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Water Board
Understanding the importance of water
Curated by Salman Zafar
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Unending Benefits of Wastewater Treatment Plants

Unending Benefits of Wastewater Treatment Plants | Water Board | Scoop.it

The wastewater treatment process does not only produce clean reusable water, but also has the potential to produce various other benefits. It has the potential to reduce a country’s waste production, to produce energy through methane harvesting, and the potential to produce natural fertilizer from the waste collected through the process.

Salman Zafar's insight:

Wastewater treatment presents a sustainable short-term and long-term solution to water scarcity. Wastewater treatment is a sustainable short and long-term solution to the world’s water crisis, which will only increase as the world population increases.

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Rationale for Protecting Wetlands

Rationale for Protecting Wetlands | Water Board | Scoop.it
Wetlands are wonderful for numerous reasons but these wonders weren’t always known to man and it was often common to overlook the importance of this distinct ecosystem. The mention of a wetla...
Salman Zafar's insight:

The structure of wetlands enables them to absorb rainfall and thus reduce the volume of water that enters into rivers and streams which naturally lowers the risk of flooding. 

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Exploring Depletion of Sharks

Exploring Depletion of Sharks | Water Board | Scoop.it
Shark species are increasingly becoming threatened because of commercial and recreational fishing pressures, the impact of non-shark fisheries on the seabed and shark prey species, and other habita...
Salman Zafar's insight:

It is a sad reflection of our time that effective stewardship and sustainable management of the oceanic resources seem to be out of our reach.  There far too many political, parochial, cultural and economic expediency ‘blockage factors’ conspiring to prevent any significant and realistic hope for productive developments in the near future.

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Exploring Life in the Dead Sea

Exploring Life in the Dead Sea | Water Board | Scoop.it

For the majority of mankind's history and from the anthropocentric view, the Dead Sea has been considered the model of an absolutely lifeless body of water. However, this concept was proven inaccurate with the discovery of halophylic Archaea, the native flora of the Dead Sea. An example of a well-adapted and widely distributed halophylic microorganism is Halobacterium sp [HS].

Salman Zafar's insight:

Halophiles have recently been targeted for their potential use in environmental and biotechnological applications. With few exceptions, little is known about the applications of extremophiles that can be a great source of novel commercial applications. 

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An Eco-Model for Wadi Arabah

An Eco-Model for Wadi Arabah | Water Board | Scoop.it
The Wadi Arabah region is an extremely arid valley in Jordan characterized by hot climate, meager annual rainfall, high evaporation rate and limited water resources. The arid desert creates several...
Salman Zafar's insight:

Wadi Arabah can be transformed into an agricultural settlement by establishing farms through the production of drought-tolerant forages. Agriculture in the region should concentrate on low-volume irrigation systems like micro-sprinkling or drip irrigation.

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Plausible Solutions to Counter Water Scarcity in Jordan

Plausible Solutions to Counter Water Scarcity in Jordan | Water Board | Scoop.it
Being one of the most arid countries in the Middle East, Jordan is facing severe water shortages. The current per capita water supply in the country is 200 cubic meters per year which is almost one...
Salman Zafar's insight:
Water scarcity is a big threat to Jordan’s industrial development, economic growth, food production and overall well-being of its population. Jordan has already been forced to tap into non-renewable water resources from fossilized deep-water aquifers.
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Water Scarcity in Egypt

Water Scarcity in Egypt | Water Board | Scoop.it
Egypt has been suffering from severe water scarcity in recent years. Uneven water distribution, misuse of water resources and inefficient irrigation techniques are some of the major factors playing...
Salman Zafar's insight:

Water issue in Egypt is rapidly assuming alarming proportion. By the year 2020, Egypt will be consuming 20 percent more water than it has. With its loosening grip on the Nile, water scarcity could endanger the country’s stability and regional dominance.

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Destruction of the Dead Sea

Destruction of the Dead Sea | Water Board | Scoop.it
The Dead Sea is the lowest point on the planet and one of the most unique environments in the world. It lies on the borders of Jordan, the West Bank and Israel. Known for its high-density waters an...
Salman Zafar's insight:

The Dead Sea has a geological importance in the region, and has many important aspects that make it significant.

Regenerating the Jordan River, less water desalination, and improving water management practices will help regenerate the Dead Sea and help maintain this unique and important environment.

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Water Stress in the Mediterranean

Water Stress in the Mediterranean | Water Board | Scoop.it
For many years now, the Mediterranean has been facing problems leading to a situation of serious environmental degradation. An increase in the temperature and salinity levels has been recorded duri...
Salman Zafar's insight:

Proper water management is necessary, especially because water is a limited resource in the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Before this is possible, it is necessary to create a greater awareness amongst society. Industries must become more respectful of the environment, national policies must be adopted to promote such industries and sustainable, equitable water management must be set up.

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Significance of Water in Islam

Significance of Water in Islam | Water Board | Scoop.it
The great cultural bloom that took place during the al-Andalus period was made possible from a material and social viewpoint thanks, among other factors, to the wise water management at those times...
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Managing Water-Energy Nexus For Better Tomorrow

Managing Water-Energy Nexus For Better Tomorrow | Water Board | Scoop.it
Water is an essential part of human existence, green source of energy production and input for thermal power generation. The world’s 7 billion people are dependent on just 3% (called freshwater)
Salman Zafar's insight:
With increasing demands and declining availability, the competition for water resources for food and energy production, drinking and industrial usages has already intensified. Water scarcity is a reality in almost all Middle East countries. However, most of the people are either unaware or have ignored this stark fact. High population growth coupled with rapid industrialization calls for a sustainable water use pattern in domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors.
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Analysis of Red-Dead Sea Water Conveyance Project

Analysis of Red-Dead Sea Water Conveyance Project | Water Board | Scoop.it

In theory, Red-Dead Sea Water Conveyance Project seems to be a sound plan that will not only help replenish the Dead Sea and restore the fragile ecosystem to its old healthy status, but also provide water to neighbouring countries. However, major environmental concerns have been raised about Red-Dead Sea Water Conveyance Project, with environmentalists indicating that it would provide only about a 10th of the volume of water required to stabilise the Dead Sea, while also threatening its unique characteristics. 

Salman Zafar's insight:

Due to the high environmental risk that would be taken in order to implement such a project, it would be wise to consider alternative options. The first alternative would be to release water from the Sea of Galilee to lower the Jordan River and eventually into the Dead Sea. 

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The Promise of Seawater Desalination

The Promise of Seawater Desalination | Water Board | Scoop.it

Water scarcity is a major problem in many parts of the world affecting quality of life, the environment, industry, and the economies of developing nations. 

Salman Zafar's insight:

Recent researches indicate that we can produce that much freshwater with less than 1 kWh of electricity, and no other paid-for source of power is needed. This process is fuelled by concentration gradients of salinity between different vessels of brine. 

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Solar-Powered Desalination for Middle East

Solar-Powered Desalination for Middle East | Water Board | Scoop.it
Conventional large-scale desalination is cost-prohibitive and energy-intensive, and not viable for poor countries in the MENA region due to increasing costs of fossil fuels. In addition, the enviro...
Salman Zafar's insight:

Seawater desalination powered by concentrated solar power offers an attractive opportunity for MENA countries to ensure affordable, sustainable and secure freshwater supply. The growing water deficit in the MENA region is fuelling regional conflicts, political instability and environmental degradation. It is expected that the energy demand for seawater desalination for urban centres and mega-cities will be met by ensuring mass deployment of CSP-powered systems across the region. 

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Desertification in the Middle East

Desertification in the Middle East | Water Board | Scoop.it
Desertification is a worldwide phenomenon afflicting countries all over the world. The desert is making a comeback in the Middle East, with fertile lands turning into barren wastes. According to Un...
Salman Zafar's insight:

Most of the Middle East countries have ratified UNCCD convention, and are revising earlier plans or preparing new national strategies, action plans, and integrated financing strategies to combat desertification. The action plans involve long-term integrated strategies for improved productivity of land coupled with rehabilitation, conservation and sustainable management of land and water resources, at national as well as community level.

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Water Management Strategy for Jordan

Water Management Strategy for Jordan | Water Board | Scoop.it
Water scarcity is a reality in Jordan, as the country is counted among the world’s most arid countries. The current per capita water supply in Jordan is 200m3 per year which is almost one-thi...
Salman Zafar's insight:

Application of updated water techniques, such as micro-sprinkling, drip irrigation and nocturnal, can reduce water loss and improve irrigation efficiency. Infrastructure improvement is also necessary to improving efficiency and reducing water loss.

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Sustainable Irrigation in UAE

Sustainable Irrigation in UAE | Water Board | Scoop.it

Water in the UAE is in very short supply. The United Arab Emirates is one of the top 10 most water-scarce countries in the world, and has one of the highest per capita water usages globally. With 550 liters per person per day, a UAE resident consumes more than double the global national average of 250 liters per person per day.  

Salman Zafar's insight:

When using spray irrigation (sprinkler systems) in a country as arid as the UAE, 60% of the water evaporates before it is absorbed by the plants. As a result, only 40% of the water intended for irrigation is used, which itself is not evenly distributed. This lack of uneven distribution coupled with the decrease in the amount of water used is detrimental to the plants' health.

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Solar-Powered Desalination in Middle East

Solar-Powered Desalination in Middle East | Water Board | Scoop.it
Conventional large-scale desalination is cost-prohibitive and energy-intensive, and not viable for poor countries in the MENA region due to increasing costs of fossil fuels. In addition, the enviro...
Salman Zafar's insight:

Seawater desalination powered by concentrated solar power offers an attractive opportunity for Middle East countries to ensure affordable, sustainable and secure freshwater supply. The growing water deficit in the region is fuelling regional conflicts, political instability and environmental degradation. 

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André Michel's comment, May 11, 2013 7:45 AM
Desalination consuming 43% of electricity to operate, I fully agree on using SOLAR - But what type ? CSP, HCPV ? - also let's not forget
Salman Zafar's comment, May 12, 2013 10:18 PM
Most welcome. CSP is more suitable for large-scale seawater desalination as it can provide stable energy supply.
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Water Woes in West Asia

Water Woes in West Asia | Water Board | Scoop.it
Water availability in the Arab region is a critical issue as the region has 5 percent of the world's population having access to merely 1 percent of the world's total water resources...
Salman Zafar's insight:

Water availability has become a serious issue in West Asia due to population explosion, climate change, droughts, desertification and scarce rainfall. The success of water-related strategies depends on political, financial and human commitments. A UNEP report estimates that water resources area in West Asia is likely to drop to 20 percent over the next fifty years due to multiple factors, such as climate change.

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Water Woes in MENA Countries - Cleantech Solutions

Water Woes in MENA Countries - Cleantech Solutions | Water Board | Scoop.it
The MENA region is the most water scarce region of the world. The region is home to 6.3 percent of world’s population but has access to measly 1.4 percent of the world’s renewable fresh water.
Salman Zafar's insight:

By the year 2050, two-thirds of MENA countries could have less than 200 m3 of renewable water resources per capita per year. Around 85 percent of the water in the MENA region is used for irrigation. This level of irrigation is not inherently sustainable and leads to overuse of scarce renewable water resources, which in turn results in increased salinisation.

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Water Woes in Palestine

Water Woes in Palestine | Water Board | Scoop.it
Water crisis in the West Bank and Gaza is largely overshadowed by the overall political tension between Palestine and Israel. However, the ever-growing water conflict between the two sides is a major
Salman Zafar's insight:

The rampant discrimination in utilization of water resources is evident with Palestinian farms relying on inconsistent rainwater to irrigate their crops, and illegal Israeli settlement farms using state-of-the-art irrigation systems. Despite controlling 100% of the water flowing from the Jordan River, Israel is using 85% of the water from the aquifers within West Bank territory while  Palestinians are receiving a pitiful 15%.

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Water Woes in MENA Countries - Cleantech Solutions

Water Woes in MENA Countries - Cleantech Solutions | Water Board | Scoop.it
The MENA region is the most water scarce region of the world. The region is home to 6.3 percent of world’s population but has access to measly 1.4 percent of the world’s renewable fresh water.
Salman Zafar's insight:

The administrative structures of both drinking water and irrigation systems are characterized by weak governance and incoherent water laws. Some countries including Egypt, Jordan and Palestine have approved national water resources plans. Other countries have developed frameworks which contain elements of policy, in the form of strategy or master plans. In general, MENA countries are beginning to recognize the importance of an integrated approach to water management. The demand for water will continue to rise across the region, due to population increase and economic growth.

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