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Draft genome of the wheat rust pathogen (Puccinia triticina) unravels genome-wide structural variations during evolution | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions

Draft genome of the wheat rust pathogen (Puccinia triticina) unravels genome-wide structural variations during evolution | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Inspired | Scoop.it
Leaf rust is one of the most important diseases of wheat and is caused by Puccinia triticina, a highly variable rust pathogen prevalent worldwide. Decoding the genome of this pathogen will help in unraveling the molecular basis of its evolution and in the identification of genes responsible for its various biological functions. We generated high quality draft genome sequences (approximately 100- 106 Mb) of two races of P. triticina; the variable and virulent Race77 and the old, avirulent Race106. The genomes of races 77 and 106 had 33X and 27X coverage, respectively. We predicted 27678 and 26384 genes, with average lengths of 1,129 and 1,086 bases in races 77 and 106, respectively and found that the genomes consisted of 37.49% and 39.99% repetitive sequences. Genome wide comparative analysis revealed that Race77 differs substantially from Race106 with regard to segmental duplication (SD), repeat element, and SNP/InDel characteristics. Comparative analyses showed that Race 77 is a recent, highly variable and adapted Race compared with Race106. Further sequence analyses of 13 additional pathotypes of Race77 clearly differentiated the recent, active and virulent, from the older pathotypes. Average densities of 2.4 SNPs and 0.32 InDels per kb were obtained for all P. triticina pathotypes. Secretome analysis demonstrated that Race77 has more virulence factors than Race 106, which may be responsible for the greater degree of adaptation of this pathogen. We also found that genes under greater selection pressure were conserved in the genomes of both races, and may affect functions crucial for the higher levels of virulence factors in Race77. This study provides insights into the genome structure, genome organization, molecular basis of variation, and pathogenicity of P. triticina. The genome sequence data generated in this study have been submitted to public domain databases and will be an important resource for comparative genomics studies of the more than 4000 existing Puccinia species. | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Turmeric Improves Working Memory | Life Enhancement Products

Turmeric Improves Working Memory | Life Enhancement Products | Inspired | Scoop.it

Because of the increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in diabetes, it is important to identify the phenomenon as early as possible and reverse or slow it down. Diabetes and dementia may serve as a risk factor for the other thus initiating a vicious cycle. This makes early detection and intervention imperative.>The Rational Behind TurmericThe evidence to date is not clear that current pharmacotherapy alters the risk of dementia in diabetes, with the possible exception of metformin. Vitamin B12 supplementation along with metformin may help sustain metformin’s potential value thus denying the exception. Also on the supplement stage, there are indications epidemiologically and experimentally that turmeric may reduce the risk of dementia and that its aromatic turmerone content may induce neural stem cell proliferation...


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SlideShare: The recent emergence of wheat blast in Brazil (2015)

An update on current knowledge of the wheat blast pathogen in Brazil. Presented by Bruce McDonald at the Fungal Genetics Conference, Asilomar, March, 2015.


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Increased carbon dioxide could make growing food easier

Increased carbon dioxide could make growing food easier | Inspired | Scoop.it
A study led by Columbia University shows the increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from climate change might help crops grow more in some parts, in spite of the increasing temperature.
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Fast food may come with a side of phthalate chemicals

Fast food may come with a side of phthalate chemicals | Inspired | Scoop.it

People who ate more fast food had higher average levels of phthalate chemicals in their systems, a new study found. ISTOCKPHOTO

By DENNIS THOMPSON HEALTHDAY April 13, 2016, 5:32 PM

Fast food may come with a side of phthalate chemicals Eating fast food may expose a person to potentially harmful chemicals known as phthalates, a new study suggests. People who consumed lots of fast food tended to have levels of phthalates in their urine that were 24 percent to 40 percent higher than people who rarely ate take-out fare, the researchers found. "We found statistically significant associations between the amount of fast food consumed in the prior 24 hours and the levels of two particular phthalates found in the body," said study author Ami Zota. She is an assistant professor of environmental and occupational health at George Washington University's Milken Institute School of Public Health, in Washington, D.C. However, the study did not prove a cause-and-effect relationship between fast food and phthalate exposure. The two phthalates in question are di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), Zota said. Industries use these chemicals to make plastics flexible, and they can be found in a wide array of food packaging and food-processing machinery. The U.S. Congress has permanently banned the use of DEHP in children's toys, baby bottles and soothers, and it has temporarily banned DiNP for the same uses, according to the Environmental Working Group. The group is a nonprofit that focuses on environmental health issues. The bans are based on concerns that phthalates can affect the development of the male reproductive system, Zota said. The chemicals also have been implicated in birth defects, childhood behavioral problems and childhood chronic illnesses, such as asthma. The two phthalates can get into fast food during the processing of the food, explained Shanna Swan. She is a professor of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive science with the department of preventive medicine at Mount Sinai's Icahn School of Medicine, in New York City. The chemicals also can leach into the food from the packaging in which it is stored, both prior to cooking and when it is served, Zota said. Fast food even can pick up phthalates from the vinyl gloves that restaurant workers wear to prevent food poisoning, Zota added. "To reduce exposure to phthalates, my recommendation always is to minimize exposure to processed foods, and the ultimate processed food platform is the fast-food restaurant," Swan said. "They don't use anything fresh." The U.S. National Restaurant Association did not respond to a request for comment on the new findings. 5 most loved and hated fast-food restaurants To see whether people who eat fast food have more phthalates in their systems, Zota and her colleagues reviewed data on nearly 8,900 people participating in a regular survey on health and nutrition conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The participants all had answered detailed questions about their diet in the past 24 hours, including consumption of fast food, and provided a urine sample that could be tested for signs of DEHP and DiNP. Researchers defined fast food as anything obtained from a restaurant without waiter or waitress service, or any type of pizza place. All carryout and delivery foods were also considered fast food. People were considered heavy fast-food consumers if they obtained more than 35 percent of their daily calories from such sources, Zota said. Zota and her team found that the more fast food participants in the study ate, the higher their exposure to phthalates. People with the highest consumption of fast food had 24 percent higher levels of the breakdown product for DEHP in their urine sample. Those same fast-food lovers had nearly 40 percent higher levels of DiNP byproducts in their urine compared to people who reported no fast food in the 24 hours prior to the testing. Grains and meats most significantly contributed to phthalate exposure, the study reported. Grains include a wide variety of items, such as bread, cake, pizza, burritos, rice dishes and noodles, Zota explained. But a group that represents the chemical industry took issue with the findings. "The authors acknowledge that a limitation of the study is that they cannot establish a link between any phthalate exposure and fast-food consumption," Lisa Dry, senior director of product communications at the American Chemistry Council, said in a statement. "No phthalates were actually measured or confirmed to be present in any foods," Dry added. "Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention over the last 10 years, the same data on which this study is based, demonstrate that exposure to phthalates from any source is extremely low, including any contribution from fast foods, and significantly lower than acceptable levels as set by regulatory agencies." Besides phthalates, the researchers also looked for exposure to another chemical found in plastic food packaging -- bisphenol A (BPA). The investigators found no association between fast-food intake and BPA, but people who ate fast-food meat products had higher levels of BPA than people who reported no fast-food consumption. The findings were published online April 13 in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives. Expectant mothers should limit or eliminate fast food in their diet to prevent phthalates from affecting fetal development, Swan and Zota suggested. "This is of particular concern for pregnant women, or women who might get pregnant," Swan said. "The risky period seems to be early in pregnancy." Copyright © 2015 HealthDay. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. HealthDay


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Decoy engineering: the next step in resistance breeding: Trends in Plant Science

Decoy engineering: the next step in resistance breeding: Trends in Plant Science | Inspired | Scoop.it

.Until recently it was not possible to engineer novel recognition specificities of classical plant immune receptors to completely unrelated effectors. In a recent publication, Kim et al. engineered a plant effector target to increase novel recognition specificities by trapping unrelated pathogen-derived proteases in their act [1]. RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE 5 (RPS5) is a plant immune receptor of the Nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) type which perceives the Pseudomonas syringae Type-III effector AvrPphB, a papain-like cysteine protease belonging to the Peptidase C58 family [2]. The perception of AvrPphB by RPS5 requires one additional host-derived factor known as AVRPPHB SUSCEPTIBLE 1 (PBS1), which belongs to Subfamily VII of Receptor-like Cytoplasmic Kinases (RLCK VII). Upon bacterial infection, PBS1, which binds to RPS5 in its pre-activation state, is cleaved by AvrPphB. PBS1 cleavage exposes a five amino acid loop in PBS1 that is believed to activate RPS5, triggering an immune response characterized by the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death [3]. Interestingly, RPS5-mediated immune signaling requires both PBS1 fragments, and the conformational change induced by cleavage can be mimicked by insertion of five amino acids in the AvrPphB cleavage site [4]. Therefore, perception of AvrPphB follows a mouse-trap mechanism where cleavage of PBS1 (bait) sets off the trap and activates RPS5, triggering immune responses..


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Neurologist David Perlmutter gets to the guts of brain health with surprising advice

Neurologist David Perlmutter gets to the guts of brain health with surprising advice | Inspired | Scoop.it
Neurologist and author of the best-selling Grain Brain, David Perlmutter thinks it's time to rehabilitate our guts.
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Dr. Meaghan's curator insight, April 27, 2:08 AM

David Perlmutter and the connection between leaky gut and leaky brain

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Scientists fear 'the Big One' is COMING as FOUR major earthquakes strike in 48 hours

Scientists fear 'the Big One' is COMING as FOUR major earthquakes strike in 48 hours | Inspired | Scoop.it
“ FEARS a catastrophic earthquake is building today grew after a fourth major tremor struck the same region in just 48 hours.”
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bremont Alfredo's curator insight, April 15, 8:36 AM
Better dismantle AIPAC and their dependencies worldwide such as CRIF etc. than have the yellowstone volcano do it for you. last chance, as you do believe in the messiah, well here is a hint.
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What Causes Déjà Vu? A Glitch in the Brain of Memories from the Future?

What Causes Déjà Vu? A Glitch in the Brain of Memories from the Future? | Inspired | Scoop.it

Glitches in the brain or a glimpse into the future?

You walk into a room and suddenly your brain goes fuzzy with an overwhelming wave of familiarity -- although this is a totally new experience. Like something out of a sci-fi plot, it almost seems as if you've walked into the future. Chances are, you've experienced this situation, known as déjà vu, during your life.

Déjà vu (French for 'already seen') episodes occurs in approximately 60 to 80 percent of people -- a phenomenon that's almost always fleeting and may manifest at any time. Despite wide-spread coverage, bursts of déjà vu are still misunderstood by the scientific community.

"Because there is no clear, identifiable stimulus that elicits a déjà vu experience (it is a retrospective report from an individual), it is very difficult to study déjà vu in a laboratory," said Michelle Hook, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, at the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine. "According to many studies, approximately two-thirds of individuals have experienced at least one episode of déjà vu in their life," Hook said. "Understanding how memory storage works may shed some light on why some experience it more than others."

Episodes of déjà vu may be closely related to how memory is stored in the brain. Retention of long-term memories, events and facts are stored in the temporal lobes, and, specific parts of the temporal lobe are also integral for the detection of familiarity, and the recognition of certain events. The takeaway: The temporal lobe is where you make and store your memories.

While déjà vu's connection to the temporal lobe and memory retention is still relatively unknown, clues about the condition were derived from people who suffer from temporal lobe epilepsy (a condition in which nerve cell activity in the brain is disturbed -- causing seizures). Findings suggest that déjà vu events may be caused by an electrical malfunction in the brain.

Epileptic seizures are characterized by dysfunctional neuron (nerve cell) activity across the brain which disrupts the electrical impulses that 'fire' neurons. These impulses can spread across the whole brain -- inducing seizures. "Clinical reports show that some patients who suffer from temporal lobe epilepsy report experiencing déjà vu, almost as a sort of warning, before an epileptic seizure event," Hook said.

But, what is the basis for déjà vu in healthy people without epilepsy? Some researchers describe it as a 'glitch' in the brain -- when the neurons for recognition and familiarity fire -- allowing the brain to mistake the present for the past. In fact, the same abnormal electrical impulses that contribute to epilepsy can present in healthy people. An example of this is a hyponogogic jerk (an involuntary muscle spasm that occurs as a person is falling asleep).


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Blog Writing Process: How To Write More Authoritative Posts

Blog Writing Process: How To Write More Authoritative Posts | Inspired | Scoop.it
Want to learn how to write in-depth blog posts that bring in tons of traffic? Follow this blog writing process to  write more authoritative posts.
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First report of blast disease on wheat in South Asia

First report of blast disease on wheat in South Asia | Inspired | Scoop.it
“One of the most fearsome and intractable wheat diseases in recent decades is wheat blast. Experts had feared the possible spread of blast from Latin America to regions of Africa and Asia where conditions are similar. A severe outbreak of blast in key wheat districts of southwestern Bangladesh in early 2016 has confirmed the truth of these predictions.”
Via CIMMYT, Int.
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Rapid Short-Read Sequencing and Aneuploidy Detection Using MinION Nanopore Technology

Rapid Short-Read Sequencing and Aneuploidy Detection Using MinION Nanopore Technology | Inspired | Scoop.it

Results and Discussion To maintain equivalent molar concentrations for short-DNA-fragment-length library preparations compared with long-fragment-length preparations, ∼18-fold lower total nanograms of input DNA and improved ligation efficiency were...

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The Centenary of GENETICS: Bridges to the Future

The Centenary of GENETICS: Bridges to the Future | Inspired | Scoop.it

BOX 1: Three models of secondary nondisjunction In Bridges’ competitive pairing model (Figure 2A), the two X chromosomes pair and segregate from each other, leaving the unpaired Y to segregate at random and generating X and XY eggs with equal...

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Reconciling the evolutionary origin of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions

Reconciling the evolutionary origin of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions | Inspired | Scoop.it
The origin of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; AABBDD) has been a subject of controversy and of intense debate in the scientific community over the last few decades. In 2015, three articles published in New Phytologist discussed the origin of hexaploid bread wheat (AABBDD) from the diploid progenitors Triticum urartu (AA), a relative of Aegilops speltoides (BB) and Triticum tauschii (DD). Access to new genomic resources since 2013 has offered the opportunity to gain novel insights into the paleohistory of modern bread wheat, allowing characterization of its origin from its diploid progenitors at unprecedented resolution. We propose a reconciled evolutionary scenario for the modern bread wheat genome based on the complementary investigation of transposable element and mutation dynamics between diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. In this scenario, the structural asymmetry observed between the A, B and D subgenomes in hexaploid bread wheat derives from the cumulative effect of diploid progenitor divergence, the hybrid origin of the D subgenome, and subgenome partitioning following the polyploidization events. | MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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At The Age of 15 She Invented Building Material From Indian Rice Waste

At The Age of 15 She Invented Building Material From Indian Rice Waste | Inspired | Scoop.it

"After seeing the environmental hazards that burning rice waste was causing at her family farm in North India, then-15 year old Bisman Deu saw an opportunity to create something useful, and developed an environmentally sustainable building material out of the farm’s biggest waste product.

She’s 18 now, and finishing school in Chandigarh, but Deu is on a journey with her product, Green Wood, as it becomes more relevant now than ever before..."


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Eric Larson's curator insight, April 26, 10:41 AM
Waste from Indian rice waste?
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Scientists have figured out what makes Indian food so delicious

Scientists have figured out what makes Indian food so delicious | Inspired | Scoop.it

Researchers have data crunched 2,500 recipes and found the secret to their success.

By Roberto A. Ferdman March 3, 2015 Curries, rice, naan bread, samosas and pakora. (iStock) Indian food, with its hodgepodge of ingredients and intoxicating aromas, is coveted around the world. The labor-intensive cuisine and its mix of spices is more often than not a revelation for those who sit down to eat it for the first time. Heavy doses of cardamom, cayenne, tamarind and other flavors can overwhelm an unfamiliar palate. Together, they help form the pillars of what tastes so good to so many people. But behind the appeal of Indian food — what makes it so novel and so delicious — is also a stranger and subtler truth. In a large new analysis of more than 2,000 popular recipes, data scientists have discovered perhaps the key reason why Indian food tastes so unique: It does something radical with flavors, something very different from what we tend to do in the United States and the rest of Western culture. And it does it at the molecular level. Before we go further, let's take a step back and consider what flavors are and how they interact. If you were to hold a microscope to most Western dishes, you would find an interesting but not all-too-surprising trend. Popular food pairings in this part of the world combine ingredients that share like flavors, which food chemists have broken down into their molecular parts — precise chemical compounds that, when combined, give off a distinct taste. Most of the compounds have scientific names, though one of the simpler compounds is acetal, which, as the food chemist George Burdock has written, is "refreshing, pleasant, and [has a] fruity-green odor," and can be found in whiskey, apple juice, orange juice and raw beets. On average, there are just over 50 flavor compounds in each food ingredient. A nifty chart shared by Scientific American in 2013 shows which foods share the most flavor compounds with others and which food pairings have the most flavor compounds in common. Peanut butter and roasted peanuts have one of the most significant overlaps (no surprise there). But there are connections that are more difficult to predict: strawberries, for instance, have more in common with white wine than they do with apples, oranges or honey. Data crunching Indian recipes Chefs in the West like to make dishes with ingredients that have overlapping flavors. But not all cuisines adhere to the same rule. Many Asian cuisines have been shown to belie the trend by favoring dishes with ingredients that don't overlap in flavor. And Indian food, in particular, is one of the most powerful counterexamples. Researchers at the Indian Institute for Technology in Jodhpur crunched data on several thousand recipes from a popular online recipe site called TarlaDalal.com. They broke each dish down to its ingredients, and then compared how often and heavily ingredients share flavor compounds. The answer? Not too often.

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How Innovative Educators Observe, Reflect, and Share

How Innovative Educators Observe, Reflect, and Share | Inspired | Scoop.it
Many teachers say they don’t have time to connect. I live and breathe that feeling. However, when I’m down, sometimes an idea on Twitter or a suggestion on Facebook turns my day around.
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Plant artificial chromosome technology and its potential application in genetic engineering 

Plant artificial chromosome technology and its potential application in genetic engineering  | Inspired | Scoop.it
Genetic engineering with just a few genes has changed agriculture in the last 20 years. The most frequently used transgenes are the herbicide resistance genes for efficient weed control and the Bt toxin genes for insect resistance. The adoption of the first-generation genetically engineered crops has been very successful in improving farming practices, reducing the application of pesticides that are harmful to both human health and the environment, and producing more profit for farmers. However, there is more potential for genetic engineering to be realized by technical advances. The recent development of plant artificial chromosome technology provides a super vector platform, which allows the management of a large number of genes for the next generation of genetic engineering. With the development of other tools such as gene assembly, genome editing, gene targeting and chromosome delivery systems, it should become possible to engineer crops with multiple genes to produce more agricultural products with less input of natural resources to meet future demands.

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CDC: Zika Causes Microcephaly | The Scientist Magazine®

CDC: Zika Causes Microcephaly | The Scientist Magazine® | Inspired | Scoop.it
“ The virus is also to blame for other birth defects, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention concludes.”
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Apple just found a powerful new way to make people care about the planet

Apple just found a powerful new way to make people care about the planet | Inspired | Scoop.it
“ For 10 days, Apple is turning over the App Store to saving the environment.”
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1,800 Studies Later, Scientists Conclude Conclusively That Homeopathy Doesn’t Work

1,800 Studies Later, Scientists Conclude Conclusively That Homeopathy Doesn’t Work | Inspired | Scoop.it
“A major Australian study debunks homeopathy—again”

We all remember when scientists debunked homeopathy in 2002. Or 2010. Or 2014. But now a major Australian study analyzing over 1,800 papers has shown that homeopathy, the alternative treatment that relies on super-diluted substances and the principle of “like cures like” is completely ineffective.

After assessing more than 1,800 studies on homeopathy, Australia’s National Health and Medical Research Council was only able to find 225 that were rigorous enough to analyze. And a systematic review of these studies revealed “no good quality evidence to support the claim that homeopathy is effective in treating health conditions.”

The Australian study, which is the first position statement relying on such an extensive review of medical literature, strikes the latest blow at a 200-year-old alternative treatment developed by a German physician with “no interest in detailed pathology, and none in conventional diagnosis and treatment.” The Washington Post reports that the study’s authors are concerned that people who continue to choose homeopathic remedies over proven medicine face real health risks—including the nearly 4 million Americans who use homeopathic “medicines.”

The head of the National Health and Medical Research Council told the Guardian that he hopes the findings will lead to changes in Australia’s health insurance and pharmacy systems. But he also said that “there will be a tail of people who won’t respond to this report, and who will say it’s all a conspiracy of the establishment.”

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First report of blast disease on wheat in South Asia

First report of blast disease on wheat in South Asia | Inspired | Scoop.it
“One of the most fearsome and intractable wheat diseases in recent decades is wheat blast. Experts had feared the possible spread of blast from Latin America to regions of Africa and Asia where conditions are similar. A severe outbreak of blast in key wheat districts of southwestern Bangladesh in early 2016 has confirmed the truth of these predictions.”
Via CIMMYT, Int.
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Industrial scale plant breeding to develop sustainable varieties of wheat - The University of Nottingham

Industrial scale plant breeding to develop sustainable varieties of wheat - The University of Nottingham | Inspired | Scoop.it
“ Take the wild and distant relatives of bread wheat, transfer any agronomically important traits into modern varieties of wheat and distribute the newly created germplasm worldwide for international breeding programmes and scientific research.”
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Victor Kommerell's curator insight, April 4, 4:28 AM
Moving from talk closer to routine reality? Wheat wild relatives to play larger role in breeding
Global Milling's curator insight, April 4, 5:43 AM
Moving from talk closer to routine reality? Wheat wild relatives to play larger role in breeding
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Qualitative traits of perennial wheat lines derived from different Thinopyrum species - Springer

Qualitative traits of perennial wheat lines derived from different Thinopyrum species - Springer | Inspired | Scoop.it

Abstract Four perennial wheat genotypes derived from crosses between Triticum aestivum and Thinopyrum elongatum, Th. intermedium or Th.

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Finding the Subcellular Location of Barley, Wheat, Rice and Maize Proteins: The Compendium of Crop Proteins with Annotated Locations (cropPAL)

Finding the Subcellular Location of Barley, Wheat, Rice and Maize Proteins: The Compendium of Crop Proteins with Annotated Locations (cropPAL) | Inspired | Scoop.it

Finding the Subcellular Location of Barley, Wheat, Rice and Maize Proteins: The Compendium of Crop Proteins with Annotated Locations (cropPAL) Cornelia M. Hooper*, Ian R. Castleden, Nader Aryamanesh, Richard P.

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