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New Study: Brain Neuronal Networks

New Study: Brain Neuronal Networks | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it

"A paper published in a special edition of the journal Science proposes a novel understanding of brain architecture using a network representation of connections within the primate cortex. Zoltán Toroczkai, professor of physics at the University of Notre Dame and co-director of the Interdisciplinary Center for Network Science and Applications, is a co-author of the paper "Cortical High-Density Counterstream Architectures."

 

Using brain-wide and consistent tracer data, the researchers describe the cortex as a network of connections with a "bow tie" structure characterized by a high-efficiency, dense core connecting with "wings" of feed-forward and feedback pathways to the rest of the cortex (periphery). The local circuits, reaching to within 2.5 millimeters and taking up more than 70 percent of all the connections in the macaque cortex, are integrated across areas with different functional modalities (somatosensory, motor, cognitive) with medium- to long-range projections.

 

The authors also report on a simple network model that incorporates the physical principle of entropic cost to long wiring and the spatial positioning of the functional areas in the cortex. They show that this model reproduces the properties of the connectivity data in the experiments, including the structure of the bow tie. The wings of the bow tie emerge from the counterstream organization of the feed-forward and feedback nature of the pathways. They also demonstrate that, contrary to previous beliefs, such high-density cortical graphs can achieve simultaneously strong connectivity (almost direct between any two areas), communication efficiency, and economy of connections (shown via optimizing total wire cost) via weight-distance correlations that are also consequences of this simple network model.

 

This bow tie arrangement is a typical feature of self-organizing information processing systems. The paper notes that the cortex has some analogies with information-processing networks such as the World Wide Web, as well as metabolism, the immune system and cell signaling. The core-periphery bow tie structure, they say, is "an evolutionarily favored structure for a wide variety of complex networks" because "these systems are not in thermodynamic equilibrium and are required to maintain energy and matter flow through the system." The brain, however, also shows important differences from such systems. For example, destination addresses are encoded in information packets sent along the Internet, apparently unlike in the brain, and location and timing of activity are critical factors of information processing in the brain, unlike in the Internet.

 

"Biological data is extremely complex and diverse," Toroczkai said. "However, as a physicist, I am interested in what is common or invariant in the data, because it may reveal a fundamental organizational principle behind a complex system. A minimal theory that incorporates such principle should reproduce the observations, if not in great detail, but in extent. I believe that with additional consistent data, as those obtained by the Kennedy team, the fundamental principles of massive information processing in brain neuronal networks are within reach.""

 


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With My Right Brain
Irrationality is predictable. We need to release "rational man" assumption.
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Researchers cut down procrastination by making it less fun - PBS NewsHour

Researchers cut down procrastination by making it less fun - PBS NewsHour | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Researchers delved into how to stop students from letting online distractions keep them from getting work done. Photo by Blake Patterson The key to making
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Notes from Behavioral Economics Workshop with Dan Ariely

Notes from Behavioral Economics Workshop with Dan Ariely | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Last summer I attended a two-day workshop at Duke University hosted by Dr. Dan Ariely on Behavioral Economics in the investment realm. Dr. Ariely is a professor, well known author (i.e. Predictably...
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Time-Inconsistent Planning: A Computational Pro...

Time-Inconsistent Planning: A Computational Pro... | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
In many settings, people exhibit behavior that is inconsistent across time --- we allocate a block of time to get work done and then procrastinate, or put effort into a project and then later fail to complete it.
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Outsmart Your Own Biases

Outsmart Your Own Biases | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it

How to broaden your thinking and make better decisions. 

Suppose you’re evaluating a job candidate to lead a new office in a different country. On paper this is by far the most qualified person you’ve seen. Her responses to your interview questions are flawless. She has impeccable social skills. Still, something doesn’t feel right. You can’t put your finger on what—you just have a sense. How do you decide whether to hire her?

You might trust your intuition, which has guided you well in the past, and send her on her way. That’s what most executives say they’d do when we pose this scenario in our classes on managerial decision making. The problem is, unless you occasionally go against your gut, you haven’t put your intuition to the test. You can’t really know it’s helping you make good choices if you’ve never seen what happens when you ignore it.


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Stirling Behavioural Science Blog : List of Behavioral Economics Masters Programs in Europe

Stirling Behavioural Science Blog : List of Behavioral Economics Masters Programs in Europe | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
MSc programmes in Behavioural Economics/Behavioural Science including the @stirlingeconpsy #stirbsc MSc http://t.co/3M05x4tFmS
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Predicting replication

Predicting replication | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
The Behavioural Economics Replication Project: This project will provide evidence of how accurately peer prediction markets can forecast replication of scientific experiments in economics. In order...
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Continuing Education... Phil Rosenzweig on Leadership, Decisions, and Behavioral Economics | EconTalk | Library of Economics and Liberty

Continuing Education... Phil Rosenzweig on Leadership, Decisions, and Behavioral Economics | EconTalk | Library of Economics and Liberty | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
This week's guest, Phil Rosenzweig joined EconTalk host Russ Roberts to talk about his new book, Left Brain, Right Stuff. We'd like to know what you took away from this week's recorded conversation, and hopefully spark some more here online....
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Don't anchor emotions to the past - Poughkeepsie Journal

Don't anchor emotions to the past - Poughkeepsie Journal | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Don't anchor emotions to the past
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Research chat: Dan Ariely and Malcolm Gladwell on writing about social science - Journalist's Resource

Research chat: Dan Ariely and Malcolm Gladwell on writing about social science - Journalist's Resource | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Duke economist Dan Ariely and New Yorker writer Malcolm Gladwell in conversation about social science and journalism.
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A meta-analysis of state-of-the-art electoral prediction from Twitter data

Electoral prediction from Twitter data is an appealing research topic. It seems relatively straightforward and the prevailing view is overly optimistic. This is problematic because while simple approaches are assumed to be good enough, core problems are not addressed. Thus, this paper aims to (1) provide a balanced and critical review of the state of the art; (2) cast light on the presume predictive power of Twitter data; and (3) depict a roadmap to push forward the field. Hence, a scheme to characterize Twitter prediction methods is proposed. It covers every aspect from data collection to performance evaluation, through data processing and vote inference. Using that scheme, prior research is analyzed and organized to explain the main approaches taken up to date but also their weaknesses. This is the first meta-analysis of the whole body of research regarding electoral prediction from Twitter data. It reveals that its presumed predictive power regarding electoral prediction has been rather exaggerated: although social media may provide a glimpse on electoral outcomes current research does not provide strong evidence to support it can replace traditional polls. Finally, future lines of research along with a set of requirements they must fulfill are provided.
  
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Belief in a zero-sum game: Scientists develop a new way to compare individuals and cultures - PsyPost

Belief in a zero-sum game: Scientists develop a new way to compare individuals and cultures - PsyPost | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
We rely on fundamental theories about the social world and how it works to guide our behavior in everyday life. These generalized beliefs about ourselves, ...

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How the brain reads music: The evidence for musical dyslexia - PsyPost

How the brain reads music: The evidence for musical dyslexia - PsyPost | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Music education in the western world often emphasizes musical literacy, the ability to read musical notation fluently. But this is not always an easy task ...
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Want Kids To Eat Healthy? Make Their Meals More Like McDonald's - Huffington Post

Want Kids To Eat Healthy? Make Their Meals More Like McDonald's - Huffington Post | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Applying the McDonald's Happy Meal treatment to healthy foods could make kids more likely to eat them.
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Neural Mechanisms of Gain–Loss Asymmetry in Temporal Discounting

Abstract

Humans typically discount future gains more than losses. This phenomenon is referred to as the “sign effect” in experimental and behavioral economics. Although recent studies have reported associations between the sign effect and important social problems, such as obesity and incurring multiple debts, the biological basis for this phenomenon remains poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that enhanced loss-related neural processing in magnitude and/or delay representation are causes of the sign effect. We examined participants performing intertemporal choice tasks involving future gains or losses and compared the brain activity of those who exhibited the sign effect and those who did not. When predicting future losses, significant differences were apparent between the two participant groups in terms of striatal activity representing delay length and in insular activity representing sensitivity to magnitude. Furthermore, participants with the sign effect exhibited a greater insular response to the magnitude of loss than to that of gain, and also a greater striatal response to the delay of loss than to that of gain. These findings may provide a new biological perspective for the development of novel treatments and preventive measures for social problems associated with the sign effect.

 


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New insight into how brain makes memories - PsyPost

New insight into how brain makes memories - PsyPost | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Every time you make a memory, somewhere in your brain a tiny filament reaches out from one neuron and forms an electrochemical connection to a neighboring ...
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When It Comes To Buying Decisions, Why Feelings Come First

When It Comes To Buying Decisions, Why Feelings Come First | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
People make buying decisions based on something that is really hard to measure: how we feel. Our Planet Money team reports on the holy grail of economics: knowing what consumers are going to do.
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Study finds social interaction before economic transactions raises fairness - AroundtheO

Study finds social interaction before economic transactions raises fairness - AroundtheO | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
AroundtheO
Study finds social interaction before economic transactions raises fairness
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Why we make bad decisions

Why we make bad decisions | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Dan Gilbert presents research and data from his exploration of happiness -- sharing some surprising tests and experiments that you can also try on yourself. Watch through to the end for a sparkling Q&A with some familiar TED faces.
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Social Media and the Elections

In the United States, social media sites—such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube—are currently being used by two out of three people (1), and search engines are used daily (2). Monitoring what users share or search for in social media and on the Web has led to greater insights into what people care about or pay attention to at any moment in time. Furthermore, it is also helping segments of the world population to be informed, to organize, and to react rapidly. However, social media and search results can be readily manipulated, which is something that has been underappreciated by the press and the general public.

In times of political elections, the stakes are high, and advocates may try to support their cause by active manipulation of social media. For example, altering the number of followers can affect a viewer's conclusion about candidate popularity. Recently, it was noted that the number of followers for a presidential candidate in the United States surged by over 110 thousand within one single day, and analysis showed that most of these followers are unlikely to be real people (3).

 


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on "Wishful Thinking"

on "Wishful Thinking" | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Social Scientists traditionally regard people's beliefs about the future to be exogenous to their desires and wishes. It's one thing to want something to happen, but it doesn't suppose to affect our beliefs that it will.  My grandfather's German passport which I found among my dad's documents (see photo) shows how beliefs can be intermingled with wishes. Hugo Winter, a Jewish businessman from Koenigsberg, escaped Nazi Germany in 1934 to Palestine, leaving behind a flourishing business, a huge villa, and many friends and relatives. He never wanted to replace his fancy lifestyle in Germany

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New emotion recognition model: Humans perceive feelings of others via pattern recognition

New emotion recognition model: Humans perceive feelings of others via pattern recognition | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Philosophers at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum have put forward a new model that explains how humans recognise the emotions of others. According to their theory, humans are capable of perceiving feelings directly via pattern recognition.

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