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Freakonomics » The Folly of Prediction

Freakonomics » The Folly of Prediction | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Don't try to predict, just enjoy it...
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Irrationality is predictable. We need to release "rational man" assumption.
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The Neuroscience of Bad Habits and Why It’s Not About Will Power - Mindfulness and Psychotherapy

The Neuroscience of Bad Habits and Why It’s Not About Will Power - Mindfulness and Psychotherapy | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
We all have bad habits we want to break, but understanding the brain and mindfulness can give us a leg up.

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David Hain's curator insight, October 9, 1:50 AM

We can re-write patterns that are not helping us!

Miklos Szilagyi's curator insight, October 10, 12:01 PM

Yesss... I have some too... but you know what? I adore some of them... they are giving the special flavour being me...:-))) or... I don't know... simply I hate that everybody always want to change to somebody else.... Normally I would like to be even more myself... OK, some small things...:-)))

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Why Your Brain Loves Good Storytelling

Why Your Brain Loves Good Storytelling | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Studying the neuroscience of compelling communication.

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Introduction to Cognitive Bias - YouTube

“ RT @alphaarchitect: Introduction to Cognitive Bias: http://t.co/pyNbXNyaqe via @YouTube”


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How to handle toxic people

This post originally appeared at LinkedIn. Follow the author here. Toxic people defy logic. Some are blissfully unaware of the negative impact that they have on those around them, and others seem to derive satisfaction from creating chaos and pushing other people’s buttons. Either way, they create unnecessary complexity, strife, and worst of all, stress....
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Behavioral economics explains monopolies, consumer issues

Behavioral economics explains monopolies, consumer issues | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Sarah Temraz - Contributing Writer Last week, on Oct. 13, the Nobel Prize for Economic Sciences was awarded to Jean Tirole, professor of economics at Toulouse University in France. Tirole has been ...
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This Beverage Reversed Normal Age-Related Memory Loss in Three Months — PsyBlog

This Beverage Reversed Normal Age-Related Memory Loss in Three Months — PsyBlog | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it

Drinking this could reduce your brain age twenty years in just three months.Cocoa flavanoids — like those contained in a cup of cocoa — can reverse age-related memory loss in older adults, a new study finds.
This is the first direct evidence that an important component of memory decline that comes with age can be improved with a simple dietary change.
Typically, normal age-related memory declines are noticeable to people in their fifties and sixties: things like forgetting where the keys are or having trouble recalling a name or word.
These changes are much less severe than those which typically occur as a result of devastating dementias like Alzheimer’s disease.


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Empathic brains make faster social choices

Empathic brains make faster social choices | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it

Just out these days, our recent paper in the journal Social Neuroscience is about how empathy can drive choices in social dilemmas. In this study, we use both behavioural economics and fMRI scanning to explore how individual differences in empathic ability can affect social behaviours.

This is described in the abstract:

Empathy was related to specific engagement of the mentalising network of the brain.

“Decision-making in social dilemmas is suggested to rely on three factors: the valuation of a choice option, the relative judgment of two or more choice alternatives, and individual factors affecting the ease at which judgments and decisions are made. Here, we test whether empathy—an individual’s relative ability to understand others’ thoughts, emotions, and intentions—acts as an individual factor that alleviates conflict resolution in social decision-making. We test this by using a framed, iterated prisoners’ dilemma (PD) game in two settings. In a behavioral experiment, we find that individual differences in empathic ability (the Empathy Quotient, EQ) were related to lower response times in the PD game, suggesting that empathy is related to faster social choices, independent of whether they choose to cooperate or defect. In a subsequent neuroimaging experiment, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we find that EQ is positively related to individual differences in the engagement of brain structures implemented in mentalizing, including the precuneus, superior temporal sulcus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that empathy is related to the individual difference in the engagement of mentalizing in social dilemmas and that this is related to the efficiency of decision-making in social dilemmas.”

 


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Evolution of responses to (un)fairness

(...) humans and other species seem to share basic reactions to inequity, which serves to sustain cooperation. We postulate that the basic emotional reactions and calculations underlying our sense of fairness are rooted in our primate background and offer a model that places these reactions in the context of cooperative relationships.

 

Evolution of responses to (un)fairness
Sarah F. Brosnan1,*, Frans B. M. de Waal

Science 17 October 2014:
Vol. 346 no. 6207
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1251776


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History turns toward the global, the scientific, and the quantitative | Harvard Magazine Nov-Dec 2014

History turns toward the global, the scientific, and the quantitative | Harvard Magazine Nov-Dec 2014 | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Scholars pursue sweeping new interpretations of the human past.
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Accepting Your Bias

Accepting Your Bias | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Everyone has a bias. No single person has a perfect view of reality. Instead, we each have our own window into reality. And everyone's view is going to be a little bit different. 

Every mind has a bias, because everyone’s beliefs and worldview are shaped by their own unique experiences within a particular environment.

So no single person has a perfect view of reality. Instead, we each have our own window into reality. And everyone’s view is going to be a little bit different.

Therefore, every person you meet knows something that you don’t know. And you know something that they don’t know. That’s a powerful insight to keep in mind.

When you accept your bias, it actually puts you in a better position to learn new things and expand your perspective.

You recognize that everyone has something to teach you, so you should be willing to listen to all perspectives, and try to find a grain of truth.

This doesn’t necessarily mean that all truth is subjective, or just a matter of opinion. It’s the acceptance that your knowledge is limited – you know some things, and you’re ignorant about others.


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Bystander Revolution: Kevin Spacey | Empathy - YouTube

What does it really feel like to be a target? What does it really feel like to be a bully? Thoughts on the power of imagination and empathy from House of Cards star Kevin Spacey


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Empathy and the Psychology of Literary Modernism - Meghan Marie Hammond

Empathy and the Psychology of Literary Modernism - Meghan Marie Hammond | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it

Empathy and the Psychology of Literary ModernismMeghan Marie Hammond

 

Published by Edinburgh University Press

Recovers early psychology, a discipline that has often been neglected in favor of psychoanalysis, as a framework for literary modernismProvides a conceptual history of empathy that expands our understanding of the modernist worldGrants new insight into modernist technique by explaining how it relates to contemporaneous psychological and aesthetic theories on empathyPrompts a rethinking of empathy, a capacity that is as widely misunderstood as it is celebrated

 


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Study: Two systems for empathy: a double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in inferior frontal gyrus versus ventromedial prefrontal lesions.

Study: Two systems for empathy: a double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in inferior frontal gyrus versus ventromedial prefrontal lesions. | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it

Recent evidence suggests that there are two possible systems for empathy: a basic emotional contagion system and a more advanced cognitive perspective-taking system.

 

However, it is not clear whether these two systems are part of a single interacting empathy system or whether they are independent. Additionally, the neuroanatomical bases of these systems are largely unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that emotional empathic abilities (involving the mirror neuron system) are distinct from those related to cognitive empathy and that the two depend on separate anatomical substrates.

 

Subjects with lesions in the ventromedial prefrontal (VM) or inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) cortices and two control groups were assessed with measures of empathy that incorporate both cognitive and affective dimensions. The findings reveal a remarkable behavioural and anatomic double dissociation between deficits in cognitive empathy (VM) and emotional empathy (IFG).

 

Furthermore, precise anatomical mapping of lesions revealed Brodmann area 44 to be critical for emotional empathy while areas 11 and 10 were found necessary for cognitive empathy. These findings are consistent with these cortices being different in terms of synaptic hierarchy and phylogenetic age.  

 

The pattern of empathy deficits among patients with VM and IFG lesions represents a first direct evidence of a double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy using the lesion method.


 

http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/brain/132/3/617.full.pdf

Shamay-Tsoory SG1, Aharon-Peretz J, Perry D.

 




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think2share's curator insight, October 13, 5:25 AM

On the finer workings of the Brain...

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Photography and the Feelings of Others: From Mirroring Emotions to the Theory of Mind

Photography and the Feelings of Others: From Mirroring Emotions to the Theory of Mind | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Photography is powerful because we can place ourselves into the perspective of those we see in an image. Whether it’s street photography, photojournalism o

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Daniel Kahneman Explains The Machinery of Thought | Farnam Street

Daniel Kahneman Explains The Machinery of Thought | Farnam Street | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Daniel Kahneman dissects the machinery of thought into two agents, system 1 and system two, which respectively produce fast and slow thinking.

Via Philippe Vallat, Alessandro Cerboni
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Miklos Szilagyi's curator insight, August 9, 2:07 PM

"One further limitation of System 1 is that it cannot be turned off..." Beside that it's useful...:-)))

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What’s Going on Inside the Brain Of A Curious Child?

What’s Going on Inside the Brain Of A Curious Child? | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
New research suggests that curiosity triggers chemical changes in the brain that help students better understand and retain information.
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How Sugar Affects The Brain | Farnam Street

How Sugar Affects The Brain | Farnam Street | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
When you eat something loaded with sugar, your taste buds, your gut and your brain all take notice. This activation of your reward system is not unlike how
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Rationality and Irrationality in Government - Video and audio - Cass Sunstein

Rationality and Irrationality in Government - Video and audio - Cass Sunstein | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it

What impact is behavioural science having on politics and business? Simplified disclosure, default rules, social norms, and ‘choice architecture’ are all being used to steer people in specific directions. Are these ‘nudges’ improving our decisions? Are they offsetting irrational behaviour? Cass Sunstein, author of Nudge and the previous Administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in the Obama administration will discuss these new policies and the question they raise about freedom of choice. 

Cass Sunstein (@CassSunstein) is the Robert Walmsley University Professor at Harvard Law School. 


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The role played by social media in political participation and electoral campaigns

The role played by social media in political participation and electoral campaigns | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Social Media has rapidly grown in importance as a forum for political activism in its different forms. Social media platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube provide new ways to stimulate citizen engagement in political life, where elections and electoral campaigns have a central role.


© Ronda / Fotolia
Personal communication via social media brings politicians and parties closer to their potential voters. It allows politicians to communicate faster and reach citizens in a more targeted manner and vice versa, without the intermediate role of mass media. Reactions, feedback, conversations and debates are generated online as well as support and participation for offline events. Messages posted to personal networks are multiplied when shared, which allow new audiences to be reached.

Although the presence of social media is spreading and media use patterns are changing, online political engagement is largely restricted to people already active in politics and on the Internet. Other audiences are less responsive. For example, television news together with print and online newspapers are still the most important sources of political information in most EU Member States.

Social media has reshaped structures and methods of contemporary political communication by influencing the way politicians interact with citizens and each other. However, the role of this phenomenon in increasing political engagement and electoral participation is neither clear nor simple. The upcoming European Parliament elections in May will give an indication of the impact of social media in European wide elections with national and European dimension

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How much has our media ecosystem really been democratized?: The research so far on viral effects, social media and news

How much has our media ecosystem really been democratized?: The research so far on viral effects, social media and news | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
2014 from Harvard's Shorenstein Center synthesizing a wider variety of industry data, surveys and academic literature in order to look at fundamental shifts in the media ecosystem.
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Rescooped by Emre Erdogan from Papers
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Neural correlates of strategic reasoning during competitive games

Although human and animal behaviors are largely shaped by reinforcement and punishment, choices in social settings are also influenced by information about the knowledge and experience of other decision-makers. During competitive games, monkeys increased their payoffs by systematically deviating from a simple heuristic learning algorithm and thereby countering the predictable exploitation by their computer opponent. Neurons in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) signaled the animal’s recent choice and reward history that reflected the computer’s exploitative strategy. The strength of switching signals in the dmPFC also correlated with the animal’s tendency to deviate from the heuristic learning algorithm. Therefore, the dmPFC might provide control signals for overriding simple heuristic learning algorithms based on the inferred strategies of the opponent.

 

Neural correlates of strategic reasoning during competitive games
Hyojung Seo, Xinying Cai, Christopher H. Donahue, Daeyeol Lee

Science 17 October 2014:
Vol. 346 no. 6207 pp. 340-343
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1256254


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There are several ways to incorporate evolutionary concepts into economic thinking

Abstract
There are several ways to incorporate evolutionary concepts into economic thinking. This article reviews the most important transfers of this kind into evolutionary economics. It broadly differentiates between approaches that draw on an analogy construction to the biological sphere, those that make metaphorical use of Darwinian ideas, and avenues that are based on the fact that other forms of – cultural – evolution rest upon foundations laid before by natural selection. It is shown that an evolutionary approach within economics informed by insights from cognitive science, evolutionary biology, and anthropology contributes to more realistic models of human behavior in economic contexts.

ftp://137.248.191.199/RePEc/esi/discussionpapers/2014-02.pdf

#neuroeconomics 


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This is the dark side of empathy

This is the dark side of empathy | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
Public figures from President Obama to Neil deGrasse Tyson have suggested a lack of empathy is one of our species' fundamental problems.

 

"Empathy is about standing in someone else's shoes, feeling with his or her heart, seeing with his or her eyes," writes author and prominent business-world thinker Daniel Pink. "Not only is empathy hard to outsource and automate, but it makes the world a better place."

A lovely thought. But new research suggests it isn't always true.

A paper just published in the journal Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin provides evidence that feelings of empathy toward a distressed person can inspire aggressive behavior.

 

For some people, at least, feeling another's pain is insufficient: You also experience the urge to harm the person they are in conflict or competition with.

 

By Tom Jacobs, Pacific Standard 


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Julia Heisler's comment, October 7, 10:11 PM
This article speaks of how instead of empathy helping our society it cause aggressive behavior in those receiving empathy. Public figures like President Obama and Neil Degrasse Tyson have expressed that lack of empathy is one of our species' fundamental problems, yet this article refutes that claim. A paper published in the journal "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin" provides evidence that feeling of empathy toward a distressed person can inspire aggressive behavior. Researchers describe two studies of which the results show that when the "choose other" was in clear distress, high levels of empathy were linked to aggressive behavior. This linkage was especially strong for participants with a particular gene variant linked to the neurohormone vasopressin. This relates to international relation because political figures or popular figures may take this into consideration when speaking with a certain individual. This could also lead to more drastic measures such as change the President Obamas opinion or perspective when he states that lack of empathy is one of our species' fundamental problems. Also, society could take this into consideration which could ultimately lead to a change in view of the head of nations.
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Empathy and Altruism: Are They Selfish?

Empathy and Altruism: Are They Selfish? | With My Right Brain | Scoop.it
In 1909, the psychologist Edward Titchener translated the German ‘Einfühlung’ (‘feeling into’) into English as ‘empathy’. At the time, German philosophers discussed empathy in the context of our aesthetic evaluation, but Titchener maintained that empathy also helps us to recognize one another as minded creatures.


Empathy can be defined as a person’s ability to recognize, feel, and share the emotions of another person, fictional character, or sentient being. It involves, first, seeing the other's condition or situation from her perspective; and, second, sharing her emotions, and, in some cases, also her distress.

 

Empathy is often confused with pity, sympathy, and compassion, which are all reactions to the plight of others.

 

by Neel Burton, M.D.


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