One way to counter the shortages of water world wide is a process called desalination. Brackish water, water that is not as salty as ocean water, is pumped into giant broilers that boil the water. The subsequent steam is released and trapped, as it condenses it is transported to a collector, creating renewable fresh drinking water for consumption.
One draw back to boiling brackish water is the co2 emissions that are released while trying to find a heat source. Oil or coal heating systems can be counter-productive because they release particles that contaminate the worlds oceans.
A solution to this problem is to build these desalination plants in areas that have natural reoccuring energy surpluses. Such as Geo-thermal areas of Iceland, or Using solar panels to boil water in the American South West.
Via Jacob Maddox