains how the fraud triangle, (developed by criminologist Donald Cressey) can help us understand how seemingly good people can make unethical decisions in their daily lives.
You’re considering teaching behavioral economics to undergraduates? Or, you’ve been told to? Either way, great! In the hope that you and your students will enjoy the experience just as much as I have, here are some tips to get you off to a flying
Before we start, it's important to distinguish between cognitive biases and logical fallacies. A logical fallacy is an error in logical argumentation (e.g. ad hominem attacks, slippery slopes, circular arguments, appeal to force, etc.).
Moneyweb.co.zaHow porn can hinder your financial decision-makingMoneyweb.co.zaStuart-profile Regulators around the world are worried about new innovations at the intersection of psychology and financial services.
The work, led by Robert Eres from the University's School of Psychological Sciences, pinpointed correlations between grey matter density and cognitive and affective empathy.
The study looked at whether people who have more brain cells in certain areas of the brain are better at different types of empathy.
"People who are high on affective empathy are often those who get quite fearful when watching a scary movie, or start crying during a sad scene. Those who have high cognitive empathy are those who are more rational, for example a clinical psychologist counselling a client,"
MARCH 12, 2015 0 130 Friends use metaphors more often when speaking to one another, and this helps them gauge each other’s emotional state, according to a study published in the journal Memory & Cognition. The Canadian researchers who performed the study conclude that metaphors facilitate social interactions, comprehension and empathy.
Metaphors are generally used to describe an unfamiliar territory in familiar terms, using words whose sense should not be taken literally. “His head was spinning with idea”, “her home was a prison”. Cognitively speaking, metaphors strain mental resources, but Andrea Bowes and Albert Katz of the University of Ontario in Canada found that not only are these understood with relative easy and commonly used, but might be essential to solid human relationships.
The Theory of Mind describes one’s ability to infer another people’s state of mind, beliefs, knowledge, intents or desires. Some people are better at this than other, and some have a Theory of Mind impaired, like autistic individuals. Essentially, those who have a firm grasp upon the Theory of Mind can predict other people’s behavior. They can read their minds – if I’m also allowed to use a metaphor. Speaking of which, the researchers found in two experiments that those people who had been exposed to metaphors scored better at Theory of Mind tests, liked the Reading the Mind in the Eye Test (RMET). In this famous test, people have to identify the true emotional state of people displayed in black and white photographs of 36 pairs of eyes.
The eyes are often called the window to the soul. Our eyes widen in fear, boosting sensitivity and expanding our field of vision to locate surrounding danger. When repulsed, our eyes narrow, blocking light to sharpen focus and pinpoint the source of our disgust. And so on for other emotions. There’s so much you can tell just by looking a person in the eyes.
In the first experiment, 39 volunteers attentively read either metaphorical or literal sentences as part of a story. They were then given a surprise Theory of Mind task. The participants who read the metaphorical sentences were significantly better at identifying the correct emotions in the sets of pictures they were presented with in the Reading the Mind in the Eye Test.
The second experiment played back a couple of short stories and participants had to rate the speakers on a variety of interpersonal and social characteristics. The speakers who used metaphors in their conversations where judged to be closer friends than those who did not use this figure of speech.
“The research explains why we speak differently with friends and family than with strangers, and shows how we make friends and meet partners simply with the style of language we use,” says Bowes. “It provides novel evidence that metaphor plays a special role in orientating one to the mental state of others.” Not surprisingly, this is where books comes in. Books not only help shape the vocabulary, but also expose the reader to numerous metaphors. After all, there’s no other way – for an author, metaphors are his bread and butter.
“Our findings, along with some others, also stress the importance of literature in fostering and understanding human empathy,” adds Katz. “Reading fiction in general, and metaphors specifically, indeed promotes people’s ability to identify the emotions or mental state of others.” Reference: Bowes, A. & Katz, A. (2015). Metaphor creates intimacy and temporarily enhances Theory of Mind, Memory & Cognition. DOI 10.3758/s13421-015-0508-4
The longer you live, the more you realize that the difference between success and magnificent failure lies in how well you understand people. If you’re like many, that fact makes you regret not having studied psychology.
Music listening primarily evokes positive emotions in listeners. Research has shown that positive emotions may be fundamental for improving both psychological and physical aspects of well-being. Besides from the music itself it is essential to consider individual and situational factors when studying emotional experiences to music. Everyone does not respond in the same way to a piece of music and one individual may respond differently to a piece of music at different times. The main aim with the four papers in this thesis was to explore the effects of everyday music listening on emotions, stress and health. By using the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM), a new approach was taken to study the prevalence of musical emotions in everyday life. In the DRM the previous day is divided into episodes, in terms of activity, experienced emotions, and time of day. The results from study I showed that music occurred in 30 % of the episodes and that positive emotions were more often and more intensively experienced in musical episodes than in non-musical episodes. Music was also related to lower stress levels and higher health scores. The results from study II showed that if music occurred in the episode after a particularly stressful episode, the stress level was lower in both that episode and in the next one compared to if music did not occur. A mediation analysis suggested that the positive emotions induced by the music were mediating the effect of music on stress. The results did also show that liking of the music affected the level of stress. In study III, an experiment group who listened to their selfchosen music on mp3-players when arriving home from work every day for 30 minutes for two weeks’ time was compared to a control group who relaxed without music and with a baseline week when the experiment group relaxed without music. The results showed that although no significant differences were found between the groups, the experiment group showed an increase in intensity of positive emotions and decrease in perceived stress level and cortisol levels over time. No such changes were found within the control group. In study IV, data from study I and III was reanalysed with the purpose of exploring the associations between personality and emotional responses to music. The results showed that the associations between personality and intensity of positive emotions, perceived stress, and use of emotion regulation strategies differed in the two datasets and these inconsistencies indicate that personality is not the main contributor to emotional responses to music. Overall, the results from this thesis indicate that everyday music listening is an easy and effective way of improving well-being and health by its ability to evoke positive emotions and thereby reduce stress. But not just any music will do since the responses to music are influenced by individual and situational factors.
Exposure to news, opinion, and civic information increasingly occurs through social media. How do these online networks influence exposure to perspectives that cut across ideological lines? Using deidentified data, we examined how 10.1 million U.S. Facebook users interact with socially shared news. We directly measured ideological homophily in friend networks and examined the extent to which heterogeneous friends could potentially expose individuals to cross-cutting content. We then quantified the extent to which individuals encounter comparatively more or less diverse content while interacting via Facebook’s algorithmically ranked News Feed and further studied users’ choices to click through to ideologically discordant content. Compared with algorithmic ranking, individuals’ choices played a stronger role in limiting exposure to cross-cutting content.
Exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on Facebook Eytan Bakshy, Solomon Messing, Lada A. Adamic
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